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Animal Testing Essay
Ielts animal testing essay.
Here you will find an example of an IELTS animal testing essay .
In this essay, you are asked to discuss the arguments for and against animal testing, and then give your own conclusions on the issue.
This means you must look at both sides of the issue and you must also be sure you give your opinion too.
The essay is similar to an essay that says " Discuss both opinions and then give your opinion " but it is worded differently.
Take a look at the question and model answer below, and think about how the essay has been organised and how it achieves coherence and cohesion.
You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.
Write about the following topic:
Examine the arguments in favour of and against animal experiments, and come to a conclusion on this issue.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge.
Write at least 250 words.
Animals Testing Essay - Model Answer
Issues related to animal experimentation are frequently discussed these days, particularly in the media. It is often said that animals should not be used in testing because it is cruel and unnecessary. This essay will examine the arguments for and against animal testing.
On the one hand, the people who support these experiments say that we must do tests on animals. For instance, many famous lifesaving drugs were invented in this way, and animal experiments may help us to find more cures in the future. Indeed, possibly even a cure for cancer and AIDS. Furthermore, the animals which are used are not usually wild but are bred especially for experiments. Therefore, they believe it is not true that animal experiments are responsible for reducing the number of wild animals on the planet.
On the other hand, others feel that there are good arguments against this. First and foremost, animal experiments are unkind and cause animals a lot of pain. In addition, they feel that many tests are not really important, and in fact animals are not only used to test new medicines but also new cosmetics, which could be tested on humans instead. Another issue is that sometimes an experiment on animals gives us the wrong result because animals’ bodies are not exactly the same as our own. As a consequence, this testing may not be providing the safety that its proponents claim.
In conclusion, I am of the opinion, on balance, that the benefits do not outweigh the disadvantages, and testing on animals should not continue. Although it may improve the lives of humans, it is not fair that animals should suffer in order to achieve this.
This animal testing essay would achieve a high score.
It fully answers all parts of the task - explaining the arguments ' for ' in the first paragraph and the arguments ' against ' in the next. Conclusions are then drawn with the writer giving their opinion in the conclusion.
It is thus very clearly organised, with each body paragraph having a central idea .
Ideas are also extended and supported by the use of reasons and some examples or further clarification. No ideas are left unclear or unexplained.
There is also some good topic related vocabulary in the animal testing essay such as 'life saving drugs ' and 'bred ' and a mix of complex sentences , such as adverbial clauses :
'Although it may improve the lives of humans, it is not fair that animals should suffer in order to achieve this'.
Noun clauses :
'...they feel that many tests are not really important'.
And relative clauses :
'...the animals which are used are not usually wild... '
Transitions are also used effectively to ensure there is good coherence and cohesion . For example, ' On the other hand.. ' indicates a change to discuss the contrasting ideas, and ' Therefore... " and ' As a consequence..' are used to give results.
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Cruelty Free International
subtitle: Working to create a world where no animals suffer in a laboratory
- About Animal Testing /
- current page Arguments against animal testing
Arguments against animal testing
Animal experiments are cruel, unreliable, and even dangerous
The harmful use of animals in experiments is not only cruel but also often ineffective. Animals do not naturally get many of the diseases that humans do, such as major types of heart disease, many types of cancer, HIV, Parkinson’s disease or schizophrenia. Instead, signs of these diseases are artificially induced in animals in laboratories in an attempt to mimic the human disease. Yet, such experiments belittle the complexity of human conditions which are affected by wide-ranging variables such as genetics, socio-economic factors, deeply-rooted psychological issues and different personal experiences.
It is not surprising to find that treatments showing “promise” in animals rarely work in humans. Not only are time, money and animals’ lives being wasted (with a huge amount of suffering), but effective treatments are being mistakenly discarded and harmful treatments are getting through. The support for animal testing is based largely on anecdote and is not backed up, we believe, by the scientific evidence that is out there.
Despite many decades of studying cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, stroke and AIDS in animals, none of these conditions have reliable and fully effective cures and some don’t even have effective treatments.
The history of cancer research has been the history of curing cancer in the mouse. We have cured mice of cancer for decades and it simply didn’t work in human beings.
Unreliable animal testing
- 92% of drugs fail in human clinical trials despite appearing safe and effective in animal tests, often on safety grounds or because they do not work.
- Urology drugs have the lowest success rate (only 4% are approved after entering clinical trials) followed by heart drugs (5% success rate), cancer drugs (5% success rate) and neurology drugs (6% success rate).
- Our research has shown that using dogs, rats, mice and rabbits to test whether or not a drug will be safe for humans provides statistically little useful insight. Our study also revealed that drug tests on monkeys are just as poor as those using any other species in predicting the effects on humans.
- A recent study found that out of 93 dangerous drug side effects, only 19% could have been predicted by animal tests.
- Another study showed that over 1,000 potential stroke treatments have been “successful” in animal tests, but of the approximately 10% that progressed to human trials, none worked sufficiently well in humans.
- One review of 101 high impact discoveries based on basic animal experiments found that only 5% resulted in approved treatments within 20 years. More recently, we conducted an analysis of 27 key animal-based ‘breakthroughs ’ that had been reported by the UK press 25 years earlier. Mirroring the earlier study, we found only one of the 27 “breakthroughs” had been realised in humans, and that was subject to several caveats.
Dangerous animal testing
- Vioxx, a drug used to treat arthritis, was found to be safe when tested in monkeys (and five other animal species) but has been estimated to have caused around 140,000 heart attacks and strokes and 60,000 deaths worldwide.
- Human volunteers testing a new monoclonal antibody treatment (TGN1412) at Northwick Park Hospital, UK, in 2006 suffered a severe immune reaction and nearly died. Testing on monkeys at 500 times the dose given to the volunteers totally failed to predict the dangerous side effects.
- A drug trial in France resulted in the death of one volunteer and left four others severely brain damaged in 2016. The drug, which was intended to treat a wide range of conditions including anxiety and Parkinson’s disease, was tested in four different species of animals (mice, rats, dogs and monkeys) before being given to humans.
- A clinical trial of Hepatitis B drug fialuridine had to be stopped because it caused severe liver damage in seven patients, five of whom died. It had been tested on animals first.
Animals are different
- Animals do not get many of the diseases we do, such as Parkinson’s disease, major types of heart disease, many types of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, HIV or schizophrenia.
- An analysis of over 100 mouse cell types found that only 50% of the DNA responsible for regulating genes in mice could be matched with human DNA.
- The most commonly used species of monkey to test drug safety (Cynomolgous macaque monkeys) is resistant to doses of paracetamol (acetaminophen) that would be deadly in humans.
- Chocolate, grapes, raisins, avocados and macadamia nuts are harmless in humans but toxic to dogs.
- Aspirin is toxic to many animals and would not be on our pharmacy shelves if it had been tested according to current animal testing standards.
The science relating to animal experiments can be extremely complicated and views often differ. What appears on this website represents Cruelty Free International expert opinion, based on a thorough assessment of the evidence.
FIND OUT MORE ABOUT ANIMAL TESTING
Established in 1898, Cruelty Free International is firmly rooted in the early social justice movement and has a long and inspiring history.
subtitle: Established in 1898, Cruelty Free International is firmly rooted in the early social justice movement and has a long and inspiring history.
Animal testing is carried out in a wide range of areas, including biological research, and testing medicines and chemicals.
Types of animal testing
subtitle: Animal testing is carried out in a wide range of areas, including biological research, and testing medicines and chemicals.
Millions of animals are used and killed in the name of progress every year.
Facts and figures on animal testing
subtitle: Millions of animals are used and killed in the name of progress every year.
Animals used in laboratories are deliberately harmed, not for their own good, and are usually killed at the end of the experiment.
What is animal testing?
subtitle: Animals used in laboratories are deliberately harmed, not for their own good, and are usually killed at the end of the experiment.
Alternatives to animal tests are often cheaper, quicker and more effective.
Alternatives to animal testing
subtitle: Alternatives to animal tests are often cheaper, quicker and more effective.
Animal Testing is Wrong! Essay
- 5 Works Cited
Animal Testing Argumentative Essay
Most individuals would be saddened knowing that animals were being harshly experimented on for human benefits. The testing of animals is deemed to be cruel and inhumane. However animal testing has saved thousands of humans lives. Some believe the sacrifice is worth the gains, but others disagree and suggest other testing methods. Ultimately, the question that arises on many different occasions, is if animals should be experimented on, or not.
Persuasive Essay : Should Animal Testing Be Dreadfully Wrong?
The majority of people believe animal testing is dreadfully wrong. As animal testing becomes a popular conversation argument, the main altercation is how unjust and crooked it is. Companies especially those in the makeup industry, have gained popularity and admiration for wiping out animals testing for their products even though the products have actually been tested before put out on the market. Animal testing is now grasped as an abhorrent business, but what others do not realize is that without animal testing, the medical world and other productions would not be as advanced as it is today. Even though it seems as though the cons outweigh the pros, there is definitely a balance between them. Animal testing can save human lives and the medications tested on animals can also become a medication for animals if it works; however, some animals contract diseases easier than humans and can suffer because of this testing.
Animal Testing Argument Essay
The first argument claims that animal research plays a vital role in virtually every major medical advances in this last century for both human health and veterinary health (Trull, 2014). The first premise says that animal research was a vital role for all medical advances, which is fact-based. However, it is not true because there are medical discoveries that are founded without the use of animal testing such as clinical research. The second premise states that medical treatments have advanced in the last century, which is fact based. This is true because there are medical breakthroughs of different discoveries throughout the time from the help of animal testing. Therefore, the conclusion states that animal research contribute for both human health and veterinary health. The fallacy used for this argument is appeal to
The Controversy Over Animal Testing Essay
- 11 Works Cited
From when you are a baby to when you are an adult animal testing is used in your everyday products. From the Pampers you put on as a baby and the Johnson and Johnson you are washed with. To when you are older the Febreeze, Sunsilk, and Gillette you use.( Companies That do Test on Animals) Animal testing surrounds you in every act of life. “The guess is around 100 million animals are used worldwide in animal testing.” (Animal Rights) Animal testing is rooted from natural curiosity. How the insides of a living organism operate and look is an interesting idea. Because of the fact that dissection of humans was illegal by the Roman Church, animals were the second best option for knowledge of living organisms. (Animal Testing) The debate
Persuasive Essay : Why Animal Testing Is Wrong?
Hey you, yea you. Ever heard of animal testing? Well if you didn’t animal testing refers to procedures performed on living animals for purposes of research into basic biology, and diseases, assessing the effectiveness of new medical products, and testing the human health and/or environmental safety of consumer and industry products such as cosmetics, household cleaners, food additives, pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. So basically test human products on animals. Now my perspective on this is that animal testing is wrong and I will tell you why. I believe it is wrong because it is animal cruelty. They are held against their will. While I am telling you all about this awful process I want you to think about your pets, or any pet doesn’t matter just think of an animal.
Arguments Against Animal Testing Essay
There is much debate over whether animal testing should be allowed or not. Some people think that it is not essential to sacrifice animals for human benefits because they are being abused and tortured severely during experiments. Some others who stand against animal testing claim that humans eliminate many lives on earth in order to safe humans’ lives, so there is no justice because even animals have the right to live on earth, yet these people do not consider the truth that animals are being used in the food industry or in the laboratories. Thus, if someone asks how many animals are being used in the laboratory experiments around the world every year, who can give an accurate answer? It can be one, ten, or fifty million. It is difficult to find the exact figure on this question because people only read news through mass media such as having a new vaccine which can help human avoid uterus cancer or a new medicine help humans cure strokes, but they also need to know how many lives of the animals would have to take in order to get theses vaccines. Therefore, some organizes think that animal testing is one of the most disturbing experiments ever, and it should be banned. Despite many controversies with opposing opinions, a compromise can be made in order to reduce the use of animals in the laboratory experiments.
Essay Against Animal Testing
Millions of animals suffer due to effects of testing they must endure. This testing is usually done unethically and causes major harm. It’s wrong to harm animals for the sake of testing products for society. Furthermore, animals are living creatures just like humans and should not be treated differently. While testing animals may be cheaper, it is morally wrong and causes many harmful side effects in animals.
Animal Testing Is Wrong Essay
- 7 Works Cited
Animal testing has been around since the third and fourth centuries BC, when it was performed by Greek philosopher-physicians. However, it is unknown when people began to question this process. In today’s society, the idea of testing products on animals has become more and more controversial with numerous groups being created and becoming even more vocal. While people will decide for themselves where they stand in this argument, I would hope that most would agree that animal abuse is wrong. So, if animal abuse is wrong and animal testing can be, and usually is, much more painful and severe than animal abuse; why can’t people agree on the subject of animal testing? However, the argument for animal testing is also legitimate. Animal testing
Persuasive Essay: The Controversy Of Animal Testing
Have you ever been watching your favorite television show, and all of the sudden a failed drug commercial comes on? An example of this could be Vioxx. How would you like to know that this was tested on animals? If you are unaware Vioxx caused over 100,000 people to suffer severe heart attacks. Yet Vioxx was extremely successful in the animal test trials. Doesn’t that show you how different us animals and humans are, and how pointless this dangerous routine is? Now how do you feel to know that animals are also being killed everyday because of animal testing? In one test run on average of the LD50 test, more than 50 percent of the animals die. The LD50 test is a test that forced 60-200 animals to do this. How would you feel if a rabbit, like a pet you own, was getting force fed this? Nowadays scientist limited this test to 6-10 animals, but that’s just this test. I still believe no animal, should die this way whether it’s cosmetic, medical, or everyday chemicals like paint. (Added the ways I meant.)
Animal Testing Should Be Banned Essay
Did you know that the shampoo you use was probably forced down the throat of a rabbit, cat, or maybe even a dog? Each year, millions of animals are used to test how safe and effective products, such as cosmetics, are. They are genetically modified, force-fed harmful chemicals, blinded, scalded, and maimed. How could one not object to this awful cruelty? Animal testing should be banned because it is cruel, unnecessary, inaccurate, and expensive.
Animal Testing Persuasive Essay
Imagine just waking up one day being stripped of your home, children, food and everything you own. You’re in the dark and all of a sudden these bright, intense, fluorescent lights flick on. A very large, unfamiliar looking menacing figure approaches you and prods you with needles and all sorts of drugs. Your barely fed and you're stuck here for the rest of your life. Now what if I told you that already happens today in the year 2017. These “people” i'm talking about are poor defenseless animals that have to go through these horrible conditions every day just for an experiment that might not even work. All animal testing should be banned, even if such testings would save human lives because, the process is painful, you’re endangering a species and haven't all cruel despicable nations tested on not only humans but also animals.
Why Animal Testing Is Wrong
- 6 Works Cited
Imagine a cold dark room with cages lined against the walls. The living creatures echo throughout the building as if the entrapped animals are able to sense their fate. Lying on a table are several rabbits strapped down with tiny cups attached to their bellies. These rabbits go through an enormous amount of pain due to the fact that they are not given painkillers of any sort. Sadly, these animals are being used for scientific experimentation. It is a debate that has taken place for several years and it continues to be an ongoing battle. Do animals have rights and is animal testing wrong. In 1824 The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in England was formed and since then there
Animal Testing Is Inhumane Essay
There’s no question that we have advanced dramatically when it comes to medicine, for example, in the last ½ of a century alone we’ve managed to cure, and even prevent certain cancers, we’ve created vaccines, so diseases like mumps or polio are unheard of and shocking. But how much of this can be accredited to animal tests? A lot less than you would think. Most drugs that were found successful in animal tests were found dangerous, or even fatal in humans. There are plenty of other more humane and accurate ways to accomplish what scientists are looking for in animal tests, but they still conduct these sickening experiments. This is why animal testing is inhumane, cruel, and useless.
Cages against the walls, dim lights flicker down the long hallway. Sounds of screaming animals leave your ears as you enter the lab. This is how animals would see the world and their lives at the hands of the men in white. Millions of animals enter the labs every year. Animals don't deserve the experimentation, the operations, and the obvious statistics in front of us.
Animal Testing Is Morally Wrong? Essay
Humans are animals, and as such it is morally wrong to use them to test pharmaceuticals intended for use by humans. Those who support animal experimentation believe it is a necessary evil, in part due to the false information put out by the media. The so-called benefits of animal testing have not helped humans for years, yet in many countries the law still requires researchers use animals to test their medications. In fact, although alternatives have been found, few steps have been taken to put an end to animal experimentation. Unfortunately, the way the activists present their argument that is one main reason they are not taken seriously, even though their points are valid. Animal testing is morally wrong and has not benefited humans as the media has claimed, but there are alternatives, such as new technology, if only humans would take the first step.
- Animal testing
- Animal rights
- Testing cosmetics on animals
Argumentative Essay Animal Testing
Argumentative Essay: The Ethics Of Testing On Animals
tested on multiple times? Animal testing is something we as people cant stop it from happening. Animals are tested to make up and being put through toucher day by day. Sure it could help cure disease for humans, but the last time I checked animals aren’t humans. Testing on an animal is unethical if you hate hunters for harming them down and killing them. What makes you any better than them when you use make-up that was tested on an animals. You know that animals are contained in harsh conditions, enduring suffering, and locked up in a cage for years. Does using animals as lab rats for good, shows that you sill have any humanity inside of you. On the other hand it helps scientists find cures for disease's and it's the only way that people don't get hurt. Finally to begin with, harming animals for testing drugs is unethical for human to do. Even…
- Animal Testing Argumentative Essay
Animal testing has greatly advanced Human health. Without animal testing, diseases like kidney transplants, cervical disease would not have been advanced in the way that it has. Advancements in medicine, insulin and numerous other drugs have been made achievable through animal testing. Animal testing will always continue to advance medical research. In order to produce new types of drugs, scientists must be able to test them out on animals. Scientists have established that various animals have…
PHLO1 V-4R Animal Testing When we talk of animal testing, let set our limitations to animals experiments that are (a) harmful, which makes animals worse than they were whether physically or psychologically, and (b) nontherapeutic, which not intended to benefit the animal itself. Nobody likes the idea of suffering in the name of testing cosmetics but it is harder to condemn scientists who used animals to research cures for Alzheimer’s or a vaccine against polio, mumps, rubella and hepatitis.…
Argumentative Essay On Animal Testing
pg. 1 Animal Testing Throughout history, animals have been considered one of the primary sources in human lives. They can be beneficial for the human such as using their skins for different purposes, for example manufacturing furniture, clothes, etc. As they can benefit as some of them are eatable by humans, while others people use animals as pets in their homes. However, the same creatures that had a massive impact on our livers are being torched, suffered and harmed. In the hands of…
Argumentative Essay. Should animals be used for research? Using animals for testing is extremely cruel, animals deserve rights, and it should be illegal. They don’t deserve to be lab rats, to be tested on whenever people feel the need. The use of animals for testing should be illegal. Why is animal testing cruel? What if you were in a dark hole with no say in anything you do, and you were experimented on whenever the need was felt? That wouldn’t be well at all. Animals are often shocked,…
Argumentative Essay: The Benefits Of Animal Testing
Few examples exist that truly show how cruel people can be, and animal testing is high on the list. Imagine a beloved animal, caged in stainless steel, shaking, being analyzed for the effects of a new ingredient in a beauty product. Millions are drawn to protest the tests conducted for vanity, and some countries have already placed laws in action to ban the practice. The fight continues in the U.S. for the welfare of animals that are still undergoing vile tests so that people can have cosmetic…
Argumentative Essay On Animal Product Testing
Do you know the damaging effects animal product testing has on animals? How would you feel if someone told you that your own pet had to go through animal product testing? There are over 25 million of lab animals that go through animal product testing in a year and it is merely atrocious to know what animals have to undergo. Although animal product testing is one of the main way scientists test products, animal product testing is inhumane, and should come to an end. Animals are treated…
Argumentative Essay: The Ethics Of Animal Testing
thousands of animals for our own heartless wants. Animal Testing has been a highly debated and ongoing topic for many years. The dangers of using animals to test products being made for human uses is a high risk. Approximately 225 million animals are used for testing every year. Billions have been killed in the process. ("Questions and Answers About Biomedical Research.”) How can this be allowed? Isn’t it cruel to use animals to…
Animals squeal with their hearts beating fast. They’re held down by strong arms as a needle is injected into them. The next breath they take might be their last. The injection messes with their brain. Their body becomes mutated. The poor innocent creatures have become test subjects. The only way they can keep living is if the scientist creates some serum to save it. But it doesn’t matter, the animal has already changed, it will never be itself again. Isn’t obvious? Animal testing is…
ethical. Wether it is or isn't, most people believe that some form of cost-benift test should be performed to determine if the action is right. The animals go through pain, distress and even death, where the benefits are the collection of new knowledge or the development of new medical therapies. Over more than 1.4 million animals are used each year.The testing can date all they way back to ancient times of the Greeks and Romans. A physician who dissects animals to obtain knowledge. Supporters…
- Animal Liberation Front
- Animal rights
- Animal testing
- British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection
- Medical research
- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
- Testing cosmetics on animals
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Animal Testing Essay
Posted by David S. Wills | Oct 21, 2022 | Model Essays | 0
There is a wide range of topics used in the IELTS writing test and many of them overlap. Today, we are going to look at a question that falls between the topics of animals and ethics and science. It will require you to write an animal testing essay .
In this article, I will analyse the question for you, give you some pointers on useful language, and then show you my own sample band 9 answer.
The Task: Animal Testing
Here is a question that appeared in the IELTS exam several years ago:
Some people claim that it is acceptable to use animals in medical research for the benefit of human beings, while other people argue that it is wrong. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
(Note that questions can be re-used or re-written, so it is possible that you might see this recycled in the future.)
This is a “discuss both views” question , so your task is ultimately to do three things:
- Explain why some people think animal testing is acceptable
- Explain why some people think animal testing is unacceptable
- Give your opinion
Even if you feel really strongly that it is wrong, for example, you still need to explain the opposing view. You don’t need to give a balanced answer , but you do need to acknowledge both sides of the debate. This is important for Task Response.
Planning your Answer
I almost always write a four-paragraph essay for my sample band 9 answers but today I’m going to write five. It could easily have been four paragraphs but I wanted to separate my anti-animal testing arguments into two separate paragraphs for better organisation. (You can read about 4- vs 5-paragraph essay structures here .)
My essay is going to look like this:
When it comes to a task 2 introduction , please make sure that you have a clear outline sentence and also that your opinion (if one is required) is stated clearly.
Body paragraph 1 will act as a sort of concession paragraph , so it will be imperative that I make it clear that this is not my opinion but rather what some other people think. If I fail to do this, then the reader might be confused.
The ideas in body paragraphs 2 and 3 will be separated but could also have been condensed into two paragraphs. However, I felt that for this topic it was a little more effective to split them. It also made my argument slightly more persuasive.
For the conclusion , I will be careful not to repeat myself too much and instead just summarise and reaffirm my stance.
Language for an Animal Testing Essay
The topic of animal testing is obviously controversial and so people will have different ideas. What you say will be largely based upon your own opinions. However, keep in mind that it covers those three topics I mentioned:
You don’t really need to know a lot about each, but it definitely would have some benefit if you knew a little about these areas and had some good vocabulary to use. I wrote about the IELTS topic of animals here , and there is plenty of good vocabulary that you can borrow. You can also search “animals” in the search bar at the top of the page.
I also recommend that you read and listen on issues that are related to IELTS topics like this. I particularly recommend the SYSK podcast episode on animal testing, which I think it is informative and accessible. You may learn some good language and get some inspiration for what you could write in your own animal testing essay. Other sources include this argument against animal testing by PETA and this one in favour of it by Stanford.
Language for Contentious Issues
In my essay, I will use the following phrases, which could be modified and applied to other contentious issues. I will put the specific language in brackets, so that you could swap it out when discussing other topics:
- [animal testing] has been fiercely debated due to the ethical problems inherent in this area of [science]
- The people who believe that [animal testing] is necessary tend to say…
- this is wrong for several reasons
- [animal testing] is not as helpful in [developing medicines] as people think
- There are many other reasons why [experimenting with animals] is wrong
- it is grossly unethical to [subject these creatures to painful and demeaning experiences]
- people may argue that there are benefits that come from [experimenting on animals], but in fact there is no good reason to continue doing this
You can try using and modifying these phrases in your own practice essays. If you want an expert to correct them for you, try my IELTS writing correction service .
Language about Animal Testing
The following phrases will also appear in my essay and can be used for talking about animal testing:
- this area of science
- animal testing should be banned
- testing medicines before using them on human beings
- figure out the cures to many serious illnesses
- Medicines that work on animals do not always work on humans
- if scientists give a mouse diabetes and then try various drugs to cure the problem
- subject these creatures to painful and demeaning experiences
- They are sentient beings
- subjected to cruel and often unnecessary experiments
- harmful both to humans and animals
It is also important to avoid repetition and that means finding ways to say “animal testing” without repeating the say words over and over. You could say:
- testing on animals
- experimenting on animals
- subjecting animals to medical experiments
- using animals in experiments
Again, it would be helpful to read articles and listen to podcasts on this topic in order to improve your vocabulary.
Sample Band 9 Answer
Over the past few decades, animal testing has been fiercely debated due to the ethical problems inherent in this area of science. This essay will look at both sides of the debate, before concluding that animal testing should be banned.
The people who believe that animal testing is necessary tend to say that there are serious benefits to humanity, such as testing medicines before using them on human beings. They believe that this will help to figure out the cures to many serious illnesses, which will make the world a better place for humans. However, this is wrong for several reasons.
Firstly, animal testing is not as helpful in developing medicines as people think. Medicines that work on animals do not always work on humans, and vice versa. As such, these trials are not just unnecessary but also profoundly unhelpful. For example, if scientists give a mouse diabetes and then try various drugs to cure the problem, they may find that there are twelve drugs that do not work on the mouse. However, maybe one of those drugs would have worked on a human. As such, animal testing would have caused more problems than it solved.
There are many other reasons why experimenting with animals is wrong. Perhaps most importantly, it is grossly unethical to subject these creatures to painful and demeaning experiences for the benefit of humanity. Animals do not exist for the benefit of people. They are sentient beings that deserve better than to be caged and subjected to cruel and often unnecessary experiments.
In conclusion, people may argue that there are benefits that come from experimenting on animals, but in fact there is no good reason to continue doing this. At best, these experiments are useless and at worst they are unethical and harmful both to humans and animals.
You can see that I have carefully crafted an argument that is strong. You may not agree with it, but it is hard to deny my points, which makes it effective in terms of Task Response. The structure is also solid and the ideas were well connected, making it very good in terms of Coherence and Cohesion . Note the inclusion of realistic and interesting ideas as well as concrete examples. My explanation of testing on mice was particularly effective here. It is better than giving some vague or unexplained idea.
About The Author
David S. Wills
David S. Wills is the author of Scientologist! William S. Burroughs and the 'Weird Cult' and the founder/editor of Beatdom literary journal. He lives and works in rural Cambodia and loves to travel. He has worked as an IELTS tutor since 2010, has completed both TEFL and CELTA courses, and has a certificate from Cambridge for Teaching Writing. David has worked in many different countries, and for several years designed a writing course for the University of Worcester. In 2018, he wrote the popular IELTS handbook, Grammar for IELTS Writing and he has since written two other books about IELTS. His other IELTS website is called IELTS Teaching.
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Writing help, paraphrasing tool, animal testing - free essay samples and topic ideas.
Animal testing, the use of non-human animals in experiments to assess the safety and efficacy of substances, evokes strong ethical debates. Essays on animal testing could explore the scientific, ethical, and legal aspects surrounding this practice. Discussions might delve into the necessity, alternatives, and the rights of animals versus the benefits to humanity. Moreover, analyzing the historical evolution of animal testing, the regulations governing it, and the public opinion and activism surrounding animal testing can provide a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted issues involved in this contentious practice. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to Animal Testing you can find at PapersOwl Website. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.
Animal Testing should be Banned
Many organizations are debating whether animal testing ought to be banned in the U. S. Some believe that animal testing ought to be done. At the same time, others believe that animal testing is completely wrong. Some experts believe that other options can be available instead of doing the test on animals. Using animals to test the safety of certain products and for medical research purposes is wrong, and it should be made a point that the pain and suffering […]
Animal Testing: is it Ethical?
Animals being sacred gifts given to us, they are the best part of our lives and provide us with a special way of love. They do nothing but bring joy and happiness to us. My whole life I've grown up with all different kinds of animals. I've had a dog named Shelby, two cats Ruby and Smokey, a bird named Cheeks, two hamsters Bernard and Sandy, and I currently have a dog named Rocky and a rabbit named Daisy. I […]
Types of Animal Cruelty
The definition of animal cruelty varies from person to person and although it is talked about occasionally, many people tend to downplay the seriousness of it. Animal abuse comes in many forms such as scientific research, abandonment, mistreatment, and so on. The experimentation and cruelty committed should be banned because animals share the same basic rights as humans. Without a doubt, mistreatment of animals is the most common form of animal cruelty. It comes in many forms which are: animal […]
Animal Testing is Unethical, Unreliable and Unnecessary
Every year, 100 million animals sit in U.S laboratories caged and waiting to be burned, abused, and infected (Madhusree 1). The test subjects have few rights, protective services, or liberties. The pictures of restrained tormented animals are hidden in a veil of secrecy amongst red lipsticks, sweetener packets, and paints. What the world desires carries a secret pain, and comes at a cost that often goes unnoticed. Despite the scientific advancements achieved through animal testing, scientists should resort to alternative […]
Pros and Cons of Animal Testing
Aside from what anyone thinks animal testing does has positives, although some might argue that they don't outweigh the negatives. Testing on a living organism could be more accurate than a small percentage of alternatives. It also gave us a much better understanding of our own anatomy considering before we tested on animals we thought our lungs pumped our blood throughout our body(Animal Experimentation). Also animal testing has given us an insight on the effectiveness of medications developed to combat […]
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Reasons of Animal Cruelty
"The Humane Society of the United States estimates that nearly 1 million animals a year are abused or killed in episodes of domestic violence" (Rajewski). Animal abuse is referred to as an act of intentional mistreatment against animals and is inflicted by humans for reasons other than survival or self-defense. The topic of animal cruelty has been debated for an extremely long time, but nothing has changed for the past decade, and people continue to use violence against animals. It […]
Animal Testing in Medical and Cosmetic Research
Every year there is less and less animal testing done in both medical and cosmetic research. There are plenty of reasons as to why animal testing has been proven to be effective in research experiments. While the beginnings of animal testing were not entirely reassuring of its tactics in the process of testing . However with the time animal testing has been around, it has greatly improved with the advancement of regulations and technology put towards animal testing. Therefore, animal […]
The Controversy of Animal Testing
Imagine a cute white little bunny. You couldn't even fathom harming this creature, could you? However, every day bunnies, like the one you imagined, are used in trials where they are harmed. I'm sure you've heard of companies claiming that they are cruelty free or don't support animal testing , but are you aware of what animal testing really is and what the animals endure during their trials? Companies every day torture animals in tests that don't always prove to […]
The Definition of Animal Cruelty
The definition of animal cruelty is the infliction by omission or by commission by humans of suffering or harm upon any non-human. A car like any other is driving down the street, rain pounding on the windshield. The girl in the passenger seat sees a dark blur on the side of the road. She focuses on it, and sees a soaked dog, whose fur is severely matted, and covered in mud. Its tail had no wag, and it was so […]
Medical Animal Testing should be Banned
Medical animal testing should be banned for there being other humane testing methods that exist. Because there are other alternatives that would replace or relieve animal testing, the use of animals would decrease dramatically. An example of a company who believes in an alternative to animal testing is Procter & Gamble Co. or P&G. Every year they spend $4.5 million on research that advances alternatives to animal testing. Though these alternatives may not replace all animal testing; but, it would […]
Problems with Animal Testing: Inhumane Practices and Neglected Interests
Abstract The Animal Welfare Act (AWA), enacted in August 1966, regulates the treatment and care of animals in research (Murnaghan 4). However, researchers annually exploit approximately 26 million animals for scientific and commercial testing in the United States (The Flaws and Human Harms ). These exploitations occur while developing medical treatments, determining toxicity levels in medicine, and ensuring the safety of cosmetic products prior to human utilization. While conducting a study on animal welfare, the United States Department of Agriculture […]
The Ethics of Animal Experimentation
1. Background Information 2.1 What is animal testing? An animal test is any scientific experiment or test in which a animal is forced to undergo something that is likely to cause them pain, suffering, distress or lasting damage. In animal experiments, animals would be injected or feed with probably harmful substances, exposed to radiation and forced to inhale toxic gases. Also, the lab resistant may surgically removing animals' organs or tissues to deliberately cause damage and subjecting animals to frightening […]
The Animal Testing and Experimentation Industry
Companies test their products on animals for the benefits of their own profit. Animals are treated harshly during this process. Most product consumers are unaware of the actions these companies are making. People continue to buy these products, probably unaware of the conditions the animals are under. With the revision and production of new items, animals continue to be used for the benefit of these companies. Animals are often tested for cosmetics, medications, and other daily uses. The animals are […]
The Cruelty in Animal Testing
Every year in the United States, it is estimated that tens of millions of animals are used for research and testing purposes (Animal Experimentation 50). These animals are usually mice, rats, rabbits, fish, guinea pigs, non-human primates, and other farm animals. Test animals undergo testing for cosmetics and household products, trials for new medicines, and scientific experiments. These tests and experiments are uncomfortable and often painful for the animals. The United States has laws to protect animals, but there are […]
Opposing Views Animal Testing
The United Nations guarantees a Universal Declaration of Human Rights that asserts that everyone has got a right to liberty, life and also security. Despite that, the declaration protects human beings from cruel treatment, slavery and eventually torture. These rights are considered to be inherent according to the law of land. There has been always a debate on whether animals have got moral rights that should be recognized as well as protected by the human society. In the actual sense, […]
Animal Testing and its Importance
From over-the-counter medicine to the shampoo we use, it's easy to forget how relatively easy our lives have become with the many commodities available to us today. What we do not often consider is how these privileges came to be. What we do not think about is the prevalence of animal testing behind many necessary medicines and products. While controversial, the age-old practice of using animals for scientific and commercial testing has no doubt made many invaluable contributions to our […]
New and Safe Treatments for Humanity
Animal testing has long been a means to discover new and safe treatments for humanity. Modern medicines and innovations are constantly being created and updated, creating an ongoing need for ways to test them. There have been many different methods of testing throughout history. By the Roman era, dissection and vivisection (the dissection of live animals) were established scientific practices (Fellenz 72). That was a more official part of animal testing history. Although not technically experimenting, people learned how animal […]
Effectiveness of Animal Testing
For Centuries animals have been tested on for research all across the globe. These animals can range from elephants to mice and can have an age range from new-borne to oldest surviving. The oldest form of animal testing has been dated back to around 199-217 AD. That's before the time of some of the earths early great scientists and researchers like Aristotle and Erasistratus. It is still as important today because of how much information we can actually gain from […]
Cruelty to Animals and Animal Testing
Animal cruelty can be defined in many ways: Being violent to animals in any way, failure to provide for animals, being neglectful to animals. Also causing animals psychological harm in the form of distress, torment or terror may also constitute animal cruelty (RSPCA). For example when picking out eyeliner or other makeup products, do people stop to see at the stores what kind of makeup they are buying and using? People could be supporting animal testing and cruelty and not […]
Support of Animal Testing
The arguments of those who support animal testing are understandable in certain situations, and, in these situation the views are valid and their views ought to be respected. And although there are downsides to animal testing and experimenting there's upsides as well. At the cost of an animal's life or comfortably humans lives will be saved or given an increased quality of life. In the nineteenth century, physicians could do very little to treat heart disease, because there was no […]
Alternatives to Animal Testing: a Glimpse into the Innovative and Compassionate Future of Scientific Research
Let's chat about something. You’ve probably heard whispers of testing stuff on animals. Whether you're in camp "necessary evil" or team "save the bunnies," there's some pretty snazzy news. We've got alternative methods bubbling up, blowing our minds. Scientists have found a way to grow miniature human organs in labs. Imagine a teensy liver or a bite-sized brain being used to check if that new face cream is safe. It’s all about getting results without making Fido or Thumper shed […]
Using Animals for Medical Testing is both Ethical and Essential?
In this Argumentative essay I have chosen to talk about Animal testing and why I think it is needed in today's work of medicines and cures. I will be given you four main facts on why I believe it is still very helpful to us humans and even helpful to the animals themselves. Honestly speaking people have become so sensitive in today's environments about many things like animal feelings, or they think like us humans. They truly forgotten that these […]
The Importance of Animal Models in Vaccines
If you have ever taken any type of medicine or had a vaccine, you have benefited from animal testing: Research with animals led to vaccinations against smallpox, measles, mumps, and tetanus. The world's first vaccine was tested on a cow in 1796 during the observation of milkmaids who caught cowpox , which is now called smallpox, from infected cow utters. This disease was eradicated in 1980 with the help of lab animals. Looking at the more frequent viruses in our […]
Animal Rights and Society
2. Background information 2.1 What is animal testing Animal testing is different experiments, researches that carried out on the animals. Different animals are used in different test, e.g. mice, rabbits, pigs. Those animals are used to check the safety and assess the effectiveness of the products that for human use, e.g. medicine, food, cosmetics. It's also used to understand how well the product works on human body. However, all of those tests may harm to animals and cause them physical […]
The Americans for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals ASPCA
Introduction Service learning and community partnership incorporates academic learning into service projects that becomes more common and popular in today's community. What it does is teaches us about the history and needs of the agency being helped as well as seeing positive changes that their involvement makes. Just by incorporating different aspects of learning into community service, we can become invested in their work and more likely to stay committed to the cause. The cause of the agency is to […]
Animal Research for Human Benefit is Unnecessary
Most people believe animal testing is essential to drug and vaccine research. Which is true, in a sense, because scientist have come up with a lot of vaccines for certain viruses. However, during the process, animals are treated poorly and their cages are in awful conditions. Most of the chemicals being administered into these patients are not safe for them, which sometimes results in death. Not only that, animals cannot comprehend what humans can. They cannot speak for themselves. These […]
The Study on Animal Experimentation
Animal testing has been a severe problem that still has not been resolved. Animal testing should be stopped for the safety of animals and human, but since it cannot be, how can it be improved? Many scientists rely on animal testing to collect data on safety and efficacy from experiments. They use animals to test products like food, drugs, cosmetics, medicines, and chemicals. They use animals because animals serve to protect consumers, workers and the environment from the harmful effects […]
The conversation of animal testing has never been anything less than controversial. Although animal testing is not new, the topic still faces severe criticism by several animal activists' groups. Humans have used animals as a means to learn about various subjects for a while now. It dates back to uses from Greek-physician scientists ""such as Aristotle, 384 “ 322 BC and Erasistratus, 304 “ 258 BC (Hajar 1). During these experiments' scientists would use live animals as their test subjects. […]
What is Animal Cruelty?
Animal cruelty is the act of humans inflicting harm and suffering onto an animal. This can include neglect, animal fighting, and overt abuse. In the United States, an animal is abused every ten seconds. Animal protection organizations are working to stop animal cruelty everywhere. Many of these organizations believe in animal rights and animal welfare. Animal rights activists usually go to the extremes, and will even break laws to make a statement to the public. One point of contention for […]
Ethical Issues in Animal Experimentation
There is of course the huge ethical consequence that comes from testing on animals. It is also super expensive to actually test on animals and some of the information from the tests don't give accurate results for us. Animals are different from humans everyone knows that. That's money, manpower and time going to waste. It's also very expensive compared to other options that are out or already developed. The cost of animal testing is enormous and doesn't always yield results. […]
Essay About Animal Testing Imagine being locked up inside a small and cramped cage with nothing but a feces-filled water bowl that has not been changed for 5 days. The feeling of losing your mind has become inevitable and it seems like “surviving” is impossible. Glancing around the room, you see many creatures are in pain. A mother has been forcefully torn from her newborn she is going insane as she looks desperately for her child, a cat is screaming in agony after it has been performed vivisection on. A garbage bin contains piles of animals rendered useless after vicious quantities of drug intake. You then notice a hand reaching out to grab hold and you wonder. Is it over? Animal research is a controversial topic and has been a popular conversation among the public and in veterinary doctors. Animal testing is wrong and these innocent creatures should not go through this kind of suffering. In all respects, animal testing should be banned because it is inhumane, the test results are often not useful, and there are better alternatives for this issue. Every day, mice, rats, cats, dogs, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, birds and primates are used. They don’t have a voice to speak for themselves. Animals are caught and captured from the wild, stuffed into little crates, and tested for any issues before being relocated. Furthermore, the experimental laboratories shall keep them for as long as they need. This can sometimes mean animals are sentenced to death to serve and submit to these awful treatments. The testing they encounter involve injecting, force-feeding, shocking, dripping medications into their eyes and skin, inhaling toxins, embedding wires inside their brains, and repetitive surgeries. In most cases, animals don’t even receive painkillers or medication after trials. In addition, animals experience pain as humans do. The feeling of pain is something that can be felt internally and expressed through facial and actions it is a mental indication. They may jolt, shriek, whimper, or scream when they cry out in pain. Whenever they are physically abused, it can lead to neurotic related behavior that leaves them disabled. Pacing around in circles, ripping their fur out, and biting themselves are only a couple of the things that could be carried out. We learn to respect each other and try our best to not hurt people around us why can’t we have the same relationship with wildlife? What’s more, is that major results of animal testing end up shown as unsuccessful and useless. According to the National Institute of Health, it was shown that experiments end up neglecting about 92% of their research due to failing when entering the clinical evaluation. The other 8% was shown as medications that had side effects that were not presented in animal testing. Animals don’t have the same disease compared to humans. Multiple examples include heart diseases, cancer, HIV, Parkinson’s disease, and many more. Dr. Richard Klauser, former director of the US National Cancer Research states that: “The history of cancer research has been the history of curing cancer in the mouse. We have cured cancer in mice for decades and it simply didn’t work on humans.” This can show that not only in mice but most of the 100 million animals used, do not always show the same results as expected and can be misleading. Another report has shown that the US Drug & Food Administrator in 2017, only ended certifying 46 new drugs after testing on 115 million animals globally. It was concluded that these drugs weren’t even needed as common cures but were rare diseases. Lastly, observations usually turn out as unreliable and dangerous. This is because both species have huge biological difference humans and animals have different responses to illnesses, substances and healing approaches. Not all of the assumptions that the chances of imitating an animal as their “model” will not always have the same effect. Not everyone needs new shades of lipstick when there are already so many shades available. Dripping these cosmetic products into the eyes and skins of rabbits to sell in shops don’t benefit society- what more could we ask for? Research has found that the Draize skin irritation in rabbits will only show up 60% efficiency on humans. In other cases, using remodeled human skin can boost the results up to 86%. Science is expanding and scientists are gradually finding new ways to improve the lifestyle of humans. Alternatives include cell manipulation, human tissue from donors, computer models, synthetic skin, and volunteer studies. With that, animal testing should not be limiting the opportunity of opening up to more effective methods of analysis. There is always an option to approach a scenario differently. Then why is it taking so long for others to understand that animal testing is beyond cruel? If people were to imagine themselves in the shoes of these creatures, would they want to live every day in pain? Essentially, animals should be free of these torture devices and know that they have the right to be unconfined, not impersonated, killed, or carry trails out on. The purpose that many need to understand is that animals aren’t for people to use but instead to cherish. With that, stopping harsh treatments, rid of unnecessary testing, and have more options to animal testing. Just imagine it: asking yourself the question “We don’t have a solution for animal testing.”. But instead, “We don’t have a solution for animal testing just yet.” Would the world not already have humans and animals living peacefully together?
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The Debate on Animal Testing Essay
Factors attributed to the rise in animal experimentation, animal rights debate, animal liberation, recommendations, works cited.
Animal testing is described as a procedure involving vivisection and/or In vivo testing of animals for experimentation or research. In the pursuit of what is known as scientific progress, animals have fallen victims of distress in the process.
Throughout history, human has employed animals in carrying out various activities as beasts of burden, for companionship and food. However, animal testing was particularly developed along with medical inventions. It dates back during the ancient Greece, applied by Hippocrates and Aristotle, who established the structural and functional component of human body through animal dissections (Athanasiou & Darzi 208).
During the Cartesian philosophy at around seventeenth century, animal testing was employed with hardly any ethical issue arising as a result. Rene Descartes for instance, maintained that man possessed a mind and could feel pain while animals had none and therefore, could not feel pain. However, these perceptions were later opposed by Jeremy Bentham (Office of Technology Assessment, Congress 75).
The topic of animal testing has continued to trigger several ethical and legal issues in pursuit of questioning its legitimacy. Following the fulfillment of the procedures on animals, they are euthanized in efforts to reduce their suffering. Animals, like human can feel physical, psychological and emotional pain, and therefore, it is morally incorrect to facilitate their suffering due to continued experimentation with them.
Even with advocacy of humane way of treating these animals by animal rights groups, it is never enough since these experiments always causes them to suffer, which infringe on their rights. The purpose of this paper is to define animal testing within a historical context, establish ethical and legal issues surrounding the acts, discuss animal liberation movements, arguments in support and against the act of animal testing as part of the debate on animal rights and most importantly, alternatives to animal testing.
Generally, this paper shall try to question the legitimacy of animal testing and give a recommendation of alternative non-animal approaches.
Animal experimentation heightened when anesthetics were introduced in the medical field. Besides, the Darwinian Origin of Species defended the biological resemblances between animals and human hence resulting to a rise in animal experiments. Today, there has been a rise in demand for sophisticated animal models as well as rising controversial debates regarding animal experimentation.
These aspects contributed to the establishment of Laboratory Animal Science during the nineteen fifties, guided by 3R principles (Baumans pr.1). This is a multidisciplinary approach in the field, which has enhanced the animal testing standards and their welfare. There has been a rising concern in relation to animal welfare that has resulted to various legislations in various nations, with the UK approving the initial legislation on animal experimentation dubbed, the Cruelty to Animals Act, 1876 (Athanasiou & Darzi 209).
Progress in the biomedical sciences resulted to a rise in animal testing in the twentieth century. However, this decreased in 1980s when the public became aware, strict laws were introduced and there was a rise in animal rights groups.
All the same, animal experimentation has risen in the twenty-first century attributed to the progress made in genetic engineering of animals. Currently, seventy-five to a hundred million vertebrates are used annually for scientific research as well as testing of drugs, vaccines, cancer research, diagnostics, among others (Baumans pr. 2).
According to Baumans, “Averagely, 50% of the laboratory animals experience minor discomfort (e.g., single blood sampling), 30% moderate (e.g., recovery from anesthesia) and 20% severe (e.g., toxicity tests)” (pr. 2). Animal tests have been criticized by questioning the right of man to use them for his benefits even when they have been proven unreliable.
Animal rights activists have opposed the act on the grounds that it is immoral and violates the rights of these animals. However, the morality of the procedure is downplayed since it is outweighed by the fact that these procedures are ethically approached through carrying out a self-analysis of the motives involved, either personally or scientifically.
The process incorporates recognizing that animals suffer and therefore, this should be minimized as much as possible in relation to ethical values employed. Animals have their own rights and if a procedure infringes on these rights, it forms the ground to criticize its morality. The case of morality should not examine the benefits incurred by humans since a violation of rights is by its own an independent concept to rule out the procedure on moral basis.
This is where the supporters of animal testing fail since they don’t base their morality argument on violation of rights but on its consequences. This implies that the benefits incurred by humans are a justification of animals to suffer. They insist that the benefits to humans outweigh the detrimental effects caused to animals, which is a consequentialist argument since it emphasizes on the impacts of the action under the question.
However, some procedures are so inhumane such that the benefits incurred by human cannot justify the harms caused to the animal research subjects. Consider the following argument; if a procedure is more harmful when conducted, it is morally incorrect to conduct it.
More so, Singer maintains that “whenever experimenters claim that their experiments are important enough to justify the use of animals, we should ask them whether they would be prepared to use a brain-damaged human being at a similar mental level to the animals they are planning to use” (76). In the recent past, ethical debates regarding animal testing are common regarding the principles to impose on different animal species.
However, many have agreed that animal testing in medical as well as scientific research is beneficial to man when animal suffering is minimized. On this note, peter singer maintains that there lacks basis to employ animals for them to suffer, which is a utilitarian perspective. Researchers have pointed out that the biological differences that exist between human and animals results to unreliability of such tests. Animal tests have a lower quality and must be conducted hand in hand with clinical trials on human (Athanasiou & Darzi 210).
On the other hand, those in support of animal experiments claim that almost all medical accomplishment and breakthrough in the recent past, is based on animal testing. In addition, some have gone ahead to argue that computer simulations cannot define the association amid different cells and environment, which calls for animal experimentations since they are able to achieve this.
However, critiques of the procedure points out that these results could be misleading even in animal tests and this impedes scientific progress. Similarly, imposing regulations against animal testing would imply that animals would no longer be used for toxicological experimentation of new drugs.
It could also imply the application of human to determine their safety. Animal tests are agued to assist in determining if a certain drug should be tested on humans and not the efficacy of the drug. If the drug proves lethal to animals, it means it cannot be used on humans. If it proves otherwise, clinical trials can be initiated on humans. These are some of the reasons that those who support the idea of animal experimentation put forward to justify the act, often triggering a conflict of interests.
It is generally agreed that animal’s life is valuable and should not be mishandled. This aspect has led to regulations being imposed to regulate the issue. It has thus, been a controversial issue for policymakers, some of who states that animal suffering is inhumane and therefore, they put forward euthanasia as mean to minimize animal suffering.
It is clear that most, during the scientific experiments and studies, animal suffering is inevitable and in turn ends up dying. Therefore, euthanizing these animals has been seen as a means of reducing depression, pain and infections that may result since some of these animals can neither respond to medication nor feed or breed, which makes them useless.
Euthanizing these animals is meant to trigger a swift unconsciousness, followed by death with little or no agony or suffering. These methods include use of gases like carbon monoxide, decapitation, cervical dislocation, maceration, irradiation, electrocution, captive bolts, pithing, quick freezing and air embolism with or without anesthesia (Athanasiou & Darzi 212).
Animal liberation or animal rights regards to the notion that animals have to be considered similar to human with respect to their interests. The issue has been approached from contrasting philosophical stances. The protectionist Peter Singer emphasizes a utilitarian aspect of suffering and its effects and not on the idea of rights.
Conversely, the abolitionist Gary Francione maintains that animals require just a single right i.e. a right to property. All the same, animal liberation advocates come to an agreement that animals have to be considered as non-human individuals belonging to a certain moral setup and not as foodstuff, research subjects, source of entertainment or even for clothes. Peter Singer initiated the animal liberation movement in which he overlooked the theoretical explanations of rights with regard to animals (Office of Technology Assessment, Congress 76).
In his book, Singer maintains that animals’ interests have to be prioritized since they can feel pain and distress, arguing that the impression of rights is meant to express the importance to put animals into consideration. Singer made popular the application of the concept of speciesism in his description of oppressive handling of animals.
Speciesism is described as “unjustified bias that favors one’s own species over the other” (Singer 287). The utilitarian approach; ‘the greatest good for the greatest number,’ can only be the sole way to quantify ethical behavior. He maintains that there lacks any justification as to why this should not be applicable to animals.
Singer disregards rights as an ethical idea, which is not dependent on the utilitarian idea founded on interests. He embraces rights as a derivative of utilitarian principles, especially that of decreasing suffering in animals. According to him, animal rights currently differ from those of human in his view in Animal Liberation (1975).
Here, he insists on speciesism in that there is discrimination of animals as a result of their having to be associated with a different species. He ascertains that any being, which can suffer should be considered equally (Office of Technology Assessment, Congress 83). Failing to do so can be likened to racism and gender justice (Singer 85).
According to his arguments, animals should possess rights since they have a potential of feeling pain more in comparison to their intelligence. This is to say that animals depict a much less intelligence as compared to an average man, while individuals who have a severe intellectual challenge likewise portray a reduced mental capacity.
It is even possible that particular animals such as primates portray intelligence in learning symbolic languages almost similar to infants. As a result, intelligence is not justifiable on the grounds of awarding animals a lower thought than the mentally challenged persons. Singer also rejects the notion of taking animals as the source of food and advocates for a vegetarian diet.
More so, he disregards vivisection, particularly when the benefits incurred are less than the harm inflicted on the animal subject. Singer ascertains that there lacks moral basis for failure to award equal consideration with regard to animal and human interests of having a potential to suffer. Animal’s research has shown that animals are capable of feeling pain and suffering, but they lack a language to express their distress, unlike human (Singer 286).
However, these aspects are criticized by Carl Cohen, who rules out the concept of personalizing animals. He maintains that holders of rights have to be in a position to understand rule of duty governing them. They have to comprehend probable conflicts amid their own interest and justice during application of such regulations. It is solely on the society of ‘beings’ with potential to self-restrict ethical judgments, when the notion of rights is properly invoked (Cohen & Regan 27).
He, therefore, opposes Singer’s argument, which implies that mentally retarded persons cannot come up with moral judgments. Then, it should not be applied as the distinctive trait to determine whether animals should be given rights. Cohen argues that to examine an ethical judgment, it should not be applied to each person but rather, to a potential of all members of the overall species (Cohen & Regan 41).
Animal experimentation has composed a huge industry, which comprises of the chemical, pharmaceutical, learning institutions as well as other scientific oriented industries. Animals used in these experiments are subjected to physical pain and psychological trauma during different procedures such as toxicological testing.
Moreover, in learning institutions, veterinary practice and medical research incorporate use of animals for educational purposes. Computer programming, In vitro approach, statistical approaches, application of cell cultures in research, or even clinical research using humans are some of the alternatives to use in experimentation. However, these alternatives have proven futile due to reluctance in embracing them, inadequate funding or simply being against change.
These alternatives, when embraced in this scientific research as well as for education purposes, animal rights are safeguarded. May be, the most important question to ask is if these animal experiments are really reliable. This is because they could give different responses to that of human body.
It is, therefore, important to note that their suffering during the testing could even compromise the results. Consequently, the essence of having to make animals suffer to benefit human is questionable if there are other alternatives that could be used instead, and give even more accurate results.
Food Drug Admiration enacted FD&C Act, which was a promulgation of other interrelated laws. The Act allowed cosmetic manufacturers to do everything within their power to guarantee the safety of the product for human before they are put in the market.
These companies have employed animal testing to achieve this aim of ensuring safe ingredients in their products. FDA however, advocates that the benefits extracted in the animal tests should be optimized by using the least number of animals, which should be handled humanely in whatever way possible.
The agency has collaborated with others to draft alternative means of toxicological tests within the American nation thus advocating for Refinement, Reduction as well as Replacement of animal experimentation (Athanasiou & Darzi 210). Reduction means using the least number of animals possible to reach the desired results by researchers, enhancing experimentation procedures and analysis as well as sharing the results with different researchers.
Refinement involves minimizing animal suffering by refining procedures involved, through less invasive procedures, improved medical attention, and living conditions. Replacement entails the use of alternative techniques, which includes testing on cell cultures, clinical tests on human volunteers, computer programming and epidemiological research studies when similar results can be achieved if animal subjects were used (Baumans pr.3).
Although beneficial, animal tests are not always accurate since they might give a different response in humans to that of animals (Athanasiou & Darzi 210). Therefore, an ethics committee should be established in every nation to determine the ethical aspects of animal testing in relation to research proposals put forward.
From this perspective, animal tests should only be embraced when the benefits incurred outweighs their suffering. Moral review of the procedures of animal testing is important in enhancing the standards of animal experiments since their welfare is crucial to attaining a reliable outcome.
It is often assumed that animal experiments are integral to scientific and medical progress. As a result, the current debate over animal testing is characterized by cacophony of views. However, there appears to be an agreement that animals should be treated humanely.
They have been awarded the same stance as human by Singer while critiques like Cohen refute the stance. In my opinion, animals should possess similar rights as humans and if they are capable of suffering like human, then it is an obvious call that the cause of suffering should be withdrawn.
However, unlike humans, animals can neither assume duties nor possess discretion, which awards rights an idiosyncratic role in ethics. On this note, consistency maintains that animals should be awarded rights once they are awarded to infants or mentally retarded individuals who have no discretion, a concept asserted by Cohen.
Singer, however, disregards the idea of man alleviating himself over other species and therefore, condemns his exploitation to animals. Besides, animals have a potential to suffer, and therefore, they should be relieved their suffering just as humans, which comprise of a utilitarian approach to the issue.
Considering human suffering, while neglecting that of animals is a violation of the canon of equality. This is a simple concept of humane treatment of animals as their moral authorization, which has continued to raise a conflict of interest all over the world (Office of Technology Assessment, Congress 83).
Athanasiou, Thanos & Darzi, Ara. Key Topics in Surgical Research and Methodology . Heidelberg: Springer, 2010. Print. Baumans, Van. Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma. Gene Therapy, 11, S64–S66. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302371. Nature Publishing Group, 2004.
Cohen, Carl & Regan, Tom. The Animal Rights Debate . Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Print.
Office of Technology Assessment, Congress. Alternatives To Animal Use in Research, Testing, and Education . Washington, D.C: DIANE Publishing, 1986. Print.
Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals . New York: Random House, 1975. Print.
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IvyPanda. (2022, April 6). The Debate on Animal Testing. https://ivypanda.com/essays/testing-on-animals/
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IvyPanda . "The Debate on Animal Testing." April 6, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/testing-on-animals/.
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