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California Bar Exam and MPRE: 4. The Multistate Bar Exam

  • 1. Subjects Tested on the Exam
  • 2. The Essay Component
  • 3. The Performance Tests
  • 4. The Multistate Bar Exam
  • 5. Bar Exam Fees

About the MPRE

  • Planning During Law School & Checklist
  • 1. Commercial Bar Review Courses
  • 2. Free Online Study Aids
  • 3. Bar Review Books

Guide Outline

Introduction

About the Bar Exam

Subjects Tested on the Exam

The Essay Component

The Performance Tests

The Multistate Bar Exam

Bar Exam Fees

Planning During Law School

Second and Third Years

Studying for the Bar

Commercial Bar Review Courses

Free Online Study Aids

Bar Review Books

Helpful Information

  • The State Bar of California [URL] Provides information regarding the California Bar Examination, including a summary of the requirements for admission to practice law in California, information about how to register to take the bar exam, links to forms, and other important details.
  • MBE Information Provides a description of the Multistate Bar Examination, or the multiple-choice portion of the bar exam. Outlines subjects covered, provides sample questions, and guidelines for taking the exam.
  • MPRE Information Provides a description of the MPRE, including an outline of the subject matter covered, sample questions, and guidelines for taking the exam.

The MBE is developed and graded by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE).  The MBE consists of an objective six-hour examination containing 200 multiple-choice questions, which are administered in (2) three-hour sessions, each session consisting of 100 multiple-choice questions.  The exam questions cover the following areas of law:

  • Civil Procedure;
  • Constitutional Law;
  • Criminal Law and Procedure;
  • Real Property; and

Each MBE question is followed by four possible answers, from which you should choose the best answer.  The questions are designed to be answered in accordance with generally accepted, fundamental legal principles unless otherwise noted in the question.  Because scores on the MBE are calculated based on the number of questions answered correctly, make sure to answer every question, even if it means guessing (points are not subtracted for incorrect answers).

The NCBE provides online access to MBE instructions, a subject matter outline , and sample test questions .  MBE study aids, including two online practice exams, are available for purchase at the NCBE's online store .  

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  • Last Updated: Oct 2, 2023 10:14 AM
  • URL: https://libguides.law.ucla.edu/calbarexam

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The California Bar Exam: An Essential Guide

Oct 31, 2022 | Uncategorized | 0 comments

ca bar exam multiple choice questions

Prepping for the bar exam is one of the most important steps you’ll take in your career as an aspiring lawyer. It’s a nerve-wracking process, but ends up bringing a lot of rewards if you prepare thoroughly. Proper planning is key to passing, as you’ll need plenty of time to study and review both national and California laws before taking the exam. It’s best to only take it once, as more than one time can get costly, take a lot of your time, and delay your start on a new career! 

Learn more about the California bar exam, how you can prepare yourself effectively, and what to expect when you start the exam itself.

What is the California Bar Exam?

The bar exam is the final test you must take to become a lawyer. If you want to practice law in California, you have to pass the exam. The test consists of 200 multiple-choice questions related to various national areas of law, including criminal law, torts, civil procedure, constitutional law, contracts, and more. It also includes 5 one-hour essays and a 90-minute Performance Test, covering other topics in the law, such as Trusts and Wills, and skills, such as writing and argumentation. The California bar exam is considered one of the toughest ones in the country because it has a high minimum passing score requirement.

California Bar Exam Format

The California bar exam is administered over the course of two days, making it a grueling process for all. On the first day, the writing portion is given out, and it typically consists of three essay questions in the morning session and two essay questions plus the performance test in the afternoon session. The next day, test takers complete the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE), which consists of 200 multiple choice questions split into two three-hour sessions, with 100 questions given per session. 

California Bar Exam vs. “Baby Bar”

There is another exam given, only in California, to first-year law students from registered unaccredited schools called the First-Year Law Student Exam (FYLSE), or the “baby bar.” Not everyone is required to take this exam, but if you are required to, then you must pass it after your first year of law school to be able to receive credit for law study going forward. There are a few cases where this exam is required:

  • If you are completing your first year in a Juris Doctor degree program that is not accredited by the State Bar.
  • If you are working through the Law Office Study Program.
  • If you do not have two years of college-level work and are attending an American Bar Association- or Committee of Bar Examiners-accredited law school.
  • If you are transferring from a Juris Doctor degree program that is not accredited by the State Bar to one that is. 

The baby bar also consists of essay and multiple choice questions, but does not cover as many topics as the California bar exam. In this exam, test takers must prove their knowledge of torts, criminal law, and contracts. It covers general knowledge and is not specific to California laws. The test is  administered over seven hours on a single day. There are three hours to answer 100 multiple choice questions and four hour-long essay sessions. The baby bar pass rate is about 20 percent, so studying is critical for those who are required to take it.

What Subjects Are Covered on the California Bar Exam?

Within the California bar exam and the MBE, you can expect to see questions that come from many different types of law. Per the State Bar of California , the subjects tested on the California bar exam include:

  • Criminal Law and Procedure : This covers all aspects of criminal law and Criminal Procedure, from plea deals to trial to appeal. You’ll need to understand the implications of charges and police conduct, how they may affect admission of evidence, criminal convictions and acquittals, and sentencing.
  • Torts : This area of the law includes negligence and other types of private harms, such as animal attacks, auto accidents, nuisances, and more. You will need to know both California and national principals in these areas. 
  • Business Associations : This includes sole proprietorships, corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, agencies, and more.
  • Civil Procedure : This law concerns how cases get to court and work their way through trial and appeal. You’ll need to be well-versed in both federal and California laws surrounding civil procedure and be able to discuss the differences between them.
  • Community Property : California is one of several states that follows community property law, meaning that property is either shared by a couple or is owned by one of them in a marriage. You’ll need to know complex rules for determining ownership and distribution in the event of dissolution of marriage. .
  • Contracts : Every kind of contract requires formation and performance, and some involve breach and remedies. You’ll need to know all the rules for drafting and interpreting contracts, whether they’re business or personal, and how to enforce them if something goes wrong. 
  • Constitutional Law : You’ll have to demonstrate knowledge of the U.S. Constitution and how it is interpreted and applied to different real-world situations.
  • Real Property : This involves people’s right to interests in land (real property) and tangible personal property, but also includes leases, mortgages, easements, liens, and foreclosure processes. 
  • Professional Responsibility : The California Rules of Professional Conduct and federal and state case law surrounding them are tested extensively on the California Bar Exam.
  • Evidence : You’ll need to know the difference between federal and state laws surrounding discovery and use of evidence and be ready to talk about when California rules of evidence don’t match up with the federal rules.
  • Trusts, Wills, and Succession : Test takers must know how wills and trusts are created and used, as well as understand the California probate code and how it applies to wills.
  • Remedies : Tort, contract, and other areas of the law allow a person wronged to get a remedy through the judicial process, and those remedies are tested on the California Bar Exam,. The testable remedies include injunctions, compensatory damages, restitution, punitive damages, and specific performance.

Deep knowledge of all of these topics may be required if you want to pass the exam. Some you may have to use only in the multiple-choice testing format, but others you may have to apply in essay format, which will require a thorough understanding of each area of California law, federal law, or both.

How is the Exam Graded?

The California bar exam essays and Performance Tests are graded by attorneys. These lawyers sometimes have years of experience grading bar exams, and they participate in calibration sessions, where the group compares answers and grades and reaches a consensus on how each answer should be graded and why. If there’s any disagreement, the group of six will discuss before moving on to the next step. Essay grades are given only based on the content — spelling and grammar are not factored into this. 

Essay and performance test answers are graded on a scale from 0 to 100. To earn a 40, you have to identify the issue in the question and try to apply law to it. If those are not included, the question will get a zero. To pass the exam, you must get at least 1390 out of the possible 2000 points available from all parts of the exam. 

Where Can I Find Past Exam Questions and Answers?

If you are looking for past California bar tested subjects or California bar exam topics, the State Bar of California provides copies of past exams , as well as sample essays and study aids. You can use these to study and get ready for your bar exam. There are also past baby bar exams for people who need to prepare for that exam. If you need extra help, you can also reach out to organizations that provide preparation and tutoring for this test.

Is the California Bar Exam the Hardest?

The consensus among many is that, yes, California’s bar exam is one of the hardest in the country, if not the hardest. The exam used to be given out over three days instead of two, but the schedule was changed in 2017, which may affect its overall ranking among the states. Delaware also has a very difficult bar exam, and most experts believe California and Delaware are the two hardest exams to pass. 

Between the years of 2008 and 2016, the bar exam passing rate declined by 18 percentage points, according to the State Bar of California . It is a tough exam to pass, and the deans of 20 law schools across the state asked for the passing score to be lowered in 2017. It eventually was, from 1440 to 1390. 

How to Prepare for the California Bar Exam

Preparing for this exam is not quick and easy. Instead, it requires focused, intense effort over a period of weeks or months, and can even be a project some applicants spend years completing.  If you want to ensure that you are as prepared as possible, then you should choose a high quality Juris Doctor program, and study well and thoroughly in it. Consider only programs that are fully accredited  by the American Bar Association or the Committee of Bar Examiners of the State Bar of California, because these will be the most likely to give you the foundation you need to learn everything you need to pass the bar exam and practice law in California. 

You’ll need to study extensively and manage your time well as you prepare. Create a quiet place in your home so that you can concentrate, and  set aside time each day to study and practice the types of questions you will take on the exam. If you learn better with others, you may want to form a study group with students from your law school courses so that you can all help each other prepare. Other things you’ll need to do include:

  • Register with the State Bar of California as a law student
  • Create a budget to save for the expenses incurred while preparing
  • Take the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination 
  • Turn in a moral character application
  • Register and pay for the Bar Exam

St. Francis Prepares You for the California Bar Exam

At St. Francis, we have built a rigorous law school curriculum that is designed to help you succeed on the California bar exam. Our graduates have h igh pass rates on the baby bar and the California bar exam, sometimes outperforming students from ABA-accredited law schools. If you’re ready to take the next step toward becoming a lawyer, we are ready to give you the tools you need to get there. Contact us today so you can speak with one of our representatives about the application process and what you’ll need. 

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California Bar preparation begins before law school, with the Week One orientation program, where we introduce students to the basic skills necessary for successful comprehension of law school subject matter. Students continue to build the foundation of their legal knowledge and skills throughout all their law school classes.  

During the final year of law school, TJSL continues to provide academic counseling, mentoring, and support as students prepare to graduate and take the California Bar Exam. This extends the runway of bar prep into students’ final year of law school instead of it being exclusive to post-graduation. To learn more about Bar Prep and bar-related courses. ASP is vertically aligned to ensure a seamless introduction to bar preparation near the end of students’ law school experience.

At Thomas Jefferson School of Law, we take preparation for the California Bar Exam very seriously. California has an extremely difficult bar exam and we strive to provide our students with the support they need to succeed. 

We offer several pre-graduation, for-credit bar preparation courses, including MBE Mastery, Mastering the Performance Test, and Bar Exam Fundamentals. MBE Mastery, taken in the penultimate semester of law school, focuses on the skills necessary to succeed on the multiple choice portion of the bar exam.  Bar Exam Fundamentals, taken in the last semester of law school, provides students with an intensive review of critical topics in the subject areas tested on the California Bar Exam. Mastering the Performance Test, an elective, teaches students how to navigate the closed-universe, practical portion of the California Bar Exam.

After graduation, students have the option of participating in any bar program of their choosing. Throughout the bar cycle, we offer support. Our talented bar faculty routinely meet with first-time test takers, coordinate with bar study programs, host a mock bar exam, and review and comment on practice exams to help our graduates succeed on the bar exam.

At TJSL, we will do everything we can to support students and graduates in passing the California Bar Exam on the first attempt.

Partnership with BARBRI®

Thomas Jefferson School of Law has a partnership agreement with BARBRI®.  Throughout the student’s enrollment at TJSL in the JD program, students will have access to the following resources:

  • Access to 1L study aids, including hard copy and digital materials
  • Access to 2L/3L study aids, including hard copy and digital materials
  • Access to MPRE study aids, including hard copy and digital materials
  • Early access to certain BARBRI® study aids that are typically only provided during the bar prep period
  • Materials and grading during students’ enrollment in Bar Exam Fundamentals
  • The ability to take the MBE Diagnostic to learn more about their test taking skills
  • Access to the Bar Review Baseline assessment to understand strengths and weaknesses before starting bar preparation
  • Access to BARBRI® AMP, an online learning and memorization tool
  • Seven multiple choice workshops offered across the Fall and Spring semesters, keyed to required courses students are enrolled in

Upon graduation, students will be provided access to a custom BARBRI® Bar Preparation course to guide their studies during the bar preparation period.  Students who are enrolled at Thomas Jefferson School of Law for six (6) semesters will not have to pay any tuition fees out-of-pocket for their BARBRI® course.  The course is customized to TJSL students’ needs and incorporates features beyond what the average student could receive upon enrolling in a BARBRI® Course including additional graded essays and live, in-person MBE workshops with an MBE expert. 

Commercial Bar Support Program

Regardless of which post-graduation bar preparation program alumni choose, TJSL continues to support alumni and supplement the bar review experience. Our bar prep support program supplements the content students receive in BarBri® or any other commercial program. Often alumni receive substantive lectures in a commercial bar preparation program. However, the key to success for any bar taker is practice. As such, we offer the following resources to all of our first-time test takers:

  • Essay feedback: The ability to submit essays included in a Supplemental Essay Packet, which contains essays for every topic of the bar exam, crossover essays, and a performance test,AND to receive written feedback  from our faculty and trained bar graders that will help applicants to not only identify their weak areas but also provide tips for how to improve.
  • Supplemental workshops: Access to biweekly workshops that will supplement the substantive review received in their commercial bar course.  These workshops will focus on both memorization of frequently tested rules and essay writing for each topic.  Workshops will also be provided that cover skills necessary to succeed on the bar exam, including how to write a strong answer on the performance test, essay analysis skills, and how to deal with anxiety and stress during a high-stakes exam.
  • Mentoring: All first-time test takers will be paired with a faculty mentor from the ASP/Bar Prep department.  Their mentor will schedule a weekly, 30-minute meeting to support the bar applicant on their path to success by providing advice and guidance on a variety of topics ranging from scheduling, accountability, essay writing, and areas of substantive law.
  • Mock bar exam:A full-length, graded, mock bar exam will be offered a few weeks prior to the actual exam.  The exam will use previous California Bar Exam essay questions and a performance test as well as a simulated 200-question MBE exam across two days.  All essays and the performance test will be graded and will be returned to applicants will feedback for how to improve in their final few weeks of study.
  • Study aids: Access to certain study aids will be provided for free to test takers to supplement the study materials provided by their commercial bar preparation course.  Discounts for additional products will be provided as well.

We are committed to helping alumni succeed, regardless of the commercial bar program selected. At TJSL, we simply want our alumni to achieve their goals!

Continuing Support

The Continuing Bar Candidate (CBC) program offered by Thomas Jefferson School of Law demonstrates the school’s commitment to its graduates and their dreams of becoming licensed attorneys. The program is aimed at alumni who were unsuccessful at their first attempt at the California Bar Exam. The program comes at no cost to our graduates. 

The CBC program has four components:

  • Review of candidate Bar letters and Bar graded materials;
  • Substantive and skill-based lectures and workshops;
  • The opportunity to submit essays and performance tests for personalized and graded feedback; and
  • A graded mock bar exam to test the readiness of candidates as they march towards the testing date.

The program is designed so that alumni can participate regardless of whether they are still in San Diego or have moved elsewhere after graduation.  Workshops are typically held twice per week via Zoom and are recorded and posted to an online platform that registered participants can access at their convenience.

All alumni of the JD program are welcome to participate in the CBC program. An orientation session starts the program shortly after the previous cycle’s results are released and content is  made available to participants at that same time.

For further information, please contact one of our bar prep team.

Bar Prep Staff

We have several bar preparation faculty who work collaboratively to prepare our graduates for the bar exam.

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Bar exam prep is overdue for an upgrade. This is it. Skyrocket your chances of passing with 1,300+ real MBE questions licensed from NCBE, plus over 600 simulated MBE questions, and Bar Exam Genie AI - a first-of-its-kind tutor.

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Get your hands on the last 23 years of official MEE essays - with full analyses. Plus the last 23 years of MPT tests, complete with the legal points, facts and possible issues within the lawyering tasks described.

Welcome to Barprephero Flashcards! We now have another proven way to help you study for your Bar examination. Scientific research shows that using flashcards as a study method creates strong neural brain connections. This means your memory improves as you go through the flashcards again and again; this is called "active recall." You’ll also gain confidence as you realize that you know and understand the information. Flashcards are one of the most effective study tools, because you know instantly if you have the correct answer. Since you’re "grading your own work," you will learn more quickly and be able to focus on areas that need further study.

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MBE Exam Simulator

Con law test 1.

This demo prep test includes 15 simulated questions to familiarize you with the kinds of Constitutional Law questions that may appear on the MBE.

Con Law Test 2

This test includes 211 official Constitutional Law questions. The terms “Constitution,” “constitutional,” and “unconstitutional” refer to the federal Constitution unless indicated otherwise.

Con Law Marathon

Includes all 312 Constitutional Law questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

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Contracts Test 1

15 demo questions on Contract Law. Revised Articles 1 and 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code are applicable to merchants/sale of goods where appropriate.

Contracts Test 2

190 officially licensed MBE questions on Contract Law drawn from past exams. Examinees are to assume that the Official Text of Articles 1 and 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code have been adopted and is in effect.

Contracts Marathon

Includes all 297 Contracts questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

Crim Law Test 1

This demo prep test gives you practice on the types of questions contained in the Multistate Bar Exam with respect to Criminal Law and Procedure. It is the usual multiple-choice format with four possible answers. You are to choose the best answer of the four.

Crim Law Test 2

This test lets you practice 193 real MBE questions on Criminal Law and Procedure. Approximately half of the Criminal Law and Procedure questions on the MBE will be based on category V, and approximately half will be based on the remaining categories – I, II, III, and IV.

Crim Law Marathon

Includes all 311 Criminal Law and Procedure questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

Evidence Test 1

This 98-question test deals with the subject of Evidence. You will be able to familiarize yourself with the types of questions on this topic that you may encounter on the official MBE.

Evidence Test 2

This test deals with the subject of Evidence and contains 207 official MBE questions from past exams. All Evidence questions should be answered according to the Federal Rules of Evidence, as currently in effect.

Evidence Marathon

Includes all 305 Evidence questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

Real Property 1

This is the practice examination for Real Property. It will assess how well you can apply fundamental legal principles and legal reasoning to analyze problems in this practice area.

Real Property 2

This is the practice examination with official questions for Real Property. It will assess how well you can apply fundamental legal principles and legal reasoning to analyze problems in this practice area.

Real Property Marathon

Includes all 304 Real Property questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

Torts Test 1

This is the practice examination for Torts. The bar exam questions should be answered based on principles of general applicability.

Torts Test 2

This is the practice examination for Torts. The 217 official Multistate Bar Exam questions should be answered based on principles of general applicability. Examinees are to assume that survival actions and claims for wrongful death are available.

Torts Marathon

Includes all 322 Torts questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

Civil Procedure 1

This 132-question prep test deals with Civil Procedure. This topic is a recent addition to the topics covered on the MBE. The National Conference of Bar Examiners advises you to answer the Civil Procedure questions according to accepted fundamental legal principles.

Civil Procedure 2

This test contains official Civil Procedure MBE questions. Examinees are to assume the application of (1) the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as currently in effect and (2) the sections of Title 28 of the U.S. Code pertaining to trial and appellate jurisdiction, venue, and transfer.

Civil Procedure Marathon

Includes all 219 Civil Procedure questions (a mix of both simulated and official questions from past exams). If you make a mistake, we’ll show that question to you again until you’ve answered it correctly.

Practice Exam 1

This practice test covers the following legal practice areas: Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Contracts, Criminal Law and Procedure, Evidence, Real Property, and Torts.

Practice Exam 2

This practice test combines material from most of the seven legal practice areas covered in the MBE. It should be similar to the official MBE.

Practice Exam 3

The questions on this test are based on a mixture of most of the seven subject areas in the official MBE.

Practice Exam 4

This is the fourth prep test to assist you in preparing for the MBE. The test contains 100 multiple-choice questions that are similar to those on the actual MBE.

Practice Exam 5

The fifth prep test contains 100 mixed subject matter questions.

Practice Exam 6

Our sixth prep test contains 150 questions based on the types of questions on the official MBE.

Practice Exam 7

Our seventh prep test contains 160 questions based on the types of questions on the official MBE.

This annotated practice exam uses questions drawn from actual MBEs administered in recent years and officially licensed from NCBE. The annotations explain why each answer choice is correct or incorrect. Six MBE subject areas: Constitutional Law, Contracts, Criminal Law and Procedure, Evidence, Real Property, and Torts.

Practice Exam 8

Practice exam 9.

This practice exam consists of 100 official questions released by the NCBE that appeared in previously administered MBEs. Does not contain Civil Procedure questions. The purpose of this exam is to familiarize you with the format and nature of MBE questions.

Practice Exam 10

Practice exam 11, practice exam 12, practice exam 13.

This practice exam consists of 100 official questions released by the NCBE that appeared in previously administered MBEs. The purpose of this exam is to familiarize you with the format and nature of MBE questions.

Practice Exam 14

This 200-question exam simulates the actual MBE and contains a mix of questions from our other tests on the following subjects: Contracts, Torts, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law and Procedure, Evidence, Real Property, and Civil Procedure. You’re allowed to skip questions, but unlike the other practice tests, this test simulator provides no hints or explanations.

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2023 Questions & Analyses

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First allow me to say that you guys are awesome, and I greatly appreciate your bar-prep site. I am currently a paralegal student, and have always wanted to know how I would perform on the bar multi choice section. Your site has given me that opportunity, and I am pleasantly surprised with most of my test scores (70’s -- 90’s), depending on whether I have had a course in a particular test area. Even mistaken answers become learning tools due to your highly instructive and nicely detailed answer sections. I have recommended your site to an attorney who has moved here from another state, and is now preparing for the Maryland Bar Exam. I can not thank you guys enough for your efforts in creating your site, I am very pleased with the level of confidence I have found in myself, by getting the number of correct answers as I have so far. Always wanted to know, and you guys are providing the challenge. Thanks, and please keep the questions coming. Best Regards, Bill Bennett ~ William Bennett, Maryland
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I’ve written several books on bar preparation in my “In-Brief” series currently selling on Amazon. While writing the books, I received advice from a psychologist who told me that stories are easier to remember than rules. So for each tested bar topic, I included a case that reflects a story relating to the rule. BarPrepHero is the only test site that I have participated in which explains virtually all of its answers with a related case, and as such provides a mechanism for retaining rules through stories. Five stars in my book! ~ Glenn Riser, Juris Doctor Graduate at Florida Coastal School of Law
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What is taking the Bar Exam really like?

Bar admission process: how the bar exam is administered, bar exam day one: the multistate bar examination (mbe), bar exam day two: state-specific law questions, pass the next bar exam, guaranteed, constitutional law subject matter outline.

NOTE: The terms "Constitution," "constitutional," and "unconstitutional" refer to the federal Constitution unless indicated otherwise. Approximately half of the Constitutional Law questions on the MBE will be based on category IV, and approximately half will be based on the remaining categories - I, II, and III.

  • Organization and relationship of state and federal courts in a federal system
  • Congressional power to define and limit
  • The Eleventh Amendment and state sovereign immunity
  • The "case or controversy" requirement, including the prohibition on advisory opinions, standing, ripeness, and mootness
  • The "adequate and independent state ground"
  • Political questions and justiciability
  • Commerce, taxing, and spending powers
  • War, defense, and foreign affairs powers
  • Power to enforce the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
  • Other powers
  • As chief executive, including the "take care" clause
  • As commander in chief
  • Treaty and foreign affairs powers
  • Appointment and removal of officials
  • Congressional limits on the executive
  • The presentment requirement and the president's power to veto or to withhold action
  • Nondelegation doctrine
  • Executive, legislative, and judicial immunities
  • Federal immunity from state law
  • State immunity from federal law, including the 10th Amendment
  • Negative implications of the commerce clause
  • Supremacy clause and preemption
  • Authorization of otherwise invalid state action
  • State action
  • Fundamental rights
  • Other rights and interests
  • Procedural due process
  • Classifications subject to heightened scrutiny
  • Rational basis review
  • Other protections, including the privileges and immunities clauses, the contracts clause, unconstitutional conditions, bills of attainder, and ex post facto laws
  • Free exercise
  • Establishment
  • Content-based regulation of protected expression
  • Content-neutral regulation of protected expression
  • Regulation of unprotected expression
  • Regulation of commercial speech
  • Regulation of, or impositions upon, public school students, public employment, licenses, or benefits based upon exercise of expressive or associational rights
  • Regulation of expressive conduct
  • Prior restraint, vagueness, and overbreadth
  • Freedom of the press
  • Freedom of association

Contracts Subject Matter Outline

NOTE: Examinees are to assume that the Official Text of Articles 1 and 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code have been adopted and is in effect. Approximately half of the Contracts questions on the MBE will be based on categories I and IV, and approximately half will be based on the remaining categories - II, III, V, and VI. Approximately one-fourth of the Contracts questions on the MBE will be based on the Official Text of Articles 1 and 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code.

  • Mutual assent (including offer and acceptance, unilateral, bilateral, and implied-in-fact contracts)
  • Indefiniteness and absence of terms
  • Consideration (bargained-for exchange)
  • Obligations enforceable without a bargained-for exchange (including reliance and restitution)
  • Modification of contracts
  • Incapacity to contract
  • Duress and undue influence
  • Mistake and misunderstanding
  • Fraud, misrepresentation, and nondisclosure
  • Illegality, unconscionability, and public policy
  • Statute of frauds
  • Parol evidence
  • Interpretation
  • Omitted and implied terms
  • Conditions (express and constructive)
  • Excuse of conditions
  • Breach (including material and partial breach, and anticipatory repudiation)
  • Obligation of good faith and fair dealing
  • Express and implied warranties in sale-of-goods contracts
  • Other performance matters (including cure, identification, notice, and risk of loss)
  • Impossibility, impracticability, and frustration of purpose
  • Discharge of duties (including accord and satisfaction, substituted contract, novation, rescission, and release)
  • Expectation interest (including direct, incidental, and consequential damages)
  • Causation, certainty, and foreseeability
  • Liquidated damages and penalties, and limitation of remedies
  • Avoidable consequences and mitigation of damages
  • Rescission and reformation
  • Specific performance and injunction
  • Reliance and restitution interests
  • Remedial rights of breaching parties
  • Third-party beneficiaries
  • Assignment of rights and delegation of duties

Criminal Law and Procedure Subject Matter Outline

NOTE: Approximately half of the Criminal Law and Procedure questions on the MBE will be based on category V, and approximately half will be based on the remaining categories - I, II, III, and IV.

  • Premeditation, deliberation
  • Provocation
  • Intent to injure
  • Reckless and negligent killings
  • Felony murder
  • Misdemeanor manslaughter
  • Theft and receiving stolen goods
  • Assault and battery
  • Rape; statutory rape
  • Possession offenses
  • Solicitation
  • Parties to crime
  • Acts and omissions
  • Required mental state
  • Strict liability
  • Mistake of fact or law
  • Mental disorder
  • Intoxication
  • Justification and excuse
  • Jurisdiction
  • Arrest, search and seizure
  • Confessions and privilege against self-incrimination
  • Lineups and other forms of identification
  • Right to counsel
  • Fair trial and guilty pleas
  • Double jeopardy
  • Cruel and unusual punishment
  • Burdens of proof and persuasion
  • Appeal and error

Evidence Subject Matter Outline

NOTE: All Evidence questions should be answered according to the Federal Rules of Evidence, as currently in effect. Approximately one-quarter of the Evidence questions on the MBE will be based on category I, one-third on category II, one-quarter on category V, and the remainder on categories III and IV.

  • Requirement of personal knowledge
  • Refreshing recollection
  • Objections and offers of proof
  • Lay opinions
  • Competency of witnesses
  • Judicial notice
  • Roles of judge and jury
  • Limited admissibility
  • Presumptions
  • Control by court
  • Scope of examination
  • Form of questions
  • Exclusion of witnesses
  • Inconsistent statements and conduct
  • Bias and interest
  • Conviction of crime
  • Specific instances of conduct
  • Character for truthfulness
  • Ability to observe, remember, or relate accurately
  • Impeachment of hearsay declarants
  • Rehabilitation of impeached witnesses
  • Contradiction
  • Proceedings to which evidence rules apply
  • Exclusion for unfair prejudice, confusion, or waste of time
  • Authentication and identification
  • Admissibility of character
  • Methods of proving character
  • Habit and routine practice
  • Other crimes, acts, transactions, and events
  • Prior sexual misconduct of a defendant
  • Qualifications of witnesses
  • Bases of testimony
  • Ultimate issue rule
  • Reliability and relevancy
  • Proper subject matter for expert testimony
  • Real, demonstrative, and experimental evidence
  • Spousal immunity and marital communications
  • Attorney-client and work product
  • Physician/psychotherapist-patient
  • Other privileges
  • Insurance coverage
  • Remedial measures
  • Compromise, payment of medical expenses, and plea negotiations
  • Past sexual conduct of a victim
  • Requirement of original
  • Completeness rule
  • What is hearsay
  • Prior statements by witness
  • Statements attributable to party-opponent
  • Multiple hearsay
  • Present sense impressions and excited utterances
  • Statements of mental, emotional, or physical condition
  • Statements for purposes of medical diagnosis and treatment
  • Past recollection recorded
  • Business records
  • Public records and reports
  • Learned treatises
  • Former testimony; depositions
  • Statements against interest
  • Other exceptions to the hearsay rule
  • Right to confront witnesses

Real Property Subject Matter Outline

NOTE: Approximately one-fifth of the Real Property questions on the MBE will be based on each of the categories I through V.

  • Fees simple
  • Defeasible fees
  • Life estates
  • Remainders, vested and contingent
  • Executory interests
  • Possibilities of reverter, powers of termination
  • Rules affecting these interests (including survivorship, class gifts, waste, and cy pres)
  • Types: tenancy in common and joint tenancy
  • Relations among cotenants
  • Types of tenancies
  • Possession and rent
  • Transfers by landlord or tenant
  • Termination (including surrender, mitigation of damages, anticipatory breach, and security deposits)
  • Habitability and suitability
  • Rule against perpetuities: common law rule and statutory reforms
  • Alienability, descendibility, and devisability of present and future interests
  • Fair housing/discrimination
  • Conflicts of law related to disputes involving real property
  • Nature and type
  • Termination
  • Property owners’ associations and common interest ownership communities
  • Prescription
  • Scope and apportionment
  • Zoning laws
  • Protection of pre-existing property rights
  • Rezoning and other zoning changes
  • Real estate brokerage
  • Statute of frauds and exceptions
  • Essential terms
  • Time for performance
  • Remedies for breach
  • Marketability of title
  • Equitable conversion (including risk of loss)
  • Options and rights of first refusal
  • Fitness and suitability
  • Purchase money mortgages
  • Future advance mortgages
  • Installment land contracts
  • Absolute deeds as security
  • Necessity and nature of obligation
  • Mortgage theories: title, lien, and intermediate
  • Rights and duties prior to foreclosure
  • Right to redeem and clogging the equity of redemption
  • Assumption and transfer subject to
  • Rights and obligations
  • Application of subrogation and suretyship principles
  • Restrictions on transfer (including due-on-sale clauses)
  • By mortgagee
  • Payment (including prepayment)
  • Deed in lieu of foreclosure
  • Acceleration
  • Parties to the proceeding
  • Deficiency and surplus
  • Redemption after foreclosure
  • Adverse possession
  • Requirements for deed
  • Types of deeds (including covenants for title)
  • Drafting, review, and negotiation of closing documents
  • Persons authorized to execute documents
  • Exoneration
  • Chain of title
  • Hidden risks (e.g., undelivered or forged deed)
  • Title insurance
  • Special problems (including estoppel by deed and judgment and tax liens)

Torts Subject Matter Outline

NOTE: Examinees are to assume that survival actions and claims for wrongful death are available. Joint and several liability, with pure comparative negligence, is the relevant rule unless otherwise indicated. Approximately half of the Torts questions on the MBE will be based on category II, and approximately half will be based on the remaining categories - I, III, and IV.

  • Harms to the person, such as assault, battery, false imprisonment, and infliction of mental distress; and harms to property interests, such as trespass to land and chattels, and conversion
  • Privileges and immunities: protection of self and others; protection of property interests; parental discipline; protection of public interests; necessity; incomplete privilege
  • The duty question, including failure to act, unforeseeable plaintiffs, and obligations to control the conduct of third parties
  • The reasonably prudent person: including children, physically and mentally impaired individuals, professional people, and other special classes
  • Rules of conduct derived from statutes and custom
  • Problems relating to proof of fault, including res ipsa loquitur
  • But for and substantial causes
  • Harms traceable to multiple causes
  • Questions of apportionment of responsibility among multiple tortfeasors, including joint and several liability
  • Problems relating to “remote” or “unforeseeable” causes, “legal” or “proximate” cause, and “superseding” causes
  • Claims against owners and occupiers of land
  • Claims for mental distress not arising from physical harm; other intangible injuries
  • Claims for pure economic loss
  • Employees and other agents
  • Independent contractors and nondelegable duties
  • Contributory fault, including common law contributory negligence and last clear chance, and the various forms of comparative negligence
  • Assumption of risk
  • Strict liability and products liability: common law strict liability, including claims arising from abnormally dangerous activities, and defenses to such claims; claims against manufacturers and other defendants arising out of the manufacture and distribution of products, and defenses to such claims
  • Claims based on nuisance, and defenses
  • Claims based on defamation and invasion of privacy, defenses, and constitutional limitations
  • Claims based on misrepresentations, and defenses
  • Claims based on intentional interference with business relations, and defenses

Civil Procedure Subject Matter Outline

NOTE: Examinees are to assume the application of (1) the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure as currently in effect and (2) the sections of Title 28 of the U.S. Code pertaining to trial and appellate jurisdiction, venue, and transfer. Approximately two-thirds of the Civil Procedure questions on the MBE will be based on categories I, III, and V, and approximately one-third will be based on the remaining categories - II, IV, VI, and VII.

  • Federal subject-matter jurisdiction (federal question, diversity, supplemental, and removal)
  • Personal jurisdiction
  • Service of process and notice
  • Venue, forum non conveniens, and transfer
  • State law in federal court
  • Federal common law
  • Preliminary injunctions and temporary restraining orders
  • Pleadings and amended and supplemental pleadings
  • Joinder of parties and claims (including class actions)
  • Discovery (including e-discovery), disclosure, and sanctions
  • Adjudication without a trial
  • Pretrial conference and order
  • Right to jury trial
  • Selection and composition of juries
  • Requests for and objections to jury instructions
  • Pretrial motions, including motions addressed to face of pleadings, motions to dismiss, and summary judgment motions
  • Motions for judgments as a matter of law (directed verdicts and judgments notwithstanding the verdict)
  • Posttrial motions, including motions for relief from judgment and for new trial
  • Defaults and dismissals
  • Jury verdicts—types and challenges
  • Judicial findings and conclusions
  • Effect; claim and issue preclusion
  • Availability of interlocutory review
  • Final judgment rule
  • Scope of review for judge and jury

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CA Bar Exam Questions With Answers

Every law student and bar candidate needs bar exam questions to use for regular exam practice because scoring well on law exams is dependent on the ability to apply the law to hypothetical facts presented in law exams. Without diligent practice through the use of bar exam practice tests, it is nearly impossible to develop the exam skills necessary to demonstrate proficiency with fundamental analytical, organizational, and writing exam principles. Law students and bar candidates who understand this concept divide their study time between memorizing the law, and then applying that law to bar exam practice tests within timed conditions set by the Bar Examiners. Sample bar exam questions are available through Fleming’s Fundamentals of Law. Individual subject sample bar exam practice tests with sample answers can be purchased through Fleming’s at Exam Books . Sample bar exam practice tests with sample answers are also included in the Fleming’s Law Reviews and Outlines . Every Fleming’s bar review at Bar Reviews includes sample bar exam questions with answers. Most states in the U.S. also post past bar exam questions on their state bar web sites.

Sample July 2019 Ca Bar Exam Questions for Professional Responsibility 

Fleming’s Fundamentals of Law is conducting a Final Review Seminar DVD presentation at California Southern Law School for the following subjects; Larry is an associate lawyer at the ABC Firm (ABC). Larry has been defending Jones Manufacturing, Inc. (Jones) in a suit brought by Smith Tools, Inc. (Smith) for failure to properly manufacture tools ordered by Smith. XYZ Firm (XYZ) represents Smith. Larry has prepared Jones’ responses to Smith’s discovery requests. Peter is the partner supervising Larry at ABC in the Smith v. Jones case. Peter has instructed Larry to file a motion to compel discovery of documents that Smith claimed contains its trade secrets. Larry researched the matter and told Peter that he thought that the motion would be denied and may give rise to sanctions. Peter, who had more experience with trade secrets, told Larry to file the motion. Larry also told Peter about a damaging document that Larry found in the Jones file that would be very helpful to Smith’s case. Larry knows that the document has not been produced in discovery. The document falls into a class of papers that have been requested by Smith. Larry knows of no basis to refuse the production of the document. Peter told Larry to interpose hearsay, trade secrets, and overbreadth objections and not to produce the document.

Larry recently received an attractive job offer from XYZ.

  • May Larry ethically follow Peter’s instructions to file the motion? Discuss.
  • What are Larry’s obligations in relation to the damaging document? Discuss.
  • What ethical obligations must Larry respect with regard to XYZ’s job offer?  

Discuss. The answer according to California and ABA authorities.

FLEMING’S Sample Answer - Bar Exam Practice Test

1. may larry ethically follow peter’s instructions to file the motion, rule 5.2 responsibilities of a subordinate lawyer.

The main issue is how Larry (L) should respond to Peter’s (P) directions when Larry is a subordinate lawyer and Peter is a supervising lawyer. Under ABA Model Rule 5.2, a subordinate lawyer is bound by the Rules of Professional Responsibility (MR) notwithstanding that the subordinate acted in the direction of a supervising lawyer.

When lawyers in a supervisor-subordinate relationship encounter a matter involving professional judgment as to the lawyers’ ethical duties and can “reasonably” or “arguably” be answered only one way, the duty of both lawyers is clear and they must follow the ethical rules. Accordingly, the subordinate lawyer must comply with his or her obligations under the rules despite a supervisor’s direction to the opposite. If the question is “reasonably arguable” (under the MR) or “reasonable” (under the California Rules of Professional Conduct (CRPC)), the supervisory lawyer may assume responsibility for determining which of the alternatives to select, and the subordinate will not violate the rules by following the supervisory lawyer’s directions.

However, if the lawyer “knows” (under the MR) or “believes” (under the CRPC) that the supervisor’s proposed action would result in a violation of these rules, the subordinate is obligated to communicate his or her professional judgment regarding the matter to the supervisory lawyer under the California version of 5.2. The ABA MR 5.2 does not require the subordinate to communicate his or her professional judgment (or disagreement) to the supervisor so this is an important distinction between the MR and the CRPC.

Here, Larry (L) is questioning Peter’s (P) direction that Larry files a motion to compel in this situation. Larry is concerned that filing the motion to compel would be bringing a frivolous claim which could then violate the MR and RPC’s duty to avoid frivolous claims. Under MR and the RPC 3.1, Meritorious Claims and Contentions, an attorney must not bring a cause of action or claim that has no basis in law or fact, or where the attorney has no good faith argument for an extension of existing law or a change in existing law.

Here, Peter (P) is instructing Larry (L) to file a motion to compel discovery documents that Smith (S) claimed to contain trade secrets. Trade secrets are not typically discoverable. Larry is concerned that because he believes that the motion would more than likely be denied and that the motion is frivolous in nature. As such, filing such a motion might violate both the MR and the RPC if it is in fact frivolous.

However, the facts are clear that Larry only "thought" that the motion to compel would be denied. Larry having a “thought” about the motion versus “knowledge” or knowing with certainty that the motion would be denied suggests an important difference under both the MR and CA rules. If Larry is not certain that the motion is frivolous and there is a basis in law or fact to bring the motion, then Larry would not be violating the ethical rules.

Further, the facts indicate that Larry believed the motion "may give rise to sanctions," not that the motion absolutely would be denied or give rise to sanctions. Peter, as the senior lawyer, is much more experienced with trade secrets (and the fact pattern emphasizes this fact), and Peter as the supervising attorney directed Larry to file the motion to compel. Given Peter’s experience in this area of law and the fact that Larry ultimately believed there was a basis in law for the motion to compel, Larry likely did not violate any ethical rules under Rule 5.2. Further, Larry did ‘speak’ up and communicate his opinion to Peter about the motion’s likelihood of being denied by the court—so Larry also met the higher standard of the rule which requires communication in CA under Rule 5.2. On balance, a court is likely to find that the motion is not a frivolous claim in violation of Rule 3.2 because there was some basis in law for filing the motion to compel. Because the motion was not frivolous, Larry did not violate any ethical rules by carrying out Peter’s demands with regard to filing the motion to compel—despite the fact that Larry disagreed with Peter’s strategy. Rule 5.2 under both the MR and the CRPC try to strike a balance between following the instructions of the supervising attorney while at the same time maintaining one’s independent professional judgment. If the minds of “reasonable” attorneys would differ as to whether the action ordered by the supervising attorney would constitute a violation of ethical duty, then the subordinate attorney must abide by the supervising attorney's instructions—and would not be liable for an ethics violation. If no reasonable minds would differ as to the propriety of a course of action, however, or if the subordinate attorney knows that the supervising attorney’s request violates an ethical rule or duty, then the associate attorney must refuse to take the action. Here, given that the decision to file the motion to compel had some basis in law (and therefore was “arguable”) in conjunction with Peter’s superior knowledge regarding trade secrets leads to the conclusion that Larry did not violate either Rule 3.2 or 5.2 of either the MR or CRPC.

Rule 8.3 Reporting Professional Misconduct

With regard to the motion, Larry (L) did not have an obligation to report Peter’s actions assuming that Peter (P) or Larry (L) went ahead and filed the motion. A lawyer who knows that another lawyer has committed a violation of the Rules of Professional Conduct that raises a substantial question as to that lawyer's honesty, trustworthiness, or fitness as a lawyer in other respects, shall inform the appropriate professional authority.

Under the ABA Model Rules, an attorney has a duty to report any ethical violations that they know another attorney has committed. The CRPC is slightly different and does not have a corresponding requirement that a lawyer must report ethical violations of others, but the California rules do impose a duty on attorneys to self-report when the attorney knows that he or she has committed ethical violations.

Here, under the MR, it is unlikely that L violated MR 8.3 by failing to report P’s instructions concerning the motion to compel (which is not likely a frivolous claim) because L did not know for a certainty that the court would deny the motion. The facts above emphasized that L “thought” that the motion might be denied and “may” give rise to sanctions. L did not know with “certainty” and as such, L was not under a duty to report. Further, L did not have a duty to self-report under CRPC because he did not commit an ethical violation by filing the motion (because it was not frivolous). As such, L has not violated his duty to report ethical violations under 8.3 of the MR or under CRPC.

2. What are Larry’s obligations in relation to the damaging document?

Rule 1.6, confidential information of clients.

Under both the MR 1.6 and CA 1.6 (and also CA 3-100) an attorney must not disclose confidential information relating to the representation of a client unless authorized by the express written consent (informed written consent in CA, informed consent confirmed in writing under the MR), or unless impliedly authorized in order to carry out the representation.

Here, L has discovered a document that contains information relating to the representation of Jones. Such information is potentially harmful to L’s client, but beneficial to the opposition. Further, the information has likely been legitimately requested in discovery by the opposition—so there is a corresponding duty on both the client and the attorney to respond truthfully to such discovery requests and not to conceal evidence.

In addition, Rule 1.6 may permit L to provide the damaging document in discovery as the client’s consent was arguable “impliedly” authorized by the client in terms of the attorney carrying out the representation of the client, i.e., responding to discovery requests. The “implied” authorization in order to carry out the representation is one situation in which MR and CRPC 1.6 permit an attorney to reveal client information pursuant to a discovery request. Here, there is nothing in the facts to suggest that the client stated specifically that the attorneys should not disclose the document—so there’s no revocation of the client’s implied consent.

Therefore, it is quite possible L would not be violating his duty of confidentiality to his client by turning this document over in response to the discovery request—and in fact, L may have a corresponding duty of candor to the court (Rule 3.3) to comply with the discovery request.

However, this is easier said than done—particularly given that P, the supervising attorney, has instructed L to object to the discovery request. P has instructed L to raise hearsay and other objections to the discovery request that would essentially “hide” the document and/or prevent the opposition from getting the document. In that case, L would have knowledge that Peter’s request would be unethical so L could not carry out that request ethically under various ethical rules, namely Rule 1.3, the Duty of Diligence, in not concealing evidence, and under the subordinate lawyer duties of Rule 5.2 (see above) which would require L, as the subordinate lawyer, to communicate to P about his concerns (under the CRPC, specifically).

Rule 1.3, Duty of Diligence

L has duties as an attorney under Rule 1.3 of both the MR and CRPC, to provide reasonably diligent and prompt representation. Under the CRPC, an attorney must be committed and dedicated to his or her client's cause. However, this duty does not require an attorney to press for every available advantage. And an attorney must not use offensive or overly aggressive tactics to accomplish the attorney’s goals in an effort to zealously advocate for his or her client.

Here, L may need to balance the need to protect his client's interests against L’s duty not to conceal evidence and L’s duty of candor to the court (and truthfulness to the opposing party) in disclosing this information pursuant to the opposition’s discovery requests. L must be dedicated to protecting his client's interests. However, this duty must be balanced with the duty of candor to the tribunal and also the duty of fairness/truthfulness to opposing counsel.

Rule 3.4, Fairness to Opposing Party and Counsel

Under Rule 3.4 of both the MR and CRPC, a lawyer shall not unlawfully obstruct another party' s access to evidence or unlawfully alter, destroy or conceal a document or other material having potential evidentiary value.

Here, L has discovered a damaging document in the Jones file. L knows that the document has not been produced in discovery, but L also knows that it falls into the class of papers that have been requested by Smith, and L believes there is no real basis for refusing to produce the document. P has instructed L not to disclose the document and instead, to object to its discovery because it is “hearsay,” “trade secrets” and the document request is “overbroad.”

L’s concern is that by complying with P’s directions and failing to disclose the document, L is intentionally and knowingly obstructing Smith's access to evidence in violation of Rule 3.4. Although L could argue that P told him to do this and that as a subordinate attorney he had to “trust” P’s superior knowledge and judgment (Rule 5.2, see above) the facts also state that L "knows of no basis to refuse the production of the document."

Here, under Rule 5.2, there does not appear to be a “reasonable” or “arguable” basis for refusing to produce the document and as such, the decision whether or not the document should be produced according to the discovery request is not “arguable.” Rule 5.2 would not likely provide L with a safe harbor if L acted in accordance with P’s directions. In fact, under CRPC 5.2, L would be required to “speak up” and communicate to P and tell P that L has serious concerns about the ethical propriety of raising frivolous objections to the discovery request. Notably, the facts are silent on whether L communicated his concerns to P which L was required to do under CRPC 5.2. In addition, L should have at least conducted some independent research on whether the objections were legally sustainable or not. L may be in violation of CRPC 5.2 by failing to speak up to P.

If L silently goes along with P’s directions and objects to the discovery request under “hearsay,” “trade secrets” or that the request was “overbroad,” and L conceals this evidence, then L has violated Rule 3.4 by obstructing Smith's access to the evidence.

L has also likely violated CRPC 5.2 by failing to speak up to P—also because L knew the discovery objections were frivolous. L can only avoid liability for violating an ethical duty if there is a basis in law or fact on which reasonable lawyers might differ. If reasonable attorneys would not differ in their assessment of whether an attorney was required to produce the document, then L would violate the ethical rules by objecting to the discovery request and withholding evidence that L knew was relevant.

Following Peter’s instructions in this instance would constitute L making a frivolous claim or defense, and, therefore, would cause L to violate both the MR and CRPC.

For this reason, L must either turn over the document or refuse to offer those objections.

Rule 3.3, Duty of Candor

Under Rule 3.3 of both the CA RPC and MR, an attorney owes a duty of candor to the court and must not knowingly make a false statement of law or fact to the court. If such a false statement is made and the attorney learns of it, an attorney must promptly correct such false statements.

Here, if L files these objections, or raises them in opposition to a motion to compel, then it is possible that he is violating his duty of candor to the court. Although discovery is not literally “in front of the court,” the parties have entered their appearances in the case and an attorney is certifying the veracity of his or her client’s responses to discovery by signing the discovery responses.

If the harmful document does not legitimately contain hearsay, trade secrets, or if the request for the document was not overbroad, then L may run afoul of Rule 3.3 as well. Making those objections would be making false statements of law and fact, and L will have violated his duty of candor to the court. For this reason, L should exercise great caution in ensuring that he does not violate his duty of candor.

3. What ethical obligations must Larry respect with regard to XYZ’s job offer?

L's ethical obligations with regard to XYZ's job offer involve the conflict of interest rules and also an attorney’s corresponding duties of loyalty confidentiality under both the MR and the CRPC. The conflict of interest rules governs an attorney’s relationship with current, past (and also prospective) clients. Broadly speaking, an attorney owes all clients, past and present, a duty of loyalty and a duty of confidentiality. There is a separate conflict of interest rules that govern each of these client relationships.

Rule 1.7, Concurrent Conflict of Interest; and Rule 1.9, Former Clients

Under Rule 1.7, when there is a substantial risk that the attorney's representation will be materially limited due to their own interests, or the competing interests of current clients, then there is a conflict of interest and the attorney cannot proceed with the representation unless the attorney obtains the informed consent of the client, confirmed in writing.

Under MR and CRPC 1.9, a lawyer who has formerly represented a client in a matter shall not thereafter represent another person in the same or a substantially related matter in which that person's interests are materially adverse to the interests of the former client unless the former client gives informed consent, confirmed in writing (in CA, “written informed consent”). Further, a lawyer cannot take on a representation of a client adverse to a former client in a substantially related matter if the lawyer learned confidential information about the client (and the CRPC references CA Bus. & Prof. Code, §6068—and its confidentiality protections as well).

Both Rule 1.7 and Rule 1.9 are based on the duties of loyalty and confidentiality—with the duty to former clients resting primarily on the duty of confidentiality. Here, L has been in the process of representing Jones in a suit between Jones and Smith. L is now entertaining an offer to join XYZ, the firm that is currently representing Smith in the same suit against Jones. Regardless of whether L takes on the case (if he goes to work for XYZ) or just works at the new firm and does not work on the case, L is under an absolute duty not to use or disclose any information relating to his representation of Jones. Most likely, if L accepted the offer and went to the new firm, L would minimally need to be “screened” from any access to the case files of XYZ (and in California, it is still questionable whether screening is actually sufficient to satisfy Rule 1.9).

It is important to note the distinction between “informed written consent” in CA and “informed consent confirmed in writing” under the MR. While informed consent confirmed in writing only requires an attorney to give full disclosure orally before the client provides written notice of consent, informed written consent (CA) requires that the disclosure of the conflict is also in writing and that the client's consent is in writing, as well.

Rule 1.10, Imputation of Conflict of Interest, and Screening.

There is also the issue of a lateral attorney moving to a new law firm where the attorney has learned confidential information about a client that could be used adversely against the former client at the new firm. Under both the MR 1.9 and CRPC Rule 1.9, where an attorney has worked on the same or substantially similar matter for one client, and then moves to a new firm that is working on the same or substantially similar matter for the adverse party of that representation, a conflict of interest exists.

Under Rule 1.10, that conflict of interest is imputed onto the other attorneys in the firm, and the firm must not take on the case, regardless of who works on it, unless (1) the former client gives informed written consent (under CA) or informed consent confirmed in writing (under the ABA MR), or (2) the new attorney is properly screened.

As mentioned above, it may be possible for XYZ (not L specifically) to continue working on the case against L’s former client if L is screened from any access to the case at the new firm and agrees not to discuss the case with anyone at the firm.

Screening—which is a way to contain the imputed conflict of interest under Rule 1.10 (which would occur when L joined XYZ), requires that the new attorney with the conflict does not work on the case in any way, does not have access to the case files nor discuss the case with any of the parties working on the case, and is not apportioned any fee for that case. Additionally, the firm must provide notice of the decision to screen and the screening procedures put in place to the former client, and must certify compliance with those screening procedures if requested by the former client.

Here, if L wants to take the job at XYZ, he should let them know that this is a likely consequence of taking the new work. The firm will either need to inform Jones of the new conflict or implement appropriate screening procedures. However, as discussed in more detail below, this will not necessarily work under the CRPC.

Under the CRPC, a new lawyer's conflict is imputed to the entire firm, and the entire firm may not take on or continue a case, even with appropriate screening procedures or informed written consent if the new and conflicted attorney worked substantially and personally on the same matter for the other client.

Here, it could be argued that L worked personally and substantially on the Jones v. Smith case. Although just an associate, L had met with defendant Jones and prepared Jones's responses to Smith's discovery requests. L has consulted significantly with P, the partner, on issues involving sensitive materials. It is therefore likely that L's conflict will be imputed to XYZ, and he should inform XYZ that this could cause problems with their representation. The best course of action for L would be to seek a delay in hiring until after the conclusion of the case.

Duty of Confidentiality

Rule 1.6. see rule above

The duty of confidentiality applies to past clients as well as present ones. Therefore, L will have a continuing duty to maintain the confidentiality of any information L learned in the prior representation regarding Jones, even if L is able to take on the new work at XYZ.

Conclusion. In sum, although L likely did not violate the ethical rules regarding the motion to compel, L may have violated the ethical rules concerning the damaging document and the failure to produce the document. Further, L may have difficulty obtaining the informed consent of his former client, Jones, which may make it difficult for him to accept the offer at XYZ—given that California has mixed decisions regarding whether it accepts screening to remedy a 1.9 and 1.10 conflict of interest. Last update of the article: 06.30.2020.

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Where to Find Sample Bar Exam Multiple-Choice Questions

If you are just beginning your bar exam preparation, you may wonder where to find sample bar exam multiple-choice questions. Here, we list a few resources so that you can see what real multistate bar exam (MBE) questions look like and prepare for the multiple-choice portion of the bar exam!

1. Free questions released by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE)

Nothing beats free! If you are just looking to get your feet wet and see what MBE questions look like, the fastest way to see realistic MBE questions is to head to the NCBE website. If you scroll down to the “Sample Tests” section you will see a link to 21 sample bar exam multiple-choice questions (these are “mixed” questions from all seven subjects). You will also see a link to 10 civil procedure sample test questions . (If you want to see the answer explanations for the civil procedure questions, check out this link where you can view them or download them .)

Note that these NCBE-released questions are a much more realistic gauge of what you will see on the MBE than questions written by commercial courses. Even the most popular commercial courses oftentimes do not offer real MBE questions as part of their standard package. (Tip: If the commercial course does not advertise that they offer released MBE questions, they probably don’t! You will notice that the vast majority of courses do not advertise it, and unfortunately, many students do not know to ask these courses whether they offer real MBE questions. Most students simply wrongfully assume that they do.)

2. NCBE questions that you have to pay for!

If you are looking for more than just 31 questions, the next best source is questions released by the NCBE. Unfortunately, these aren’t free! We offer real MBE questions on our website. You can also read this post on where else you can find real MBE questions . There are books and online platforms that contain them. These are semi-pricey but they are worth it.

3. Our MBE Tips series!

Lastly, if you are looking to answer MBE questions and see exactly how to dissect MBE answers, consider signing up for our MBE tips series! Our MBE tips series does not contain released MBE questions as that is not permitted pursuant to the policy set forth by the NCBE. However, we do create questions that test the same principles that you will find in the real questions.

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  • MBE Strategies: Day 1 – Torts (negligence) –and how to approach MBE questions.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 2 – Criminal Law (homicide) — and learning through “wrong” answers.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 3 — Evidence (hearsay) –and memorizing the details!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 4 – Contracts and Sales – and spending time on the subjects that are difficult for you.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 5 – Real Property (future interests) – and spending time on the highly-tested areas of law.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 6 – Civil Procedure (summary judgment) – and eliminating incorrect answers.
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  • MBE Strategies: Day 9: Torts (conversion) – and where to get actual released MBE questions!
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  • MBE Strategies: Day 16: Criminal Procedure (exclusionary rule) – and paying attention to the call of the question.
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  • MBE Strategies: Day 21: Evidence (hearsay) – and the importance of memorizing the law!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 22: Contracts (formation) – and why you should not ignore the written portion of the bar exam!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 23: Criminal Law and Procedure (and the importance of mens rea).
  • MBE Strategies: Day 24: Constitutional Law (equal protection) – and the importance of writing incorrect answers down!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 25: Civil Procedure (impleader) – and free released NCBE questions!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 26: Real Property (future interests) – and learning the highly tested MBE topics.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 27: Torts (intentional torts) – and the importance of learning rule statements.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 28: Evidence (impeachment) – and how to keep impeachment, character evidence, etc. straight!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 29: Criminal Procedure (line-ups) – and how charts can help you keep the 5th, 6th, and 14th Amendment straight!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 30: Contracts (revocation of acceptance of goods) – and how finding patterns in your answer sheet can improve your score.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 31: Constitutional Law (public v. private forum) – and last-minute MBE tips.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 32: Torts (premises liability) – and eliminating incorrect statements of law.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 33: Criminal Law (robbery) – and knowing your state vs. MBE distinctions.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 34: Real Property (priority and recording acts) – and writing answers to the questions.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 35: Torts (comparative negligence, joint and several liability) – and learning the theories behind the laws.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 36: Contracts and Sales (recovering the purchase price) – and creating a timeline of events when answering MBE questions.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 37: Constitutional Law (1st Amendment) – and making a diagram as you study.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 38: Evidence (extrinsic evidence) – and learning the definitions of basic legal terms.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 39: Civil Procedure (motion to dismiss) – and creating a timeline of the judicial process while studying.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 40: Real Property (present and future interests) – and the importance of grammar.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 41: Torts (battery) – and paying close attention to the call of the question.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 42: Criminal Procedure (4th Amendment) – and why you shouldn’t skip straight to the narrow rules.
  • MBE Strategies:  Day 43: Criminal Law (burglary)  – and why you need to know the elements of crimes!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 44: Contracts and Sales (damages) – and answering the question in your head first.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 45: Constitutional Law (interstate commerce and equal protection) – and paying attention to which entity is attempting to act.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 46: Evidence (impeachment) — and how to identify the applicable evidentiary rule.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 47: Civil Procedure (full faith and credit clause and preclusion) – and newly released NCBE civil procedure questions.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 48: Civil Procedure (removal) – and understanding the policies behind the rules.
  • MBE Strategies: Day 49: Real Property (eviction) – and the importance of paying attention to details!
  • MBE Strategies: Day 50: Torts (trespass) – and categorizing torts

If you have any questions about where to find sample bar exam multiple-choice questions, please feel free to comment below! 

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Beginning Fall 2019, all 1L, 2L, and 3L students will have access to AdaptiBar , the largest database of actual prior-year questions released by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (the organization that creates the Multistate Bar Exam (MBE)). All faculty who teach 1L and upper division subjects tested on the MBE will be able to pull sample questions from this database for use in class and to periodically assign as practice sets. The Bar Passage Support program will also be creating practice sets for all students, which will be rolled out over the course of the year (including during exam reading periods). Additionally, some of those practice sets will be linked to the fall and spring Bar Sweeps Week events.

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California baby bar exam sample questions & answers.

ca bar exam multiple choice questions

Reviewed by:

David Merson

Former Head of Pre-Law Office, Northeastern University, & Admissions Officer, Brown University

Reviewed: 08/17/23

Are you preparing to take the California baby bar exam? If so, keep reading to learn about some California baby bar exam sample questions.

Taking on the baby bar exam , also known as the First-Year Law Students’ Examination (FYLSE) , can feel overwhelming. There’s quite a bit to study, and a lot riding on it. Fortunately, there are tried and true ways to ace the baby bar exam!

While you’re studying, it’s beneficial to run through practice questions and answers. They help organize your knowledge and give you a boost of confidence. The following baby bar exam practice questions will help set you up for success.

Students writing a test

Baby Bar Exam Practice Questions

The California baby bar is divided into three sections - contract law, torts, and criminal law. The goal is to demonstrate a thorough knowledge of these fundamental components of the legal system. Keep reading to explore potential questions that you could encounter in each section. 

Contract Law

The following questions concerning contract law are a good place to start. Let's go! 

Question 1 

For her birthday, Sarah's sister Emma sent her a gift certificate to a winery for a special tasting of some of Sarah’s favourite wines and cheeses. Sarah's purchase of the tasting was made by Emma, who also informed the winery that Sarah would be getting in touch with them to schedule an appointment for the day and time of her choosing.

The food and wine that were supposed to be a part of the wine and cheese sampling were not available at the winery on the day that Sarah arrived for her planned tasting.

Can Sarah win her lawsuit against the winery for breach of contract?

  • No, because Emma, not Sarah, entered into the contract with the winery.
  • No, unless Sarah could show that she detrimentally relied on the contract.
  • Yes, if the winery was not able to substitute an ingredient of similar value.
  • Yes, as an intended third-party beneficiary.

Answer : The correct response is D. The contract would make Sarah an intended third-party beneficiary, entitling her to sue. The following are the considerations one looks at to ascertain whether a third party is intended:

  • Is the third-party beneficiary expressly designated in the contract?
  • Is performance directly to the third-party beneficiary?
  • Does the third-party beneficiary have any rights under the contract?
  • What is the relationship between the third-party beneficiary and the promisee?

Here, Sarah is expressly designated in the contract. She has rights under the contract (i.e., she can pick when she goes to the winery). And the relationship between her and Emma is that they are sisters. 

Because she is an intended third-party beneficiary, the next question is whether her rights have been vested. Her rights can vest if she (a) assents to the contract, (b) relies on it, or (c) sues. Here, she assented to the contract by going to the winery.

A. is incorrect. Sarah is a beneficiary through a third party and therefore is still eligible to file a lawsuit even though Emma is. The third-party beneficiary doctrine increases the number of parties who may file claims.

B. is incorrect. There is no requirement for Sarah to provide a theory of detrimental reliance. She could prevail under a third-party beneficiary theory as noted above.

C. is incorrect. Sarah can still file a lawsuit for a minor violation even if the winery was able to replace the ingredient with one of comparable value. It wouldn't prevent Sarah from winning a case, though. It would only have an impact on how many damages she could get back.

Question 2 

Describe the parol evidence rule in general terms.

Answer : A party is not permitted to include a provision from early discussions (or a current oral provision) in the final (integrated) written agreement.

Question 3 

A contract is ____.

  • A legally binding document
  • A mutual understanding between two parties 
  • A verbal understanding between any party 
  • A written agreement between two or more parties

Answer : A is the correct answer. A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties. 

Congrats! You’ve completed the first section. Let’s move onto questions regarding criminal law.

Criminal Law Questions The next section delves into the area of criminal law, which differs quite a bit from contract law. Remember to take your time!

Question 4 .

Define voluntary and involuntary manslaughter.

Answer : An individual must be intentionally killed without premeditation in the heat of emotion as a result of sufficient provocation for voluntary manslaughter to occur. 

According to majority and minority laws, involuntary manslaughter is defined as the death of another person while acting carelessly or blatantly negligently, as well as when committing a misdemeanor or felony that does not meet the criteria for felony murder.

What constitutes an assault?

Answer : When a victim has a reasonable fear of being subjected to harmful or offensive contact, that act is an assault.

What constitutes a battery?

Answer : When someone intentionally causes harmful or objectionable touch with the victim, this is known as a battery.

These criminal law questions are a good place to start in your studies. Keep reading to learn more.  

Torts Questions

You’re almost there! The following questions will help equip you for the Torts section of the baby bar exam. 

Question 7 

What is an invitee? What standard of care is an invitee entitled to?

Answer : An invitee is someone who enters a property with the intent to grant an economic benefit or someone who enters property that is accessible to the general public.

Which of the following legal resources played the most significant role in the development of tort law?

  • The common law
  • Statute law
  • European human rights law
  • International treaties

Answer : A is the correct response. Common law has played a major role in the development of tort law, and is the reason tort law is typically very ‘case heavy’.

Which of the following factors is least likely to deter a potential claimant from filing a lawsuit in a tort case?

  • The fact that he cannot obtain legal aid for his claim.
  • The fact that the defendant has insurance concerning the loss which occurred.
  • The potentially extended timescale for obtaining any compensation.
  • The uncertainty of the tort process.

Answer : B is the correct answer. Many tort claims are concerning motor vehicle accidents or accidents at work. In these cases, defendants commonly have liability insurance.

FAQs: Baby Bar Exam Questions

Taking the baby bar exam is a big deal, so it’s natural to have lots of questions. Read on to learn more about it, so you can get started studying these California baby bar exam sample questions and baby bar exam practice questions!

1. What Kind of Questions Are on the Baby Bar Exam?

The baby bar exam is divided into three sections - contract law, criminal law and torts. Within these sections are four one-hour essay questions and 100 multiple-choice questions.

2. How Hard Is the Baby Bar Exam?

The baby bar exam is challenging. However, with hard work, it’s possible to ace it!

3. How Do I Pass My Baby Bar Exam?

Set aside time to study well ahead of the baby bar exam. Run through these practice questions and answers, as well as your notes. Stay organized and do your best!

4. Is It Common to Fail the Baby Bar Exam?

Failing the bar is more common than you think. The baby bar exam has about a 20% pass rate. If you fail, there are steps you can take to get ahead. Try to determine your areas for improvement and develop a plan to retake the exam.

Final Thoughts

There you have it! Keep studying and running through these California baby bar exam sample questions and you’ll be well on your way to tackling the test. Giving yourself an adequate amount of time to study for the baby bar exam will put you in the best possible position. 

It’s also important to be organized. Make sure you have everything you need to stay focused on the task at hand. Hard work and lots of practice will help you achieve your target grade. 

Best of luck!

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Open Access

Peer-reviewed

Research Article

Microsoft Bing outperforms five other generative artificial intelligence chatbots in the Antwerp University multiple choice medical license exam

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

* E-mail: [email protected]

Affiliation Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

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Roles Conceptualization, Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, Dean’s Department, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

  • Stefan Morreel, 
  • Veronique Verhoeven, 
  • Danny Mathysen

PLOS

  • Published: February 14, 2024
  • https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349
  • Peer Review
  • Reader Comments

Table 1

Recently developed chatbots based on large language models (further called bots) have promising features which could facilitate medical education. Several bots are freely available, but their proficiency has been insufficiently evaluated. In this study the authors have tested the current performance on the multiple-choice medical licensing exam of University of Antwerp (Belgium) of six widely used bots: ChatGPT (OpenAI), Bard (Google), New Bing (Microsoft), Claude instant (Anthropic), Claude+ (Anthropic) and GPT-4 (OpenAI). The primary outcome was the performance on the exam expressed as a proportion of correct answers. Secondary analyses were done for a variety of features in the exam questions: easy versus difficult questions, grammatically positive versus negative questions, and clinical vignettes versus theoretical questions. Reasoning errors and untruthful statements (hallucinations) in the bots’ answers were examined. All bots passed the exam; Bing and GPT-4 (both 76% correct answers) outperformed the other bots (62–67%, p = 0.03) and students (61%). Bots performed worse on difficult questions (62%, p = 0.06), but outperformed students (32%) on those questions even more (p<0.01). Hallucinations were found in 7% of Bing’s and GPT4’s answers, significantly lower than Bard (22%, p<0.01) and Claude Instant (19%, p = 0.02). Although the creators of all bots try to some extent to avoid their bots being used as a medical doctor, none of the tested bots succeeded as none refused to answer all clinical case questions.Bing was able to detect weak or ambiguous exam questions. Bots could be used as a time efficient tool to improve the quality of a multiple-choice exam.

Author summary

Artificial chatbots such as ChatGPT have recently gained a lot of attention. They can pass exams for medical doctors, sometimes they even perform better than regular students. In this study, we have tested ChatGPT and five other (newer) chatbots in the multiple-choice exam that students in Antwerp (Belgium) must pass to obtain the degree of medical doctor. All bots passed the exam with results similar or better than the students. Microsoft Bing Chat (name at the time of writing, at the time of publication called Microsoft Copilot) scored the best of all tested bots but still produces hallucinations (untruthful statements or reasoning errors) in seven percent of the answers. Bots performed worse on difficult questions but they outperformed students on those questions even more. Maybe they are most useful when humans don’t know the answer themselves? The creators of the bots try to some extent to avoid their bots being used as a medical doctor, none of the tested bots succeeded as none refused to answer all clinical case questions. Microsoft Bing also turned out to be useful to find weak questions and as such improved the studied exam.

Citation: Morreel S, Verhoeven V, Mathysen D (2024) Microsoft Bing outperforms five other generative artificial intelligence chatbots in the Antwerp University multiple choice medical license exam. PLOS Digit Health 3(2): e0000349. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349

Editor: Imon Banerjee, Mayo Clinic, Arizona, UNITED STATES

Received: August 19, 2023; Accepted: January 10, 2024; Published: February 14, 2024

Copyright: © 2024 Morreel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Data Availability: The questions of this exam cannot be made publicly because they will be used again in future exams. Consequently, the authors cannot share all the AI responses. Access to the study data can be requested by contacting [email protected] and will be granted as long as the requestor can guarantee that they will not be made publicly and no students will have access to them. As supplementary material, we do provide a datasheet with our raw data excluding the answers and the questions ( S1 Data and S2 Data ). Individual student results, even anonymised will never be shared as it is impossible to ask permission to all students.

Funding: The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Introduction

The development of AI applications announces a new era in many fields of society including medicine and medical education. Especially artificial intelligence (AI) chatbots based on large language models (further called bots) have promising features which could facilitate education by offering simulation training, by personalizing learning experiences with individualised feedback, or by acting as a decision support in clinical training situations. However, before adopting this technology in the medical curriculum, its capabilities have yet to be thoroughly tested [ 1 , 2 ].

Soon after the first bots became publicly available, higher medical education institutes started to report on their performance in medical exam simulations [ 3 ]. A scoping review listed its potential use in medical teaching: automated scoring, teaching assistance, personalized learning, research assistance, quick access to information, generating case scenarios and exam questions, content creation for learning facilitation, and language translation [ 4 ].

Whereas bots seem to be informative and logical in many of their responses, in others they answer with obvious, sometimes dangerous, hallucinations (confident responses which however contain reasoning errors or are unjustified by the current state of the art) [ 5 ]. They will reproduce flaws in the datasets they are trained by; they may reflect or even amplify societal inequality or biases or generate inaccurate or fake information [ 6 ].

Mostly, bots perform near the passing mark [ 6 – 9 ], although they outperform students in some reports [ 10 – 12 ]. Performance is in general better on more easy questions and when the exam is written in English [ 13 , 14 ]. Notably their score is generally worse as exams at more advanced stages in the medical curriculum are offered. However, bots seem to learn rapidly, and new versions do considerably better than their prototypes [ 15 – 17 ]. As bots evolve, their proficiency needs continuous monitoring and updating.

Whereas media articles state that higher education institutes already anticipate the dangers of bots in terms of possible exam fraud, they also offer opportunities to assist in developing exams, for example by identifying ambiguous or badly formulated exam questions.

Very few comparisons between different bots have been made, and those that do exist only compare two or three bots and do not report hallucination rates [ 18 , 19 ].

In this study, we use the final theory exam that all medical students need to pass to obtain the degree of Medical Doctor. It is followed by an oral exam which is not part of this study. The current exam was used in 2021 at the University of Antwerp, Belgium. It is similar to countrywide exams used in other countries, such as the United States Medical Licensing exam step 1 and step 2CK [ 20 ].

In this study we have tested the current performance of six publicly available bots on the University of Antwerp medical licensing exam. The primary outcomes concern the performance of each bot on the exam. Secondary outcomes include performance on subsets of questions, interrater variability, proportion of hallucinations and the detection of possible weak exam questions.

Material and methods

This experiment has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Antwerp and the Antwerp University Hospital (reference number MDF 21/03/037, amendment number 5462).

At the end of the undergraduate medical training at the University of Antwerp, medical students must pass a general medical knowledge examination before being licensed as medical doctor. Besides an oral viva examination, this general medical knowledge examination contains 102 multiple choice questions covering the entire range of curricular courses. In this study, the exam as it was presented to the students in their second master year (before their final year of clinical training) was used. The scoring system was adapted afterwards, so the student’s scores in this paper do not reflect the actual grades given to the students. The questions were not available online, so they were not used for the training of the studied bots.

Bot selection

Six bots that are publicly available and can currently be used by teachers and students were tested. The most widely used free bots were selected: ChatGPT (OpenAI), Bard (Google), and New Bing (Microsoft, called Bing Chat at the time of writing and Microsoft Copilot at the time of publication). Claude instant (Anthropic), Claude+(Anthropic) and GPT-4(OpenAI) were added to the list because they allow for an evaluation of the difference between a free and a paying version. Even though Bing is based on the GPT-4 large language model, it also uses other sources such as Bing Search so it is a customized version of the pure GPT-4 bot [ 21 ].

Data extraction

The exam was translated using Deepl (DeepL SE), a neural machine translation service. Clear translation errors were corrected by author SM, but the writing style and grammar were not improved in order to mimic an everyday testing situation. Questions containing images/tables (N = 2) and local questions were excluded (N = 5). Local questions were excluded because they concern theories, frameworks or models that have only been described in Dutch and are only applicable to Belgium and the Netherlands. Literal translation of these questions leads to nonsense questions in English.

Details on how and when the bots were used can be found in Table 1 . By coincidence, the authors found out that when Bard refuses to answer a medical question, prompting it with “please regenerate draft” may force it to answer the question anyhow. This was not the case for the other bots. In all cases where Bard refused to answer, this additional prompt was used.

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349.t001

The primary outcome was the performance on the exam expressed as a proportion of correct answers (score). This outcome was also measured in the same way as the students were rated on this exam (adapted score): eleven questions contained a second best answer (an acceptable alternative to the best answer), a score of 0.33 was awarded when this option was chosen; twenty questions contained a fatal answer (this option is dangerous for the patient) leading to a score of -1. For calculation of the student’s scores, the image, table, and local questions were excluded as well.

The primary outcomes were assessed in four subsets of answers. Firstly, the difficulty of the questions: thirteen questions were difficult (recorded P-value in question bank below 0.30 meaning that less than 30% of the students answered the question correct [ 22 ]), 36 easy (recorded P-value in question bank above 0.80) and 46 moderate (recorded P-value in question bank between 0.30 and 0.80). Secondly, the grammar of the questions: negative formulated questions (e.g., “which statement is not correct?”) vs positive statements. Five questions were negatively formulated. Thirdly, the type of question: theory (50 questions) or describing a patient (clinical vignette, 45 questions). Finally, questions with vs without fatal answers.

In those cases where a bot answered a question incorrectly with a fatal answer, the proportion of selected fatal answers among all wrong answers was calculated.

The primary outcome was also assessed for a virtual bot (called Ensemble Bot), the answer of this bot was the most common value (mode) of the answers of all six bots [ 23 ]. The reasoning behind an ensemble bot is that it enables possible improvements to a decision system’s robustness and accuracy by combing several bots and thus reducing variance [ 24 ].

Three additional outcomes were assessed. Firstly, the proportion of hallucinations as rated by the authors among the incorrect answers of the best scoring bot. Authors VV and DM read all incorrect answers and judged them as containing a hallucination or not. In case of discordance, author SM made a final decision. A hallucination was previously defined as content that is nonsensical or untruthful in relation to certain sources [ 25 ]. This definition is not usable for the current research so the authors defined a hallucination as content that either contains clear reasoning or is untruthful in relation to current evidence based medical literature. To detect reasoning errors, no medical knowledge is required. For example: “the risk is about 1 in 100 (3%)”. To detect untruthful answers, the authors had to use their own background knowledge combined with common online resources to verify the AI answers. One clear example of an untruthful answer given by several bots: “This is a commonly used mnemonic to remember the order: "NAVEL"—Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty space (from medial to lateral).” The bots suggested this is the order of the inguinal structures from lateral to medial. This mnemonic does exist, but it should be used from lateral to medial. Because a multiple-choice exam was studied, the hallucinations could not be found in the answer itself but in the arguments supporting the selected answer. Bots never answer with a simple letter, they all produce written out answers of varying length. The authors wanted to report reasoning errors and untruthful answers separately but found out that often, these two were both present in a bot’s answer so this outcome was suspended.

Secondly, the proportion of possible weak questions among the incorrect answers of the best scoring bot was assessed. For this outcome, all authors discussed all incorrect answers of the best scoring bot and reached unanimous consensus.

Thirdly, the interrater variability was examined. Originally, the authors planned to test whether user interpretation of the answers would be different from strict interpretation of the bot’s answer as this difference was significant in a previous study [ 9 ]. This outcome was suspended because such cases occurred only in ChatGPT and Bard.

The differences in performance among the bots/students, differences in performance among categories of questions, and differences in the proportion of hallucinations were tested with a one-way ANOVA test and pairwise unpaired two-sample T-tests. P-values were 2-tailed where applicable, and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A p-value between 0.05 and 0.10 was considered a trend. For the wrong answers on questions with a fatal answer, a chi 2 test was used to assess the difference between the bot’s proportion of fatal answers and the random proportion of fatal answers (which equals 0.33). Fleiss’ Kappa was used to assess the overall agreement among the bots. Cohen’s kappa was used to assess pairwise interrater agreement between the different bots. Raw data was collected using Excel 2023 (Microsoft). JMP Pro version 17 (JMP Statistical Discovery LLC) was used for all analyses except Fleiss’ kappa which was calculated in R version 4.31 (DescTools package).

Overall exam performance

See Table 2 for an overview of the scores of the tested bots. Bing and GPT-4 scored the best with 76% correct answers and an adapted score (the way students were rated) of 76% as well. The mean score of all bots was 68%, the scores of the individual bots were not significantly different from this mean (p = 0.12). However, Bing and GPT-4 scored significantly better than Bard (p = 0.03) and Claude Instant (P = 0.03). GPT-4 had the same score as Bing but had more wrong answers (25 versus 13). Claude+ did not significantly score better than Claude Instant. All Bots gave one fatal answer (on different questions) except Bard which did not give any fatal answers. Bing gave four second best answers, ChatGPT/Bard/GPT three, Claud two and Claud Instant only one. For thirteen questions, Bard refused to answer. After prompting Bard up to five times with “regenerate draft”, it still refused to answer four questions, seven were answered correctly and two were wrongly. The performance of the bots using the adapted score was very similar because the added points of second-best answers were smoothed out by the lost points due to fatal answers. The mean score of the 95 students was 61% (standard deviation 9), the mean adapted score for students was 60% (standard deviation 21). The Ensemble Bot (answers with the most common answer among the six bots) scored the same as Bing (72 correct answers, 76%).

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349.t002

Performance for subsets of questions

The bots scored on average 73% for easy questions and 62% for difficult questions (P = 0.06). The students scored on average 75% for easy questions and 32% for difficult questions (p<0.01). Assessing difficult questions only, ChatGPT performed best with a score of 77%, Bing/GPT4 scored 69%. The students scored 32% on difficult questions which is significantly lower as compared to ChatGPT, Bing, and GPT-4 (p<0.01). A similar but smaller effect was found for moderate questions (Bing versus students, 72% versus 59%, p = 0.07) but not for easy questions (69 vs 74%, p = 0.30)

No significant difference in performance on negative versus positive questions (p = 0.16) and on clinical vignettes versus theory questions (p = 0.16) was found. Such a difference was not found for the students either (p = 0.54 and 0.38 respectively). When examining individual questions, errors on clinical vignette questions were often caused because Bing missed an important clue in the context or the history of the patient. For example, in a question concerning the timing of a flu vaccine for a pregnant patient consulting in august, Bing answers that the flu vaccine was necessary now. Bing missed the clue about august: flu vaccines should be given later and are generally not available yet in August (in Europe) [ 26 ].

The bots scored on average 72% on questions with a fatal answer which is not significantly different from questions without a fatal answer (68%, p = 0.39). Among the 34 wrong answers, the fatal answer was chosen five times (15%) which is lower than can be expected by chance only (11 wrong answers or 33%, p = 0.09). The students did perform worse on these questions (mean 64% versus 52%, p = 0.03). Among the 843 wrong student answers, the fatal option was chosen in 111 answers (13%).

Detection of hallucinations

Hallucinations were found in 7% of Bing’s and GPT4’s answers. This was significantly lower than Bard (22%, p <0.01) and Claude Instant (19%, p = 0.02). ChatGPT had 15% hallucinations and Claude+ 12%, this was not significantly different from Bing and GPT4 (P>0.10 for all these comparisons).

See Table 3 for a question on which five bots hallucinated (reasoning errors).

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https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349.t003

Detection of weak questions using Bing

Among the 23 incorrect answers of Bing, three questions were unclearly written and two were not in line with current literature. An example of a detected weak questions is one concerning renal replacement therapy: “ Complete . Renal function replacement therapy is indicated … a) in any symptomatic patient with an eGFR <15 ml/min/1 . 73m 2 . b) only in patients under 65 years of age . c) in anyone with an eGFR < 6 l/min/1 . 73m 2 d) only when urea is elevated ”. Bing answered “a)”. After review of current literature, the authors judge that an eGFR below 15 is indeed a commonly used cut of value for starting renal replacement therapy but it is not the only reason so start dialysis. Because statement a contains “any”, Bing’s answer is wrong, but the authors do understand why Bing gave this answer and why a student might give this answer as well. The same argument applies to answer c which is supposed to be the correct answer. Even more, the eGFR cut-off of six is odd. This question needs improvement.

Interrater variability among the studied bots

For 34 questions (36%), all bots agreed. Fleiss’ Kappa for all raters was 0.54 (moderate agreement). The agreement between ChatGPT and GPT-4 was the highest (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.66, substantial agreement). The agreement between Bing and Bard was the lowest (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.48, moderate agreement).

In this study, significant differences in the performance of publicly available AI chatbots on the Antwerp Medical License Exam were found. Both GPT-4 and Bing scored the best, but Bing turns out more reliable as it produces fewer wrong answers. This performance is in line with previous research [ 15 – 17 ]. An ensemble bot which combines all tested bots scored equally so we cannot recommend its use based on the current study. The proportion of hallucinations was much lower for Bing than for Bard and Claude+/Claude Instant.

The improvement of these new bots both in scores as in proportion of hallucinations sounds impressing, it might however increase the risk as users will have more confidence in wrong or even dangerous answers as the bots (in general) answer more correctly. The risk of replicating biases in the data on which these models are trained remains. Other authors already pointed out the meaning of these results: bots can pass exams, but this does not make them medical doctors as this requires far more capacities than reproduction of knowledge alone. The current study raises the questions whether a multiple choice exam is a useful way to assess the competencies modern doctors need (mostly concerning human interactions) [ 27 ]. Bing performed equally as GPT-4 but with less wrong answers, so currently it is not worth paying for a bot in order to test a medical exam, neither is it useful to create an ensemble bot based on the mode of all bot’s answers. Ensemble bots based on more complex rules than just the mode of all answers should be studied further.

We can recommend the use of Bing to detect weak questions among the wrong answers. This is a time-efficient way to improve the quality of a multiple-choice exam. In this study, the labour-intensive work of discussing and revising questions was narrowed down from all 95 included questions to the 23 questions on which Bing answered incorrectly. The argumentation of Bing was used to check these questions. Machine translating, inputting in Bing and recording the answers for the entire exam took about two working hours. Three questions were improved for future examens. Further research on the efficiency of this method is necessary.

The trend we found towards better bot performance on easy questions is in line with previous research [ 13 ]. However, the difference in performance between students and bots was large for difficult questions and absent for easy questions. This compelling new finding demands further research. Maybe bots are most useful in those situations that are difficult for humans?

The lack of a significant difference in performance between positive and negative questions, and between clinical vignettes and theory questions needs confirmation on larger datasets and on other exams. The finding on clinical vignettes has been found before [ 12 ].

Next to the field of medical education, bots might also be useful in clinical practice [ 28 , 29 ]. Numerous authors in various fields have tried to pose clinical questions. The results are variable but all authors conclude that thus far AI can’t compete with a real doctor [ 30 – 34 ]. In a study on paediatric emergencies for example, ChatGPT/GPT-4 reliably advised to call emergency services only in 54% of the cases, gave correct first aid instructions in 45% and incorrectly advised advanced life support techniques to parents 13.6% [ 35 ]. However, some companies are developing new AI tools that might assist clinicians. Google’s medicine-specific large language model called Med-PaLM delivered highly accurate answers to multiple-choice and long-form medical questions but it fell short of clinicians’ responses to those queries [ 36 , 37 ]. The aim of this study was not to assess this aspect but by coincidence we noticed that in some cases, bots refuse to answer because they are not medical doctors. The creators of all studied bots try, to a certain extent, to avoid their bots being used as a medical doctor. None of the tested bots succeeded as none refused to answer all clinical case questions. Only Claude+ and Claude instant refused (at times) to answer the question and closed the conversation. For all other bots users can try to pursue them to answer the question anyhow. This finding was most compelling for Bard where after entering the same questions repeatedly, Bard did answer it in nine out of thirteen cases.

The rise of generative AI also raises many ethical and legal issues: their enormous energy consumption, use of data sources without permission, use of sources protected by copyright, lack of reporting guidelines and many more. Before widely implementing AI in medical exams, more legislation and knowledge is necessary on these topics [ 38 , 39 ].

The strengths of this study mainly concern its novelty: the comparison of six different bots had not been published yet. The bots tested are available to the public so our methodology can easily be re-used. This study, however, has got several limitations as well. It only concerned one exam with a moderate size set of questions. There was no usable definition of hallucinations, neither a validated approach to detect them available at the time of writing. The definition we have used (chatbot generated content that either contains clear reasoning or is untruthful in relation to current evidence based medical literature) might inspire other authors although we found out that a distinction between reasoning errors and untruthful statements was not feasible. The exclusion of tables, local questions and images reduces the use of the comparison to real students. Future bots will most likely be able to process such questions as well. Finally, the exam was translated in English to make the current paper understandable for a broad audience. Further research on other languages is necessary.

Six generative AI chatbots passed the Antwerp multiple choice exam necessary for obtaining a license as a medical doctor. Bing (and to a lesser extent GPT-4) outperformed all other bots and students. Bots performed worse on difficult questions but outperformed students on those questions even more. Bing can be used to detect weak multiple-choice questions. Creators should improve their bot’s algorithm if they do not want to them to be used as tool for medical advice.

Supporting information

S1 table. responses from all selected bots on an example question..

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349.s001

S1 Data. Selected Study Data. Study data excluding selected columns. See Data Availability Statement for more information.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349.s002

S2 Data. Study Data Variables Overview. An overview of the properties of all variables used in file S1 Data .

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000349.s003

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Professor David Martens for proofreading this manuscript.

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  • 23. Dietterich TG, editor Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning2000; Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • 24. Polikar R. Ensemble Learning. In: Zhang C, Ma Y, editors. Ensemble Machine Learning: Methods and Applications. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2012. p. 1–34.
  • 25. OpenAI R. GPT-4 technical report. arXiv. 2023:2303.08774.

ca bar exam multiple choice questions

Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

In Word, you can create a form that others can fill out and save or print.  To do this, you will start with baseline content in a document, potentially via a form template.  Then you can add content controls for elements such as check boxes, text boxes, date pickers, and drop-down lists. Optionally, these content controls can be linked to database information.  Following are the recommended action steps in sequence.  

Show the Developer tab

In Word, be sure you have the Developer tab displayed in the ribbon.  (See how here:  Show the developer tab .)

Open a template or a blank document on which to base the form

You can start with a template or just start from scratch with a blank document.

Start with a form template

Go to File > New .

In the  Search for online templates  field, type  Forms or the kind of form you want. Then press Enter .

In the displayed results, right-click any item, then select  Create. 

Start with a blank document 

Select Blank document .

Add content to the form

Go to the  Developer  tab Controls section where you can choose controls to add to your document or form. Hover over any icon therein to see what control type it represents. The various control types are described below. You can set properties on a control once it has been inserted.

To delete a content control, right-click it, then select Remove content control  in the pop-up menu. 

Note:  You can print a form that was created via content controls. However, the boxes around the content controls will not print.

Insert a text control

The rich text content control enables users to format text (e.g., bold, italic) and type multiple paragraphs. To limit these capabilities, use the plain text content control . 

Click or tap where you want to insert the control.

Rich text control button

To learn about setting specific properties on these controls, see Set or change properties for content controls .

Insert a picture control

A picture control is most often used for templates, but you can also add a picture control to a form.

Picture control button

Insert a building block control

Use a building block control  when you want users to choose a specific block of text. These are helpful when you need to add different boilerplate text depending on the document's specific purpose. You can create rich text content controls for each version of the boilerplate text, and then use a building block control as the container for the rich text content controls.

building block gallery control

Select Developer and content controls for the building block.

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Insert a combo box or a drop-down list

In a combo box, users can select from a list of choices that you provide or they can type in their own information. In a drop-down list, users can only select from the list of choices.

combo box button

Select the content control, and then select Properties .

To create a list of choices, select Add under Drop-Down List Properties .

Type a choice in Display Name , such as Yes , No , or Maybe .

Repeat this step until all of the choices are in the drop-down list.

Fill in any other properties that you want.

Note:  If you select the Contents cannot be edited check box, users won’t be able to click a choice.

Insert a date picker

Click or tap where you want to insert the date picker control.

Date picker button

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Click or tap where you want to insert the check box control.

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Use the legacy form controls

Legacy form controls are for compatibility with older versions of Word and consist of legacy form and Active X controls.

Click or tap where you want to insert a legacy control.

Legacy control button

Select the Legacy Form control or Active X Control that you want to include.

Set or change properties for content controls

Each content control has properties that you can set or change. For example, the Date Picker control offers options for the format you want to use to display the date.

Select the content control that you want to change.

Go to Developer > Properties .

Controls Properties  button

Change the properties that you want.

Add protection to a form

If you want to limit how much others can edit or format a form, use the Restrict Editing command:

Open the form that you want to lock or protect.

Select Developer > Restrict Editing .

Restrict editing button

After selecting restrictions, select Yes, Start Enforcing Protection .

Restrict editing panel

Advanced Tip:

If you want to protect only parts of the document, separate the document into sections and only protect the sections you want.

To do this, choose Select Sections in the Restrict Editing panel. For more info on sections, see Insert a section break .

Sections selector on Resrict sections panel

If the developer tab isn't displayed in the ribbon, see Show the Developer tab .

Open a template or use a blank document

To create a form in Word that others can fill out, start with a template or document and add content controls. Content controls include things like check boxes, text boxes, and drop-down lists. If you’re familiar with databases, these content controls can even be linked to data.

Go to File > New from Template .

New from template option

In Search, type form .

Double-click the template you want to use.

Select File > Save As , and pick a location to save the form.

In Save As , type a file name and then select Save .

Start with a blank document

Go to File > New Document .

New document option

Go to File > Save As .

Go to Developer , and then choose the controls that you want to add to the document or form. To remove a content control, select the control and press Delete. You can set Options on controls once inserted. From Options, you can add entry and exit macros to run when users interact with the controls, as well as list items for combo boxes, .

Adding content controls to your form

In the document, click or tap where you want to add a content control.

On Developer , select Text Box , Check Box , or Combo Box .

Developer tab with content controls

To set specific properties for the control, select Options , and set .

Repeat steps 1 through 3 for each control that you want to add.

Set options

Options let you set common settings, as well as control specific settings. Select a control and then select Options to set up or make changes.

Set common properties.

Select Macro to Run on lets you choose a recorded or custom macro to run on Entry or Exit from the field.

Bookmark Set a unique name or bookmark for each control.

Calculate on exit This forces Word to run or refresh any calculations, such as total price when the user exits the field.

Add Help Text Give hints or instructions for each field.

OK Saves settings and exits the panel.

Cancel Forgets changes and exits the panel.

Set specific properties for a Text box

Type Select form Regular text, Number, Date, Current Date, Current Time, or Calculation.

Default text sets optional instructional text that's displayed in the text box before the user types in the field. Set Text box enabled to allow the user to enter text into the field.

Maximum length sets the length of text that a user can enter. The default is Unlimited .

Text format can set whether text automatically formats to Uppercase , Lowercase , First capital, or Title case .

Text box enabled Lets the user enter text into a field. If there is default text, user text replaces it.

Set specific properties for a Check box .

Default Value Choose between Not checked or checked as default.

Checkbox size Set a size Exactly or Auto to change size as needed.

Check box enabled Lets the user check or clear the text box.

Set specific properties for a Combo box

Drop-down item Type in strings for the list box items. Press + or Enter to add an item to the list.

Items in drop-down list Shows your current list. Select an item and use the up or down arrows to change the order, Press - to remove a selected item.

Drop-down enabled Lets the user open the combo box and make selections.

Protect the form

Go to Developer > Protect Form .

Protect form button on the Developer tab

Note:  To unprotect the form and continue editing, select Protect Form again.

Save and close the form.

Test the form (optional)

If you want, you can test the form before you distribute it.

Protect the form.

Reopen the form, fill it out as the user would, and then save a copy.

Creating fillable forms isn’t available in Word for the web.

You can create the form with the desktop version of Word with the instructions in Create a fillable form .

When you save the document and reopen it in Word for the web, you’ll see the changes you made.

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  3. LibGuides: California Bar Exam: MBE Practice Questions

    California Bar Exam: MBE Practice Questions Adaptibar Beginning Fall 2019, all 1L, 2L, and 3L students will have access to AdaptiBar, the largest database of actual prior-year questions released by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (the organization that creates the Multistate Bar Exam (MBE)).

  4. California Bar Exam and MPRE: 2. Free Online Study Aids

    2. Free Online Study Aids - California Bar Exam and MPRE - LibGuides at UCLA School of Law - Hugh & Hazel Darling Law Library California Bar Exam and MPRE: 2. Free Online Study Aids This California Bar Exam guide provides an overview of steps law students can take to prepare for the California Bar Exam and the MPRE.

  5. Home

    The California Bar Exam is a two-day test with three components: The Multi-state Bar Exam (MBE) The MBE is a six-hour test made up of 200 multiple-choice questions. The topics covered by these questions include subjects typically taught in Constitutional Law, Contracts, Torts, Property, Criminal Law/Procedure, and Evidence.

  6. California Bar Exam and MPRE: 4. The Multistate Bar Exam

    The MBE consists of an objective six-hour examination containing 200 multiple-choice questions, which are administered in (2) three-hour sessions, each session consisting of 100 multiple-choice questions. The exam questions cover the following areas of law: Civil Procedure; Constitutional Law; Contracts; Criminal Law and Procedure; Evidence;

  7. The California Bar Exam: An Essential Guide

    If you want to practice law in California, you have to pass the exam. The test consists of 200 multiple-choice questions related to various national areas of law, including criminal law, torts, civil procedure, constitutional law, contracts, and more. It also includes 5 one-hour essays and a 90-minute Performance Test, covering other topics in ...

  8. The California Bar Exam

    The Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) portion of the exam is a nationally-administered, 200-question multiple-choice exam. As of February 2017, only 175 questions will be scored, and the other 25 are unscored experimental questions used to gauge their appropriateness for future exams.

  9. Bar Exam Questions: Practice Bar Exam (MBE, MEE, MPT Review)

    All states and territories except Louisiana and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico subscribe to the Multistate Bar Exam (MBE), which is a standardized set of 200 multiple-choice questions usually taken on the first day of the state bar examination. The National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) prepares the test questions.

  10. Examinations

    The Multistate Bar Examination (MBE), typically 200 multiple-choice questions Approximately 16,000 people take the bar exam each year. Find more information about the California Bar Exam, including dates and details for the next exam. Past exam questions and selected answers See dates and application deadlines for upcoming exams

  11. PDF July 2021 Bar Exam FAQs

    The MBE will consist of 200 multiple-choice questions, split into four 50-question sessions tested over 90 minutes each, with a one-hour lunch break. On day 2, in the morning, you may log as early as 8:00 San Francisco Office San Francisco, CA 94105 Los Angeles Office

  12. MBE Bar Exam

    The MBE consists of 200 multiple-choice questions: 175 scored questions and 25 unscored pretest questions. The pretest questions are indistinguishable from those that are scored, so examinees should answer all questions. The exam is divided into morning and afternoon testing sessions of three hours each, with 100 questions in each session.

  13. How Many Right MBE Answers Do I Need to Pass the California Bar?

    You'll have six hours to answer 200 multiple-choice questions that test your legal knowledge. If you're wondering how many of those 200 questions you'll need to answer correctly to pass the California Bar Exam, you've come to the right place! We'll explain how to think about scoring below.

  14. CA Bar Exam Sample Questions

    Discuss. What are Larry's obligations in relation to the damaging document? Discuss. What ethical obligations must Larry respect with regard to XYZ's job offer? Discuss. The answer according to California and ABA authorities. FLEMING'S Sample Answer - Bar Exam Practice Test 1. May Larry ethically follow Peter's instructions to file the motion?

  15. Bar Exam Practice Questions & Answers

    ‍ We're here to help you study! We've gathered a bunch of practice questions for the bar exam. And don't worry, we've also included all the answers and some explanations. Ready to start? The bar exam, a critical milestone in every budding lawyer's journey, is notorious for its difficulty.

  16. Where to Find Sample Bar Exam Multiple-Choice Questions

    1. Free questions released by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) Nothing beats free! If you are just looking to get your feet wet and see what MBE questions look like, the fastest way to see realistic MBE questions is to head to the NCBE website.

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  18. PDF California Bar Examination

    Examination. Answer both questions; each question is designed to be answered in one (1) hour. Also included in this session is a Performance Test question, comprised of two separate booklets, which is designed to be answered in 90 minutes. Your answer should demonstrate your ability to analyze the facts in the question, to tell the difference ...

  19. California Baby Bar Exam

    Within these sections are four one-hour essay questions and 100 multiple-choice questions. 2. How Hard Is the Baby Bar Exam? The baby bar exam is challenging. However, with hard work, it's possible to ace it! 3. How Do I Pass My Baby Bar Exam? Set aside time to study well ahead of the baby bar exam. Run through these practice questions and ...

  20. MBE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION BOOK

    MBE MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION BOOK $119.00 CBT presents the ultimate study companion for the MultiState Bar Exam (MBE)! This book contains four 100 question MBE practice exams authored by the National Conference of Bar Examiners (NCBE) - the authors of the actual MultiState Exam!.

  21. PDF California Bar Examination

    Feb2023-CBX-Questions FEBRUARY 2023 ESSAY QUESTIONS 1, 2 AND 3 California Bar Examination Answer all 3 questions; each question is designed to be answered in one (1) hour.

  22. Microsoft Bing outperforms five other generative artificial

    The current study raises the questions whether a multiple choice exam is a useful way to assess the competencies modern doctors need (mostly concerning human interactions) . Bing performed equally as GPT-4 but with less wrong answers, so currently it is not worth paying for a bot in order to test a medical exam, neither is it useful to create ...

  23. Create a form in Word that users can complete or print

    The rich text content control enables users to format text (e.g., bold, italic) and type multiple paragraphs. To limit these capabilities, use the plain text content control. Click or tap where you want to insert the control.

  24. Scope of the California Bar Examination

    Applicants taking the California Bar Exam may be required to answer questions involving issues from all of the subjects listed below: Business Associations Civil Procedure Community Property Constitutional Law Contracts Criminal Law and Procedure Evidence Professional Responsibility Real Property Remedies Torts Trusts Wills and Succession

  25. PDF Key Dates and Deadlines

    Applicants who wish to familiarize themselves with their testing site before exam day may do so from . 2: 00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Monday, February 26. For more information about the new test centers being . used for the February bar exam—Cow Palace in San Francisco, the State Bar of California in Los