Persuasive Essay On Cancer

Informative speech about cancer.

Let talk first what cancer is and how is it form. In its simplest form cancer is an abnormal growth of cells. It’s that simple. When you have a cut your body has a way of repairing. The body sends signals to the body in order to tell cells to start multiplying. The blood as a temporary barrier and cells start doing their job. However, sometimes the cells start acting abnormal. They repair the cut but continue to multiple. They continue until they infect the whole body. In the early stages it can be stopped if detected early, however if it’s on an advance stage doctors can’t do anything. The older we get the higher the change in getting cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, Cancer is one of the most common cause of death in the US and accounts for nearly 1 of every 4 deaths. In fact, cancer is consistent in hitting the top 5 in ways people pass away from. The World Health Organization estimates that, worldwide, there were 14 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million

Living with Cancer

There’s a long journey through cancer, it becomes an ever ending battle that some win or lose. Once you become a survivor even though it becomes a victory it still in the back of a person’s mind if they will stay in remission or if it will come back. Their immune system will always be a bit weaker even after being in remission. Two different people can get the same cancer and the results can be totally different.

Concealed Cure Conspiracy Theory

In 2012, the reported spending on cancer treatment was 124.6 billion dollars (Luther.) Because of these incredible expenditures, and the lack of a concrete cure for cancer, some individuals have developed the theory that cancer is a multi-billion dollar industry, and that certain companies and organizations are suppressing information about cures and treatments to keep their industry thriving. The billions of dollars generated from cancer treatment, research and prevention persuades many to believe that our government and affiliated organization’s are withholding a cure and advanced treatments for their own benefit. Many of these individuals struggle to realize why this conspiracy theory lacks practicality. Suppressing a cure for cancer would be impractical, not all organizations are in it for the money, Medical professionals and

Social Cost Of Cancer

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, exceeded only by heart disease. In 2011, more than 575,000 people died of cancer, and more than 1.5 million people had a diagnosis of cancer. Millions more have been affected by cancer directly post diagnosis or indirectly by taking care of a loved one that had been diagnosed with cancer. The actual cost of such a disease extends well beyond the number of lives lost and new diagnoses each year. Cancer survivors, as well as their family members, friends, and caregivers, may face physical, emotional, social, and spiritual challenges as a result of their cancer diagnosis and treatment. The financial costs of cancer also are overwhelming. According to the National Institutes of Health,

Conventional V. Natural.Cancer Treatment. By: Maryn Lara.

Chemo is supposed to be saving your life, yet it kills off many people each year...565,000 people to be exact. Cancer is one of the most money making industries. Made up of scams, death, and greedy people who do not care about the wellbeing of you. They will try to keep a dying patient hanging on, so they can drain the very last of their bank account until they’re in debt because of the many deadly options they are given until there is no other choice except death.

Cancer Research Persuasive Essay

Thank you for all you have done for supporting research, training, and other activities related to the cancer treatment. With this letter of inquiry, we invite you to support our related work in cancer research.

Persuasive Essay On Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is an extremely common disease, affecting about 12% of women in the United States. That’s why The American Cancer Society recommends that all women get their regular mammograms every year after age 40. On top of that, women are taught to look out for any unusual lumps or bumps. That way, they can notify their doctors right away and try to catch any suspected breast cancers early. Did you know that besides an obvious lump or mass, there are other signs of breast cancer that are more subtle? Here, we share some more subtle signs of breast cancer that all women should be aware of.

Persuasive Essay On Colon Cancer

At one time or another, you will most likely get a colonoscopy. It's not going to be necessarily enjoyable, but it is preventing you from getting colon cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Furthermore, this year it's expected to claim the lives of nearly 50,000 people in the United States. All for something that is largely preventable if you take the right action!

Ethos On Cancer

How does it feel waking up to your body aching and going to the doctor numerous times a week all because you have cancer? How would it sound if there was a way that one could be treated just by taking pills — maybe three times a day? During my research about the wonderful cancer curing drug, I have noticed a few things. In the three articles about cancer, the main point in all of them was the fact that they all do the same thing — cure cancer in the human body. However, the only difference between the articles is that they refer to the cure as something different.

Persuasive Essay On Chemotherapy

Most treatments involve chemotherapy or chemo this is the most used way to treat cancer although chemo can treat many other diseases. What chemo does is put radiation in your body to kill the cancer cell hopefully before they go through the cycle and create more mutated cancer cells. Most doctors swear by this method of treatment but most patients hate it they say they feel drained and feel they can't get through the day they stand by the toilet waiting to throw up counting seconds before their time comes some people don't even go to chemo treatment instead they try other more natural ways yet these ways do not have guarantees that they will work yet people rather do these treatments then feel like they are already dead the patients rather

Life After Chemotherapy Essay

According to NIH estimates, three in four families in the U.S, are likely to have at least one individual with a diagnosis of cancer (NIH, 2016). We have millions of cancer survivors in the U.S. However, life for survivors is not always the same, as life before cancer. Treatment provided to cure cancer has short term and long term side effects.

Persuasive Speech On Cancer

Imagine a world where cancer is no more. With strides in research and advances in clinical care, Loyola is turning that dream into a reality. Together, with your help, we will defeat cancer. That day is coming.

Chemo Research Paper

Why does chemo continues to be used even though there are safer alternatives that are nontoxic and have better results. The estimated global number is projected to rise to twelve million cancer cases by the year 2030. Cancer is the major cause of death amongst people under the age of 85, in the US 1 in 4 people die from cancer! In the year 1969 Dr. day stated “We can cure almost every cancer right now [1969]. Information is on file in the Rockefeller Institute, if it’s ever decided that it should be released.” Dr. Day continued “But consider – if people stop dying of cancer, how rapidly we would become overpopulated. You may as well die of cancer as something else.”

The Informative Essay: The Role Of Cancer In Our Body

Cancer is a disease that has had a very intense impact upon a vast number of people throughout the nation. According to the American Cancer Society, roughly 14.5 million people have a history with cancer--this means they are either fighting it currently, have beat it, or recently diagnosed. This year alone, almost 1.7 million people will receive news that they will now have to battle the terrible disease with nearly 600,000 succumbing to its debilitating systems.

Today in the world there are many different types of reproductive cancers. A reproductive cancer I’m going to be writing about is Breast cancer. Yes, its Breast Cancer. According to American Cancer Society (2017) Breast cancer is “Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade)surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get cancer too (pg.1). Although Breast cancer first start in the breast, it can also start from other places surrounding that tissue or area.

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Persuasive Essay On Cancer

cancer persuasive essay

Show More Stop the Cancer Epidemic and Save Millions Who here knows someone with cancer or a cancer survivor? The word “cancer” has been a large part of my life in the past few years, especially when it comes to my aunt. My aunts survived breast cancer over two decades ago. Then in 2015, she was diagnosed with lung cancer . A portion of one of her lungs was removed that summer. Cancer struck again in 2016. Her breast cancer had returned. 12 months after her lung cancer surgery she was back on the operating table having her final breast removed. My aunt was lucky to be diagnosed early enough to have surgery that saved her life, but many patients are not that fortunate and die even if they undergo treatment. So many lives each day are touched by …show more content… Nearly 40% of people will get cancer in their lifetime according to the National Cancer Institute. That means six of the people in this room will have cancer at some point in their life. Transition: Even if you yourself do not get this dreadful disease, it can still touch the important people in your life. The American Cancer Society states that, “Whether you have cancer or are close to someone who does, understanding what to expect can help you cope.” It is important to have a basic understanding of cancer because of the high risk of someone you know getting cancer in their lifetime. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention notes that there are over 100 kinds of cancer. What is cancer? It is a disease where abnormal cells in the body divide without any control and can attack other tissue. How is it spread? Cancer cells spread through the lymph system and blood system. Some familiar types of cancer include liver, breast, lung, ovarian, bladder, prostate, and …show more content… The smaller the number the smaller the tumour is. N means Node. This refers to if the cancer has extended to the lymph nodes. The scale for N is between 0 and 3. If N is 0 then the cancer cells have not reached the lymph nodes but if it is N3 than many of the lymph nodes contain cancer cells. M stands for Metastasis. Metastasised means that the cancer has spread to a different part of the body. M can either be a 0 or a 1. If M1 the cancer has spread. Staging is the second scale system. Most varieties of cancer have four stages. Stage 1: Cancer is small and contained in organ of orientation. Stage 2: Tumour is larger than stage one, but has not started to spread into nearby tissue. Stage 3: The cancerous tumour is larger and has started to spread into neighboring tissue. At this stage the lymph nodes have cancer cells. Stage 4: The cancer has spread to another organ in the body. Transition: The TNM scale and staging are used by doctors all over the world. Collaboration from one country to another has made it easier to tackle the astounding number of cases globally, many of which are in our very own

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Persuasive Essay On Cure For Cancer

In today’s society, Cancer is an epidemic. It affects both developed and undeveloped nations and challenges social and economic advances, and yet cancer is still on the rise. No one is safe from cancer and it is an equal opportunist when it comes to gender. Cancer does not discriminate against age, gender, or class. Studies show in America alone, 1.4 million Americans are diagnosed every year. Cancer has a detrimental effect, more than 12 million people around the world find out they have cancer yearly. This leave many wondering if a cure for cancer will ever be developed. In the cancer world, the word ‘cure’ does not mean a patient is free of cancer for the rest of their lifetime. Cure is simply a state of remission. Most doctors refer to a patient being cured of cancer if the patient is in a state of remission for five years or more, yet there is always a chance of cancer reemerging. Although, the longer a patient remains in remission there is a greater chance of the cancer not reappearing. This definition of cure does not allow us in today’s society to have a definitive, absolute cure for cancer. Yet, it still allows us to research and find a definitive cure for cancer for future patients. In order to determine if there will ever be a ‘one size fits all’ cure for cancer, one must know the basis of cancer. Cancer is a general name given to a group of about 200 diseases. Even though there are many different types of cancers, cancer always starts with the abnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells develop when a normal cell refuses to die and continues to grow to form new abnormal cells. These cancer cells are also able to invade other tissues and organs that normal cells cannot. Cancer cells can be caused by DNA damage. Normally, ... ... middle of paper ... ...become invisible to the innate immune system. The Innate immune system is the first wave of cells the immune system sends out throughout the body, thus it is easy to evade the innate immune system since it is the first line of defense. The adaptive immune system is called upon to eliminate pathogens that have evaded the innate immune system. By the time the adaptive immune system in called upon to take out a cancer it is too late, the cancer has total control. So it is believed that if as humans we can program the immune system to allow the adaptive immune system as first line of defense along side with the innate immune system, cancer will never be about to develop because the adaptive immune system would take notice of it and eliminate it. This leaves many wondering if they will see the success of immunotherapy abolishing the existents of cancer in their lifetime.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains the different types of surgeries, including curative, preventive and diagnostic surgery. palliative surgery is the act of treating a cancer at an advanced stage.
  • Explains that immunotherapy is rehabilitation by the use of the immune system within an organism.
  • Explains that cancer affects both developed and undeveloped nations and challenges social and economic advances, yet it is still on the rise.
  • Explains that one-third of women and half of all men in the us will develop cancer in their lifetime.
  • Explains that surgery is beneficial to cancer treatment, but it can cause complications, such as damage to organs, blood loss, and adverse reactions to medication. cryosurgery is a technique that uses tremendously icy temperatures to kill cancer cells.

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Somatic Evolution and Mutations with Cancer Cells

Cancer is the term used to describe a group of diseases consisting of hundreds of ailments and although there exists so many different types of cancer, they all begin in a similar way. The body is made up of over a trillion cells, and cancer is the uncontrolled growth of malfunctioning cells in the body (Dawson, 1996). “Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. During the early years of a person’s life, normal cells divide faster to allow the person to grow. After the person becomes an adult, most cells divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells or to repair injuries” (American Cancer Society, 2012).

Metastatic Melanoma Research Paper

In general, the word cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases (What is cancer? n.d.. ). In our everyday life multiple thousands of your cells divide in order to keep the function of that certain cell ongoing. Through out all types of cancer, the body begins to force cells to divide without cease which then spreads to the surrounding tissue. Cancer can take form in any part of the human body, were thousands of cells are cancerous. Through time human cells grow and divide to form new ones as it is a requirement for the body to keep functioning. Therefore

The Jetsons Analysis

In 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in the United States and of those 1,685,210 cases cancer brutally killed 595,690 of the people. Cancer has a major impact on society in the United States and across the world. Cancer leaves families torn, broken-hearted, and forever scared. Cancer is the worst disease known to man, and the worst part is, there is no known cure. With the discovery of a cure for cancer hundreds of thousands of people would get to live their life instead of losing the battle to cancer. I have had many personal experiences with cancer in my family, I recently lost my granny and great-granny to cancer. In addition, it not only hurts the person diagnosed but it hurts everyone who knows the person being diagnosed. With a cure for cancer my neighborhood of the future would be almost perfect. Cancer ruins many lives as it has mine, there is no way to change my life now, but we can help save others lives and futures by finding a cure for cancer in the near

Chaga Mushroom Research Paper

Cancer, a disease regarded the most deadly amongst all. Medical teams around the world are trying day and night to find a perfect, stable cure for cancer. Most of the people think of cancer as an incurable disease. Let me tell you. It is a hoax! People must not forget that there is a cure for cancer. These cures include taking medical supplements such as Chaga Mushroom, undergoing medical surgery such as chemotherapy and other natural remedies.

Persuasive Essay On Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is arguably the most devastating of all cancers, leading to more annual deaths than breast, prostate, and colon cancers combined (Crosta). 228,000 new cases are found every year (Marks) and there are approximately 1,370,000 deaths per year. Cancer in general accounts for 7.6 million deaths all around the globe. Cancer alone stands for thirteen percent of global deaths (Crosta). The percentage for the survival rate of lung cancer is a devastating sixteen percent (Marks)! More females are diagnosed with this cancer over men, but does not mean men cannot get this cancer as well. Actually, my uncle was diagnosed with lung cancer this past Summer. Shockingly, a couple of months later, my cousin, who I call my grandmother was diagnosed

Lung Cancer Cells Affect The Respiratory System

Cancer starts almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Cancer cells develops then the process breaks down. As the cells become more and more abnormal; old or damaged cells survive when they should die and new cells form when they are not needed. The new cells then divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors. Cancerous tumors are malignant means they can spread into or invade nearby tissues. When the tumors grow, cancer cells break off and travel through distant places of the body. Cancer cells also invade the immune system a network of organs, tissues, and specialized cell the protects the body from infections and other conditions.Tumors can also use the immune system to stay alive. Cancer is a genetic disease that changes the our cells function and how the genes grow and

Women´s Health Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer is defined as “a group of solid tumor malignancies arising in the tissues of the breast” (Sarah Crawford, Richard Alder, 2013) in human and other mammals. It can happen to both men and women. For women, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. According to National Cancer Institute, in the United States, the 2014 estimated new cases and deaths of female from breast cancer are 232,670 and 40,000, respectively. For male, it’s 430 deaths out of 2,360 new cases. From these numbers, we can see that women in the U.S. are greatly affected by breast cancer, thus, it’s not difficult to imagine the impact on a worldwide level. Although these numbers look frightening, people can actually survive from breast cancer if it is detected early and treated properly, so it is extremely important for all of us, especially women, to have a better understanding of breast cancer.

Causes Of Cancer

For years people have tried to figure out one big question. What is the real cause of cancer? After much research, the statistics say that cancer is a disease of the modern world (Stevenson 1). A few main factors that cause cancer are the use of tobacco, industrial agents, and a person’s weight and diet. (Landau 2-4). The modern environment and everyday lifestyle of people contain factors that cause cancer.

Persuasive Essay About Cancer

No one, no matter how weak or strong, rich or poor, tall or small, is safe from the reach of cancer. Cancer is a dangerous disease killing millions every year without any for sure or easy way to treat it. For years people have tried to raise awareness towards cancer but now that it threatens the lives of so many do people listen and try to help. However even with the help of dozens of different groups and agencies cancer rates continue to grow at an alarming rate. Although we have found ways to treat it we only have theories on how to prevent and stop it. What make cancer so deadly are its Symptoms, commonness, dangerous treatments, the many different areas it can affect, and the cost encored.

Cancer, Cancer And Treatment Of Cancer

“Since 1990, over 6 million Americans have died of cancer, more than the combined casualties from the Civil war, WWII, and the Vietnam and Korean conflicts combined” (Faguet, p. 5). According to American Cancer Society projections, there were 1,529,560 new cases of cancer in 2010. Cancer is becoming more and more common around the world. New cancers are constantly being discovered. Researchers are finding new ways to detect cancer and treat it so that the fatality rate does not rise. However, there are some cancers that researchers have not yet discovered a cure for. It is very important for Cancer Research to continue so that one day these cancers will no longer be a treat.

The Importance Of Cancer Cells

Researchers over centuries have been examining various cellular aspect of cancer as well as the knowledge of what separates a normal cell from a cancerous cell. The advancement of technology plays a large role in the research development of cancer. It is evident that there are different factors that contribute to the rapid growth of cancer cells. Thu, justifying the complex nature of cancer and the need for continual research needed to be able to have a complete understanding of the disease cancer.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma Research Paper

Cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases that are characterized by an uncontrolled cellular growth, local tissue invasion, and metastasis. (). When we are born we all are born with normal cells that grow until adulthood, we are also born with abnormal

To understand the problem of cancer treatment, one has to know the history of cancer. It 's a disease that kills millions a year [sic] and a slew of hoped-for miracle treatments have gone nowhere (Begley “Could This Be the End of Cancer”). President Nixon declared war on cancer in 1971 (Begley “Curing Cancer”). This is the main reason why cancer treatment is such a huge issue today. Ever since then, scientists, doctors, researchers, and experts have been looking for “a cure” in cancer treatment. Since it is a major disease that people get as of 2010 569,490 people would have died from cancer just that year (Begley ‘Curing Cancer’). The 569,490 people dying each year changes depending on what treatment people have and how many are diagnosed each year. The rate of cancer for men and women dropped in just new cancer cases in November 2008 (Graham). Old cancer

A Cure for Cancer

Cancer is a disease that affects human somatic cells. It causes the cells to divide uncontrollably and form masses known as tumors. There are two different types of cancer tumors. Some tumors are benign and other tumors are malignant. Benign tumors look similar to the tissues that they came from and develop slowly. The tumor remains in the same area that the tumor originated in. Malignant tumors are formed from cells that do not resemble the tissue that they came from. They vary in shape and size. This enables pieces of the tumor to break off and spread to other places in the body. Over the past few decades cancer has become a very prominent disease. There are many different types of cancer and many different causes for the the disease. Most cancers are because of a genetic mutation. The most common type occur when a cell is dividing. Proto-oncogenes, which are alleles in a normal cells, mutate to form oncogenes. These oncogenes cause cancer because they do not allow the cells to self destruct or become epistatic. There have been several research projects which have been testing epistatis.

Cancer Research and Funding

Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Tumors are then created and interfering with the digestive, nervous and circulatory systems. It is one of the most leading causes of death, reaching at about 8.2 million deaths in 2012. It is expected that cancer will rise from 14 million to 22 million within the next 2 decades. With over 100 cancer research centers in the United States studying how to treat this disease, people need to understand the importance of donating also with the awareness of signs and symptoms in the early stages. But, what are we doing about it? Do we have the technology to finally be able to put this deadly disease to an end?

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500+ Words Essay on Cancer

Cancer might just be one of the most feared and dreaded diseases. Globally, cancer is responsible for the death of nearly 9.5 million people in 2018. It is the second leading cause of death as per the world health organization. As per studies, in India, we see 1300 deaths due to cancer every day. These statistics are truly astonishing and scary. In the recent few decades, the number of cancer has been increasingly on the rise. So let us take a look at the meaning, causes, and types of cancer in this essay on cancer.

Cancer comes in many forms and types. Cancer is the collective name given to the disease where certain cells of the person’s body start dividing continuously, refusing to stop. These extra cells form when none are needed and they spread into the surrounding tissues and can even form malignant tumors. Cells may break away from such tumors and go and form tumors in other places of the patient’s body.

essay on cancer

Types of Cancers

As we know, cancer can actually affect any part or organ of the human body. We all have come across various types of cancer – lung, blood, pancreas, stomach, skin, and so many others. Biologically, however, cancer can be divided into five types specifically – carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, leukemia.

Among these, carcinomas are the most diagnosed type. These cancers originate in organs or glands such as lungs, stomach, pancreas, breast, etc. Leukemia is the cancer of the blood, and this does not form any tumors. Sarcomas start in the muscles, bones, tissues or other connective tissues of the body. Lymphomas are the cancer of the white blood cells, i.e. the lymphocytes. And finally, melanoma is when cancer arises in the pigment of the skin.

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Causes of Cancer

In most cases, we can never attribute the cause of any cancer to one single factor. The main thing that causes cancer is a substance we know as carcinogens. But how these develop or enters a person’s body will depend on many factors. We can divide the main factors into the following types – biological factors, physical factors, and lifestyle-related factors.

Biological factors involve internal factors such as age, gender, genes, hereditary factors, blood type, skin type, etc. Physical factors refer to environmental exposure of any king to say X-rays, gamma rays, etc. Ad finally lifestyle-related factors refer to substances that introduced carcinogens into our body. These include tobacco, UV radiation, alcohol. smoke, etc. Next, in this essay on cancer lets learn about how we can treat cancer.

Treatment of Cancer

Early diagnosis and immediate medical care in cancer are of utmost importance. When diagnosed in the early stages, then the treatment becomes easier and has more chances of success. The three most common treatment plans are either surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

If there is a benign tumor, then surgery is performed to remove the mass from the body, hence removing cancer from the body. In radiation therapy, we use radiation (rays) to specially target and kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is similar, where we inject the patient with drugs that target and kill the cancer cells. All treatment plans, however, have various side-effects. And aftercare is one of the most important aspects of cancer treatment.


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MUET Newsletter Vol-IX, Issue-III, 2023

  • 1. Persuasive Essay About Cancer Cancer, one of the most well–known diseases of today's world, has never ceased to interest me. To this day, modern technology has brought an amazing amount of cures and vaccines to fight off a multitude of diseases! Yet for some reason, no one has found a veritable solution to cancer, despite countless years of intensive research. As this happens, many around the globe diagnosed with cancer struggle every second of their lives to conquer it. One such person was my grandma, who was diagnosed with a terminal cancer (leukemia) around five years ago. We were close and intimate with each other, so this was mentally distressing for me. At that time, she did not have much money and thus could not afford her cancer treatments. No one was able to contribute because the treatments were extortionate at that time. Unfortunately, she was not able to win her battle. Another person I knew who was affected by cancer was a boy who went to my school: Ryan Kerr. He always had a glowing personality and displayed nothing but pure generosity. He bravely fought against his cancer– Osteosarcoma– and refused to stop until he could not continue further. To help other kids facing the dreadful and dragging surgeries he once had to go through, Ryan Kerr and his family started a volunteer organization– called Ryan's Case for Smiles– to add some liveliness to the hospital rooms by making colorful homemade pillowcases and help kids diagnosed with cancer in whatever way possible. I myself have contributed a Get more content on
  • 2. Descriptive Essay About Cancer Cancer is a 6 letter word. It seems small, but it could destroy lives. I thought it was over for me, but plans changed. Sometimes it 's hard being an adopted child. Not at home, where my family is amazing. It 's harder at school. Kids tend to make fun of the fact that I am adopted. Granted, it 's my fault. Nobody except my family knows what happened. But, complaining won 't help at all. As a Dahlberg, we live in a nice house. My parents, the ones I have now, are the best people I have ever met and I am lucky to have them in my life. John and Emily Dahlberg are my adoptive parents, but they are the only family I have ever known. When I was 2 months old, they took me in. If they hadn 't, I would 've been sent overseas to start more content... He is like my twin, but of course, he is not. I love him maybe even a little more than Zane. The second youngest brother, being the middle child with Alex, is Damien. I like him the least, mostly because he broke my arm one year on the bike. Even though he did that, he loves me and I love him. However, he is amazing at making red velvet cupcakes, and on giving advice. He has been going steady with a friend of mine named Aria for quite some time. Not to mention he loves Undertale like I do. And then we have Felix. Felix is only 16, two years older than me, but has the mind of my older brother. He has two honors classes and 6 AP classes. His entire day is college stuff. Being the youngest brother, dad makes him work the hardest. Papa wants to make sure that all of his boys become successful. Felix takes karate with me and is, of course, almost expert. We started at the same time, but somehow he already has his brown belt, while I am a green belt. No matter how much my family goes through, we love each other. Being the youngest is hard. Hell, being a GIRL in my family is hard. What you would expect is my brothers hogging the bathroom or teasing me. But it is the exact opposite. They protect me with brute force. If they ever find out someone hurt me, I start praying. For the other person. My brothers are merciless when it comes to protecting me. They know what happened to my parents, and try and make up for the family I never had. I am Get more content on
  • 3. Argumentative Essay On Cancer It is one of the most dreaded messages to receive. . . "You have cancer". In 2017, it is estimated that 1,688,780 people in the United States will receive this news ("American Cancer Society"). A diagnosis of cancer can be devastating for a person and his or her family. Many consider a cancer diagnosis a death sentence. It is important to understand what exactly cancer is. Despite a lack of new treatment methods, cancer survival rates are increasing; not much new techniques are being used, and cancer cannot be cured unless more research is done. The origin of cancer within a person could be a result of multiple variables. Cancer could simply be a malfunction within the body. All living things are composed of cells. Cells house the genetic makeup of a person: deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. The human body is composed of trillions of cells which constantly divide to replace old or damaged cells ("The Cells"). For cells to divide, enzymes within the cell must duplicate the DNA. Mistakes in copying genetic code are common. This division of cells usually occurs in a consistent and controllable manner as the cell has the ability to check its DNA for errors and self–destruct if an error is potentially harmful; however, not all mistakes are caught. If the mistake in the DNA is not noticed and taken care of, the cell can develop and begin to behave abnormally. It may gain the ability to stimulate its own growth and ignore signals to stop. When this happens, a cluster of abnormal Get more content on
  • 4. Patients with Cancer Essay This paper explores different peer–reviewed articles that attempts to shed some light on the phenomenon of the lived experience of patients with cancer; supporting the fact that individuality is a huge factor in the care of cancer patients. Manu types of cancers exist and patients should be treated as individuals versus as a disease or diagnosis. As oncology nurses we accumulate knowledge on a daily basis that may be revised in practice. Therefore, it becomes our innate duty to visit the literature and gain the understanding and evidence that will help us in improving our practice of nursing. The articles, however, vary in the type of cancer with different treatment modalities and the collection methods but have the commonality of all more content... I chose this topic because I realize the gap in knowledge and communication between what happens to patients between diagnoses, treatment and discharge, up to the time they return for follow –up cycles to the time they may hear that the cancer has either metastasis or have been cured (in remission). Just knowing that your life will change is significant enough. We, as nurses are first line in the patient care area. The Doctor walks in and tells the patient that they have cancer and then walk out and the nurse is faced with the aftermath, the questions and the emotions that follow. The nurse is also the one that administers the chemotherapy and various radiation treatments and again is faced with questions and emotions. At discharge the nurse again becomes the one that is faced with questions and emotions. It may not be possible to answer all the questions and for the ones that we are not sure of, we can refer or ask the doctor to explain but having the knowledge of what it may be like for these cancer patients can help with how we approach these questions and the treatment options. Having this knowledge can help in terms of support, teaching, prevention and alleviation of suffering, enabling us to give more culturally congruent care. Literature Review In Arber et al.'s (2008) article on the lived experience of patients with pleural mesothelioma it was found that these patients had many unmet psychosocial and emotional needs and that there was a Get more content on
  • 5. Informative Essay On Cancer Cancer. You never thought you would be one of the unlucky human beings to get cancer, but then all of a sudden, you're sick. Throwing up, not being able to swallow anything, and chest pains. You go to the doctor and he says something you are not expecting. Something you never thought you would ever hear. You havecancer. Did you know that men are more likely to get Esophageal cancer than women? Tobacco and Alcohol use is the leading cause of this type of cancer. In this essay, I will be talking about Esophageal cancer. I will cover the topics of what it is, causes of the disease, how to treat it, how to prevent it, and the many effects it has on your body. Cancer is a disease that no one wants, but it is a disease everyone is willing to fight if it means getting your life back. What is esophageal cancer? Well, esophageal or esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The cancer starts in the inner layer and continues to grow outward. There are two types of esophageal cancer. The first one is Squamous Cell Carcinoma . The second type is Adenocarcinoma. Squamous is a cell in the body that are thin and flat and they look like fish scales. They are found in the tissue of the body and they form the surface of the skin and is a lining on the hollow organs of the body and of the respiratory digestive tracts. Squamous cell carcinoma can be located on anywhere on the esophagus, but it is mostly found in the neck area and upper chest cavity. Adenocarcinoma is a Get more content on
  • 6. Argument About Cancer In response to your comment about cancer/pain: I agree that the child may have not made an "error" and developed cancer, but the errors of his/her parents or the society could have. In cancers/diseases, some kind of abnormality occurs, and usually something caused this. Parents that reproduce, while they are carriers of a disease/cancer, pass those genes onto that child. The environment around them (e.g., pollution) is a result of the errors that other people make. I am not saying that that errors we make only causes ourselves to suffer, but they can make others suffer too. The genes, environment, and everything else could have caused a child to have cancer. These factors are "errors" that were made by other humans. However, it is impossible Get more content on
  • 7. Cancer Essay Cancer Cancer is a disease in which cells grow out of control and invade, erode, and destroy normal tissue. Damaged genes cause this development of cancer. These damaged genes are often a factor caused by such things such as the environment, and can be influenced by inherited factors. As the very early damaged cells divide they can evolve into a malignant cell population, and lose the control mechanism that govern normal cell division. These malignant cells can then go on to form solid tumours that start to destroy normal tissue. These can then spread to other parts of the body by releasing these tumour cells. Once these cancer cells spread, they grow in other parts of the body and then more content... These are known as mutagens. These carcinogens can cause errors, duplication or rearrangement in DNA sequences that contribute to the progression of cancer. An example of a carcinogen is tobacco. Tobacco smoke contains at least twenty carcinogens, which are known to cause lung cancer. Age can be a factor when asked what causes cancer. This is because cancer becomes more common as we get older. 85% of cancers are diagnosed in patients over fifty–five. This is because as we get older we become more susceptible to some types of carcinogens. Age is also a cause as it takes a long time for a cell to become cancerous, as there has to be a number of changes to the genes within a cell, before it turns into a cancerous cell. Therefore the longer we live; the more time there is for us to become susceptible to these mistakes in our genes. Our genetics are also another cause of cancer. If we are born with one of these genetic mutations, which can cause cancer, we are said to be genetically predipositional. This is known as many of the genes that control cell growth, and DNA repair are associated with inherited cancer susceptibility. The genes, which are susceptible to leading to cancerous mutations, are called proto–oncogenes. They are called oncogens as the word "onco" means cancer. An example of this is the faulty genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. If a woman carries one of these genes, she is Get more content on
  • 8. Outline On Cancer Research Paper Cancer Cancer is a disease that can change the life of a person no matter their age or nationality. Cancer can range from being life threatening to a low risk of death. Cancer cells are cells that do not follow the regular cell growth and division pattern. They go through cell division and produce rapidly. Cancer cells differ from regulating cells in the body because normal cells eventually die. Cancer cells, on the other hand, do not die when they should causing it to be very hard to cure cancer in your body. One thing I learned in researching cancer is that in order for cancer to appear in our body it has to avoid being detected by our immune system. The cancer cells have to avoid being detected by the immune system because if they are detected the immune system will try and fight off the abnormality. If your immune system does not detect the abnormality in cells, the cancer cells will grow and reproduce causing cancer to spread rapidly. The cancer cells that are not detected they can create colonies and spread rapidly. There are many ways that you can get cancer. You can get cancer from smoking, sunlight, your diet, mold, viruses, and inheritance. Out of those factors, the most common cause of cancer today is smoking. All cancers are genetic because they are caused by the mutations that happen to the gene. Some common cancers that more content... The tumor needs blood flow to survive so they try and attract the blood vessels to grow into the tumor to keep it alive. The blood vessels usually don't grow very far into the tumor causing it to lack the nutrients of the blood. The tumor gets oxygen and glucose from the bloodstream. The tumors also have to figure out how to get rid of wastes and carbon dioxide. So in all the blood vessels are very important to the cancer cells because the blood stream brings out all the toxic waste for the tumor so that it doesn't Get more content on
  • 9. Essay about Many Causes of Cancer Causes of Cancer Cancer is a non–inflammatory disease, which can be defined as abnormal cell divisions and growth in a specific part of the living body. There are many different types of cancer, which are classified and named according to the type of affected cells. In normal cases, each cell has controllable limited growth and divisions in addition to limited life span. When this life span completed, the cell will die. In cancer cell (abnormal cell), the cell growth become out of control with unlimited divisions, and this cell does not die. The continuous abnormal division of cancerous cell will form cancer mass. The cancerous cell can invade the neighbor cells or tissues in the body, or can transfer through the blood vessels or more content... The inheritance of gene defects increases the chance of cancer formation in the future. 2.The Age There is a positive relationship between age and cancer formation. The old people are more susceptible to have cancer than the young people because they have weak immune systems, and they also have been exposing to cancer–causing agents more than the young people and children. Although the age and cancer are positively related, it is not necessarily that each old person will have cancer. 3.Life styles and bad habits There are many factors that could be included in bad life styles and habits, and may cause cancer. The most harmful agents are tobacco and alcohol. There is no doubt that tobacco–smoking and alcohol–drinking people may have cancer during their life. Some specific cancer types are mostly related to tobacco and alcohol consumption (such as mouth, esophagus, stomach, lung, liver, and kidney cancer), but this doesn't mean that tobacco and alcohol cause just these types of cancer, or these types of cancer occur as a result of the consumption of these materials. Obesity and exercises are another risk factors that may lead to cancer. People who are obese or do not exercise become more susceptible to cancer because these factors can affect the immune and the endocrine systems. 4.Infections with some viruses and bacteria Some specific types of viruses and bacteria are associated with specific types of
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  • 11. Personal Essay: How Cancer Has Changed My Life People tend to usually tremble when hearing the unpleasant word "Cancer". Imagine being the one diagnosed with this horrible illness. More and more people in today's society are struck with certain health issues such as diabetes, obesity, heart diseases and many more. Cancer is the at the top of this horrible chain of problems. Based on my experiences, someone that is diagnosed with cancer, does not realize how life can change so rapidly for them. Their whole lifestyle changes and they have a different outlook on life. Not until a person experiences a family member going through cancer, is he/she able to understand how important spending time with family really is. I got the news that my aunt, Andrea, a close family member was diagnosed with cancer during the month of July, 2017. Andrea has faced many tough obstacles in her life. Her husband died from a heart attack at the age of 63. Her house was flooded and both of her more content... Although she was diagnosed with cancer, it was detected very early. It was so shocking and surreal. Who would have imagined that someone you were so close with would have to face this battle. When a family member gets diagnosed with this you are lost for words, and feel as if nothing you say or do will help the situation. She is still undergoing chemotherapy and numerous hospital visits, but keeps a positive attitude through it all. One day she said "I think cancer is a blessing, everyone should experience it once in their lifetime to understand how precious life actually is." That just shows how well she keeps her positivity through all of this. Andrea reminds herself everyday that she is going to be just fine and that she is blessed with an amazing family and friends that support her. She is aware that cancer can taking over her body, but she is still living life to its Get more content on
  • 12. Essay about Cancer Cancer Right now, cancer is one of the most feared diseases in the world. In the early 1990s almost 6 million new cancer cases developed and more than 4 million deaths from cancers occurred. Also more than one–fifth of all deaths were caused by cancer and it has been predicted, by the American Cancer Society, that about 33% of Americans will eventually develop this disease. This is a huge disease that is killing people all over the world. The field of cancer study is called Oncology. The government has spent billions ofdollars on research of this fatal disease. Cancer is the most aggressive disease of a larger class known as neoplasms. Neoplasms do not fully comply with the parts of the cell that control the more content... Any agent that causes cancer is called a carcinogen. Carcinogens are generally classified into three groups– chemical, biological, and physical. Chemicals that cause cancer have many different molecular structures and can be just about any type of chemical. Some substances that cause cancer are complex chemicals and gases, certain metals, drugs, hormones, substances in molds and plants and many more. Many nitrosamines, or simple organic oxides of nitrogen, are carcinogenic. That and hydrocarbons are carcinogens in cigarette smoke and increase the risk of lung cancer. Also another chemical gas, vinyl chloride, gas has been found to be an agent of sarcoma of the blood vessels in the liver. Many drugs as well as alkylating agents used to treat cancer are carcinogenic. Even though these chemicals break the DNA of cancerous cells, which kills them, it also induces cancer in normal cells. Some hormones created in humans can also cause cancer. High levels of estrogen, which is marked as a female hormone, can increase the chances of getting a cancer of the uterus (in women). Aflatoxin B is a substance produced by the mold Aspergillus that causes a number of cancer, but generally liver cancer. Many carcinogens have not been discovered but research is being done to discover other carcinogens to keep people aware and safe. There are also many different biological agents which cause cancers. The most Get more content on
  • 13. Persuasive Essay About Cancer "Lets not call cancer patients as patients, they are cancer fighters. They are brave hearts" – Vikrmn, Gura. Nowadays, you hear more and more people getting cancer(13). It is a stress that many people worry about. You worry if one of your parents will get it. You pray your children don't' get it. It's a constant worry. You watch television and you can get this horrible monster from microwaving your food, drinking bottled water, carrying your phone in your pocket, using deodorant, coloring your hair and much more. Finding a cure for cancer would be a prayer answered for many. Leading causes of death in this world is cancer. Anybody can get it. If you're one hundred years old or a newborn, it doesn't matter if you are poor or have lots of money. Women and men both can get it. Nowadays, everybody in this world knows somebody who has cancer. It could be a family member or a friend of the family. There can be many family members who have it. One in two men and more than one in three women get cancer in this lifetime(1). Only 5% to 10% of cancer is inherited from one of your parents(1). If you have cancer in your family you can get what its called genetic testing. When you get cancer it can change everything. Not only does cancer diagnosis affect the cancer patient, it affects everybody in their life. The feeling you have can be overwhelming for everybody in the family. One of the greatest effects of cancer can be your marriage(4). You experience so much anger, anxiety, and sadness. In some cases, it can make you have a stronger relationship with your wife or husband. You also can bet you will see a change in your childs' behavior. Young children are used to getting all of the attention. When they aren't getting attention due to one of the parents being sick, they will act out. It can make the older children realize and appreciate the sick parents more. It's very important to talk with your children about what is happening in the family with the cancer diagnosis, and how important they are to one another. You and your family members may need to get therapy to help deal with everything you are going throught. It can put a strain on all your relationships. It is exhaustion, physically, mentally, and Get more content on
  • 14. Cancer Essay Presently cancer kills one American every minute of ever day. There are 1,500 people diagnosed with cancer every 24 hours a day. Specifically there are many types of cancer that could make you extremely sick. Everybody in your family has probably had cancer at least once.("Research" 3) Some people thinks cancer comes from Airport Scanners because of the Radiation from the airport x–ray scanners. A bad food to eat is red meat Some people in Africa eats rats. Rats have red meat.. Red meat could give you Bladder cancer and other types of cancers. Their are over 1000 cancers on earth. The Top 5 are Pancreatic Cancer, Lung Cancer, Breast Cancer Ovarian Cancer and Colo–rectal Cancer. Pancreatic Cancer is in both men and women 40% more content... People can reduce their risks of getting cancer through diet, exercise, and weight loss.("Research "3). Jim Valvano was a player for Rutgers University in 1960's he was a good player but, a better coach. Jim Valvano coach for lots of teams in his 20 years of college hoops. Jim Valvano has three daughters and one son. Valvano's best team was in 1983 with North Carolina Wolf Pack . He also was a ESPN Commentary with the famous Dick Vitale. In June 1992 Jim was diagnosed with terminal cancer. Jim was famous for his favorite quotes. "Don't Give up, Don't ever give up". Be a dreamer If you don't know how to dream, your dead. And his last quote was "My father gave me the greatest gift anyone could give another person he believed in Me". Jim Valvano's Daughter's have caner to. Jenny is 28 with Breast Cancer. In Valvano's room Dick Vitale Sidney Lowe and Coach K watching him until he died on April 28, 1993. Everyday he took 24 tablets to get him through the day.{"Kirshenbaum Jerry"1). The V foundation for cancer and research was founded by Jim Valvano. The foundation raises money for cancer. The V foundation has raised 80 million dollars since 1993.("About Us"2). On March 4th, 1993 Jim was awarded the Inaugural Arthur Ashe Courage award for his ESPY speech. Jim's ESPY speech was very good and it plays every year before the Jimmy V Classic games. Jim's Spirit , drive, and determination carried him through his Get more content on
  • 15. Argumentative Essay About Cancer Title: Almost HALF Of All Cancers Can Be Prevented– Here's How Category: Health News Tags: cancer free, avoiding cancer, cancer causes, preventing cancer Teaser: Cancer has become epidemic in America. But if you take charge of your health you may be able to avoid be a statistic. Snippet: Three things place you at high risk for cancer. Article: By the time 2017 comes to an end an estimated 1,688,780 people in the U.S. will be diagnosed with cancer. Over 600,000 people will die from cancer–related deaths. Being diagnosed with cancer is surely scary and life–changing. But what if there were things you could do to prevent cancer? Turns out, a new study from the American Cancer Society has shed some well–needed light on cancers, and which ones are preventable by simply making the necessary lifestyle changes. Here's what you can do to prevent certain cancers from taking hold of your life. Is cancer epidemic? If cancer isn't epidemic, it sure feels like it is. Most people today, have some sort of first–hand experience with cancer. Either through personal diagnoses or by witnessing a loved–one battling cancer. Not surprising since one in three Americans will be diagnosed with cancer, often before the age of 65. Recently, however. a large new study from the American Cancer Society found that certain cancers could be prevented by making the necessary lifestyle changes. That's good news. The study published in the journal CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians looked at a total of 1,570,975 cancer cases of which over 580,000 resulted in death. During the study, 26 cancers and 17 risk factors were analyzed. Here's what you must modify to help prevent cancer Did you know that only 15 percent of cancers are due – and only in part – to inherited genetic defects? In fact, when comparing the West to Asian countries, the most common cancers such as prostate, breast, colon and lung are much higher in the West. Yet, when Asians emigrate to the U.S., Western cancer rates seem to catch up with Asians within one or two generations. While living in Asia, Asians are protected not by their genes, but by their lifestyle reports The New York Times. Still as a Westerner, there are lifestyle and diet changes that you can make. Actually,
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  • 17. Informative Essay About Cancer Cancer is a word that no one wants to hear or think about, however there are many people that are faced with this ugly word every day. The denotative definition of cancer is a malignant and invasive growth or tumor, especially one originating in epithelium, tending to recur after excision and to metastasize to other sites. To many Americanscancer is so much more than this definition, it is estimated that 1,638,910 men and women will be diagnosed with cancer in 2012 according to the national cancer institute. When someone is diagnosed with cancer it affects many aspects in their life such as physical health, mental health, and emotional health. Cancer affects a person's physical health tremulously. Depending on if a more content... The fact that a person has cancer could very well put them in a depressed state. Another mental hazard that is directly caused by having cancer is anxiety. Cancer is a word that gets people very anxious; anxious to know what's going to happen how did this happen what to do ect... mental health is necessary to have when dealing with a life changing disease, most people cannot keep their head level enough to stay in a sane mind set. Cancer has the most affect on the emotional health. Cancer not only affects the patient directly but also friends and family. From an emotional stand point cancer is the worst thing that could happen to a person. It is a disease that is packed with emotions and feeling. Those who are diagnosed with this disease are mostly flabbergasted with pain of the heart and disbelief. The patients often think what will happen to them and how are they going to get through this horrible disease. Family and friends are affected because they have to watch their loved one go through this hardship. When I interviewed Kelly Mitchell about her Aunt Deena dying from cancer she said "The hardest part for me was to watch my aunt go from such a strong women in every way to a brittle little lady who had lost all hope of getting better, I really believe that if she had maintained good emotional health she would have lived a lot longer or Get more content on
  • 18. Narrative Essay On Cancer March 15th, 2010, was a completely normal day. As normal as any day is for a twelve year old homeschooler. I was home with my oldest sister Brittany who was twenty at the time and I was just finishing up my homework for the day. After finishing up my math work I went to go watch television in the living room. Brittany was in her room and my parents didn't get home until later because of work. A few hours into my movie, my stomach started to hurt. Since I was twelve I didn't no the differences of pain so I just left it alone for a while. Later in the day my abdomen was aching so much I couldn't even get off the couch. After wailing for Brittany to call Mom I was sent to the emergency room in an ambulance with severe abdomen pain. After several hours in the ER and multiple tests, doctors found nothing. I was sent home and was told to take Tylenol for the pain. Once I got home, it didn't hurt anymore so I thought they were right and that I could just go on with my crazy life as a twelve year old. I was wrong. Two months after, I got the more content... When I was given this ancestry project I automatically knew I wanted to figure out my family genetics and why I got cancer in the first place. I am the only child out of four in my family to get cancer. After digging into some history I found out that my mom, grandma, and uncle had cancer. It's weird how genetics work but I was basically doomed from the beginning. My grandma had breast cancer and had both her breasts removed. My uncle had stage four lung cancer and passed away shortly after diagnosis. And my mom had thyroid cancer only a few years ago and is a survivor. Since there is history of breast cancer in my family I had to get tested for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene, which is a mutated gene that is inherited from your family. This gene increases your risk of developing breast cancer to 50%, a one in two Get more content on
  • 19. Essay about I Am a Survivor of Breast Cancer I am proud to say that I am a survivor of breast cancer. The years since I discovered I had cancer have, in many ways, been the best part of my life. My journey began when I signed up to play in a golf tournament for the benefit of the Breast Cancer Foundation when, ironically, I discovered a lump in one of my breasts. At the time I was more concerned with the tournament than the lump and I decided to only monitor it for any changes. Much to my chagrin, I noticed it was steadily growing. A friend suggested that I see a doctor. I procrastinated in doing so, prompting my concerned friend to call and make the appointment for me. Looking back now I probably would not have made it to the doctor if it weren't for the action of more content... With much difficulty my doctor told me that the 3 centimeter tumor hidden behind the original benign tumor I had discovered was indeed cancer. This was a powerful wake–up call for me, I knew immediately that I had to change my attitude or I would not survive. I never once accepted this as a death sentence, nor allowed that thought to enter my mind. Yet I knew my life would never be the same again. Because I had "intraductal" and "invasive" breast cancer –– when the cancer cells invade into the surrounding tissue –– I had a mastectomy with immediate reconstructive surgery. For the following six months I received chemotherapy treatment at the Sutter Cancer Center, where a supportive friend always sat with me as the drugs were administered intravenously. Although the cancer is currently gone, I know at any time there could be a recurrence. I don't obsess about this daily, but I can say that when something does not feel right with my body, my first thought is that the cancer has returned. This is why I make sure to give myself monthly
  • 20. self–breast exams and to get a mammogram every year. My advice to anyone who has contracted cancer or any deadly disease is that you should express buried feelings to begin the long emotional and physical healing process, nurture and cultivate a support group of family and friends, and get involved in a supportive Get more content on
  • 21. Persuasive Speech On Cancer We as people face War and Disease everyday. So this means that everyday we all have something that is worth fighting for. Cancer is the war we face in our present times. Despite the fact that our people die to such disease, we spend more money for our own medical issues and needs. Even though Cancer is one of the leading causes of death within our nation, we strive everyday because everyone has something to live for. We should stand up to put an end to our pain and suffering. No one should walk miserable or mourn no more. According to research and theory it is proven that there are treatments for cancer as the war continues to move forward. Cancer is a problem that needs a solution. Everyday on the news we hear of people dying from or over certain causes. With more than half our population dying downwards, the struggle for the people becomes very rough. We challenge cancer at the moments it strikes us down. Dr Martin Luther king Jr quoted " The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at a time of challenge and controversy". From donations and fundraisers , we give more money to help the weak and ill so that they could live longer. It is our duty to make sure the people get the help they deserve. It is our responsibility to make sure that we are doing the right thing in aiding the patient as if we are their nurse or doctor. Our job is to keep our society equivalent. Ask yourself what this world really Get more content on
  • 22. How Cancer Affects a Family This was the diagnosis of stage four cancers that affected my mom and there was nothing that the doctors could do. The next question my dad had was, "How long?" The doctor said, "Less than ninety days," due to the fact that the cancer had eaten its way through mom's bladder. This is the most serious illness that I have had to deal with was truly hard on me and a lot more so on my dad; since he and mom would have been married more than thirty years. My question was, "Okay, do we tell her or just let everything seem as if it all going to be alright?" We just wanted Mom to be happy and not in any pain. So, we decided not to tell her that she was dying, just to take it one day at a time. After, that I took a month off from work to spend more content... Mom was gray, and gasping I hated to see her like that, yet I wanted her out of the pain that she was in too. I laid there with her for a while telling her "that if she had to go before anyone got there they would understand." She just laid there with her eyes closed trying to relax I would think how long is she going to gasp? Dad finally got there and started talking to her; as he did she stopped gasping and said "look at the blue birds." Dad looked at me and grandmother because the blinds to her room were closed and so were her eyes. Mom was almost at peace I think. Everyone came that I called spent time with her and we laughed knowing that it was wrong to be laughing at the memories with her lying there slowly leaving us. The memory that everyone seemed to enjoy the most was the Christmas that had just past. Mom's reaction to everyone in her room at one time, due to the room being so little and there being at least twenty–five people in there with us remind all of us of the people trying to see how many people they could fit into phone booth. When mom finally died that night, going home seemed emptier knowing that she was never coming home again. Yet, another way that I look at it is she is truly home and pain free. Cancer has affected my family since mom's passing by losing more family members within a few months of her leaving us. Now, I take every checkup seriously Get more content on


Persuasive Essay About Cancer

While much is said and written about cancer treatments, it 's perhaps best to remember this: the best treatment for cancer is prevention. It may be a cliché but it 's 100 percent true. Those dismissing cancer as a hereditary disease should realize that lifestyle can have a great impact on a person 's chances of contracting one of the many forms of cancer. Likewise, those that believe complying with a set of conditions - like those set out below - guarantees a cancer-free existence should understand that this is certainly not the case. At the end of the day, cancer is arbitrary, and you never know if, or when, you will develop the disease and require any of a number of cancer treatments. However, there are a number of preventative measures that have been scientifically proven to reduce the risk of contracting cancer. Complying with these will hopefully minimalize the need for cancer treatments, and at least give you a fighting chance. 1. STOP SMOKING Smoking has been reliably linked to cancer for a long time now. Smokers run the risk of developing lung, throat, mouth, liver, kidney, and stomach cancer, as well as a host more. Even those that inhale smoke - which is where most of the cancer causing chemicals can be found - passively can develop extreme cases of cancer. As such, reducing and eventually quitting smoking can act as a positive preventative method. 2. REDUCE ALCOHOL INTAKE Alcohol consumption has been linked to the likes of cancer of the liver, breast, and

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Rhetorical Analysis: The David Cornfield Melanoma

Even at a young age, knowing that melanoma is very easy to get may cause the rates of this deadly cancer to drop. This is a cancer that we know how to, and can, prevent. People should be doing everything in their power to do so, for this cancer spreads fast and is most always

Henrietta Lacks Book Review

Lastly, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to the recurrence of breast cancer in other parts of a woman 's body. Advancements in prostate cancer include new research in gene changes that will help understand how the cancer develops. Some hereditary genes that have specific components of the DNA have been found to actually increase the risk of cancer in men. Many scientists have discovered that substances in some foods aid in lowering the risk of contracting the cancer. Lastly, a new treatment made is high intensity focused ultrasound or HIFU, which is used to kill cancer cells in early stages by using high focus ultrasonic

Not A Moonshot

Many of his points provided questioning and makes the reader lean towards his beliefs. I, personally, agree with paragraph eight the most. Cancer is different in every case and they are all unique. It really made me think about how there might not be one cure but there might be a cure for each individual. Kluger’s article was very well written.

Dbq Cancer Analysis

Secondly, many individuals are susceptible to getting cancer due to their genetics. According to Document H, “Researchers found that some women have a genetic predisposition to use the pathway that creates the bad metabolite (16-alpha-hydroxyestrone). These women have a greatly increased risk for breast cancer. ” If a cell in the reproductive system becomes mutated, the mutation could possibly pass to the next generation.

Persuasive Essay On The Cure Quest

The film The Cure, directed by Peter Horton is an excellent example of an archetypal quest story. Throughout the story the film gives great examples of the calling, departure, experience, initiation, and return. Every quest starts out with a calling. In the film The Cure, Erik was looking for a friend or just someone to care about him.

Btec Health And Social Care Level 3 Unit 10 M1

M1, Introduction There is always a question which can’t be answered by scientist all of which relate to the perceptions of science as there is difference in how science is currently addressed. Also, people have different believes, opinions and interpretation of science in general. Questions science is currently addressing- cure for cancer?

St. Jude Cancer Research Essay

When I see somebody with cancer, I get really mad, I say to myself, ”Why must this disease be real. Why did God create something so horrible that it can affect anybody.” If it was I who had ten million dollars, I would donate it to St.Jude's Cancer Research Facilities because it is a deadly disease, it is a real-nonprofit research organization, and it covers all expenses for families. Cancer is among the top ten leading causes of death in the world. This disease takes nearly eight million lives every year.

Freshman 15 Persuasive Essay

Also, while drinking, eating foods with unhealthy fats don’t help. Unless, you’re a mother to a newborn child trying to get your breasts to produce more milk drinking doesn’t help with much. Avoiding beer completely would be the best decision, but drinking occasionally wont hurt as long as its in

Skin Cancer Essay

There are many deadly disease that affect human life. one of the most deadly disease is cancer. Cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues.(4) Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.(4) There are many types of cancer and one of the most dangerous one is skin cancer. Skin cancer effect millions of people around the world every year.

Persuasive Speech On Cancer

More and more people have cancer these days. It is almost like the plague that no one wants to talk about, and it keeps getting worse. • In the early 1900s, one in 20 developed cancer. •

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Argumentative Essay on The Benefits of Marijuana

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Psychosocial Oncology Essay

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Persuasive Speech On Smoking

Worldwide, tobacco use causes about 90% of lung cancer deaths, 30% of all cancers, 20-25% of coronary heart diseases and stroke deaths, and more than 80% of chronic bronchitis and emphysema”. (Jordan 1). Secondly not only does it affect smokers but even people who don 't even partake in the activity of smoking cigarettes. Second hand smoke is a serious issue and can cause cancer almost easy as being an actual smoker can.

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Lifestyle Changes to Prevent Cancer

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Cancer and The Process of Cell Division

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Essays on Cancer

Breast cancer what are my options.

DIAGNOSTICS (METHODS AND APPROACHES) Diagnostics is an expression that is derived from the word diagnosis. During the diagnosis process, it is advisable for a patient to seek multidisciplinary management so as to get accurate results and analysis. In a lay man’s language, multidisciplinary management is a form of patient care that entails the use of several disciplines and visiting different health professionals such as nurses, doctors, occupational therapists and psychologists (Radice & Redaelli, 2003). In such a case, health professionals […]

Breast Cancer Treatment and Guidelines in Older Women

Many people in today’s society are getting cancer from many things we consume. There are many methods and results I will be talking about. There was a study population of 1,568 that were 55 years old or older. This study was happening at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. They treated these people at the center during the time 1997-2002 for stage Stage IIA and I. Stage I and Stage IIIA are cancers that are present and the higher the number the […]

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Study of Combination Therapy in the Treatment of Recurrent Breast Cancer

Trial background Breast cancer is a disease in which cells in the breast grow out of control. There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer. Breast cancer can begin in different parts of the breast. A breast is made up of three main parts: lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules are the glands that produce milk. The ducts are tubes that carry milk to the […]

Breast Cancer Disease

The world is filled with terrible things, many of which are health problems. These problems can be fatal, damaging, and can change lifes. This specific disease, breast cancer, affects more than 200,000 women a year. As many people know, cancer is caused by overgrowth of the cells in ones body. It is also caused by the start of a tumor or the growth of a pre-existing tumor. Breast cancer is started like most cancers, with an overgrowth in the breast […]

Lung Cancer Detection

Declaration We hereby declare that this written submission represents our own ideas in our own words and where other’s ideas or words have been included, have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. We also declare that we have adhered to all the principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea /data /fact /source in our submission. Acknowledgement it is not possible to prepare without the assistance and encouragement of other people […]

Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Treatment

We believe that your diagnosis is lung cancer. Lung cancer is the growth of abnormal cells in your lungs that spread to lung tissue which causes the formation of a tumor. These abnormal cancer cells can also spread to other parts of your body, including your lymph nodes. Being a heavy smoker, it was highly probable that you would acquire lung cancer. When the lungs are constantly exposed to the smoke from cigarettes, which is full of carcinogens (cancer-causing materials), […]

Lung Cancer: Causes and Symptoms

Lung cancer is an uncontrollably growth of an abnormal cell that does not develop healthy lung tissue. The most common way to contract lung cancer is from smoking Cigarettes, 2nd hand smoke, or even in radon also know as radioactive gas. Facts for many years have stated why smoking or 2nd hands smoke from cigarettes are the leading cause for this cancer, but radon is a factor as well because it could be found within our homes and/or our water […]

Lung Cancer and CVD Morality Associated with Ambient Air Pollution

ABSTRACT Active smoking, second hand smoke and introduction to fine particulate matter 40 though overabundance threat for cardiovascular ailment mortality expanded abruptly at low exposures coming to RRs of around 2-3 for cigarette smoking . It is estimated from the proceeding investigation that at elevated exposure levels of PM2.5, malignancies of lungs are bound to happen though at low exposure levels, cardiovascular disorders represent the significant illness of the disease. Mortality risks of both cardiovascular diseases and malignancies of lung […]

Lung Cancer: Pathophysiology, Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions

The estimated new cases of lung cancer in 2017 was 222,500 (Lung Cancer, 2017). Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths world-wide (Liao et al., 2014). Over 86% of lung cancers are attributed to smoking (Danson et al., 2015). Other risk factors to lung cancer are exposure to asbestos, secondhand smoke and a family history of lung cancer. However, there is still a high incidence in lung cancer for those who have never smoked or even been […]

Lung Cancer: the Silent Killer

Lung Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. ( Normally, it is caused by the use of tobacco. People have promoted the Say No to Smoking campaign for years. These campaigns would warn smokers about the dangers of smoking and remind people that smoking leads to lung cancer. While the dangers of smoking are very real and life-threatening, a rising concern is the increasing number of lung cancer patients who have never smoked. For […]

Stomach Cancer and Healthy Diet

The causes of stomach cancer include the lack of proper nutrients through a healthy diet. This includes the exclusion of non-processed food such as natural and organic items. Fruits and vegetables are a necessary source of nutrients needed in order to avoid diseases such as stomach cancer. Smoking has also been linked as a root cause of stomach cancer. This is a common cause for many different types of cancer (Goodarz et al. 2005). Meats that have been processed such […]

Breast Cancer Treatment

Cancer comes in many different forms, but the overall process of it is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells dividing and spreading to the surrounding tissues and changing the overall DNA. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer and it begins in the cells of the breast; this cancer can occur in both men and women but its more common in women. Most breast cancers start in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple, and […]

Whole Exome Network Analysis Identifies CXCR5-CXCL13 Signaling as a Key Driver in Breast Cancer

I am delighted to submit the concept paper with the title “Whole Exome Network Analysis Identifies CXCR5-CXCL13 Signaling as a Key Driver in Breast Cancer” for consideration under the NIH Research Fellowship Program, Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award Individual Predoctoral Fellowship. The primary aim of the Kirschstein-NRSA Individual Predoctoral Fellowship is to provide financial support for mentored research training, leading to a doctoral degree in the biomedical, behavioral, or clinical sciences. However, this fellowship program also strives to […]

Euthanasia and Cancer

Peter is a 64-year-old who decided to take early retirement to enjoy life and not work so hard. He decided it was time to enjoy his grandchildren and like any other typical retiree enjoy traveling. Recently having built a house in Morelos, Mexico it was time to enjoy it. Peter has always been the life of the party. Anyone who meets him instantly falls in love with the person he is. He is a hard worker, compassionate, very dependable person. […]

How Lung Cancer Exposures to Crystalline Silica and Radon

The underground coal mining industry plays an important role in contributing energy supplies, increased prevalence and severity of the chronic lung diseases raised concerns of occupational health. Silica and radon exposure in coal mining industry has been extensively documented1“4. A substantial body of evidence has identified crystalline silica dust and radon gas as major causes of lung cancer5“8. However, the inconsistent and controversial results from epidemiological studies9“11 made the evidence of silica and radon associated with lung cancer being less […]

The Treatment of Cancer

According to the statistics presented by the World Health Organization (WHO), with around 7.4 million deaths (around 13% of the total death) in 2004, cancer is the leading cause of death throughout the world (WHO, 2009). These levels are expected to rise further in future, ‘with an estimated 12 million death in 2030’ (WHO, 2009). There are more than 100 different types of cancer (Crosta, n.d.), among them the Lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and the breast […]

Causes of Breast Cancer

Cancer is the most lethal and dangerous diseases for human beings. Huge resources have been spent to acknowledge breast cancer evolution, to figure out causes and to develop methods of treating breast cancer. For all these researchers main point is to understand cancer development pathway, and to increase overall survival percentage. Nowadays, scientists are faced with the hard problem, and they are inability to cure it once the breast cancer developed. The key to prevent breast cancer is to analyze […]

Analysis of Breast Cancer Screening Procedures Using Health Belief Model

Breast cancer and associated risk factors: Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall. More than 2 million cases were diagnosed in 2018 worldwide. (“Breast cancer statistics,” 2018) Genetic factors constitute about 80% of the major risk factor leading to cancer. Specifically, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene mutations are responsible for malignancy (Feng et al., 2018) Breast cancer occurs very rarely in men due to incomplete development of breast without […]

Lifetime Risk of Cancer

Introduction: The lifetime cancer risk is forty-four percent in men and thirty-eight percent in women, with an increase to those percentages if you are sixty-five and older(Browner,2017). There are different types of preventative measures to help reduce diseases in elders, but with cancer being the second most common cause of death in elders across the United States there are only so many measures you can take. Cancer can be more difficult in treating among older adults because they are likely […]

The Disease: Lung Cancer

Lung Cancer begins when cells in your body start to mutate or change. There are many factors that can cause these mutations to happen. Most often, this change in the cells happen when people are exposed too and or breathe in dangerous and toxic substances. Even if you were exposed to these substances many years ago, you are still at risk (NCBI, 2011). There are many treatment options and support offered to those who are diagnosed. Etiology of Lung Cancer […]

Smoking and Lung Cancer

Sometimes long – term smoking, has long term has long term effects on your body. Including Lung cancer and other horrible illnesses. Sometimes you could get Lung Cancer and other times you could even die. Which is why you should be prepared. In order to, you should know : The Respiratory System is affected by Lung Cancer, How is it affected, the long term effects, and the short term effects. First of all, the Respiratory System is the target of […]

Pathophysiology of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer can be defined as a neoplasm in the lungs’ cells, either small-cell or non-small cells. Also, the cancer can start in the lungs, or elsewhere in the body, and travel through the blood to the lungs. Lung cancer has one main protagonist that causes it; smoking. Undoubtedly, the numbers are high; is the third most common cancer in the United States (VanMeter & Hubert, 2015). Nevertheless, the recurrence has lowered, but the mortality is high. According to the […]

What is Lung Cancer?

Cancer is a disease caused by out of control abnormal cell divisions. Cancer harms the body and its organ systems when abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way to form tumors and lumps that affect the tissues in the body. There are many different types of cancers such as lung cancer, breast cancer, blood cancer. Cancer can start in any part of the body. Human cells divide and form trillions of new cells every single day. When cancer develops in […]

Coming of Age Cancer Therapies

Introduction In one way or another, cancer has in some way affected our lives. Cancer is a scary word. It makes hearts stop, and emotions run free when you or a loved is told they have cancer. In 2013, a 29 year old and a 59 year old were both cancer patients; one patient was successful through her immunotherapy, and the other was not fully cured, but on the right path. Immunotherapy is not radiation or chemotherapy, but it is […]

An Investigation into Cancer in Firefighters

The fire service has in recent years begun to introduce several significant studies regarding finding exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) causing an elevated increase cancer incidence in firefighters. Studies are targeting the increased rate of cancer diagnosis in firefighters, through testing of personal protective equipment (PPE), equipment, trucks and facilities. Studies are linking dirty gear to contact exposure of cancer causing carcinogens. Researchers (Keir, J. L., Akhtar, U. S., Matschke, D. M., White, P. A., Kirkham, T. L., Chan, […]

The Pathophysiology of Breast Cancer

Knowing the pathophysiology of breast cancer is important. Breast cancer is a very popular disease in women and is also apparent in men. As a nurse it’s important to know what causes breast cancer, the signs and symptoms of this cancer, different treatment options and risk factors. It’s also important to know preventative measures in order for the nurse to educate the patient on what to do in order to prevent this disease. It is also important to know the […]

The Lungs and Lung Cancer

The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped organs which help with air intake and located in the inner workings of the human body. The lungs consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide when exhaling. Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow at a turbulent rate. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and the second most diagnosed cancer in both male and females in the U.S. After increasing for decades, lung cancer rates are decreasing […]

Survival and Pervention of Breast Cancer

Abstract Breast cancer is something that affects women on a daily basis. Breast Cancer is a disease caused by many different biological factors. It forms through cells that form together and become malignant. Different things can play into women getting breast cancer. Genes, age, race, and many other things can contribute to the spread or survival of those with breast cancer. Many studies have come out looking into the prevention of breast cancer and increasing the survival of those diagnosed. […]

Role for Physician-assisted Suicide in Cancer

A woman suffering from terminal cancer became the first person to die under the law of physician-assisted suicide in Oregon in 1998. The New England Journal of Medicine states that more than 4,000 doctors have approved of the physician assisted suicide law (The Anguish n.pag.). In just the United States, forty-two percent of people have had a friend or relative suffer from a terminal illness (The right n.pag.). Although cancer is the leading cause of death in terminally ill patients, […]

Artificial Intelligence Help Classify Eye Cancer

Usually, eye cancer may affect both the internal and external parts of the eye, for instance, the eyelid and the conjunctiva. According to Ziaei et al. (2006), eye cancer is an abnormal cell growth or tumor in any part of the eye which could be primary or secondary. In the case of primary tumors, the abnormal growth begins from the eye parts affected while in secondary cases, the cancerous cells result from ailments in other parts of the body before […]

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Persuasive Interventions for Controversial Cancer Screening Recommendations: Testing a Novel Approach to Help Patients Make Evidence-Based Decisions

Barry g. saver.

1 University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts

2 Meyers Primary Care Research Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts

3 Swedish Family Medicine Residency Cherry Hill, Seattle, Washington

Kathleen M. Mazor

Roger luckmann, sarah l. cutrona.

4 Veterans Health Administration, HSRD COIN Edith Nourse Rogers Memorial Hospitalo, Bedford, Massachusetts

Marcela Hayes

Tatyana gorodetsky.

5 Center for Health Impact, Worcester, Massachusetts

Nancy Esparza

Gonzalo bacigalupe.

6 University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts

We wanted to evaluate novel decision aids designed to help patients trust and accept the controversial, evidence-based, US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations about prostate cancer screening (from 2012) and mammography screening for women aged 40 to 49 years (from 2009).

We created recorded vignettes of physician-patient discussions about prostate cancer screening and mammography, accompanied by illustrative slides, based on principles derived from preceding qualitative work and behavioral science literature. We conducted a randomized crossover study with repeated measures with 27 men aged 50 to 74 years and 35 women aged 40 to 49 years. All participants saw a video intervention and a more traditional, paper-based decision aid intervention in random order. At entry and after seeing each intervention, they were surveyed about screening intentions, perceptions of benefits and harm, and decisional conflict.

Changes in screening intentions were analyzed without regard to order of intervention after an initial analyses showed no evidence of an order effect. At baseline, 69% of men and 86% of women reported wanting screening, with 31% and 6%, respectively, unsure. Mean change on a 3-point, yes, unsure, no scale was −0.93 ( P = <.001) for men and −0.50 ( P = <.001) for women after seeing the video interventions vs 0.0 and −0.06 ( P = .75) after seeing the print interventions. At the study end, 33% of men and 49% of women wanted screening, and 11% and 20%, respectively, were unsure.


Our novel, persuasive video interventions significantly changed the screening intentions of substantial proportions of viewers. Our approach needs further testing but may provide a model for helping patients to consider and accept evidence-based, counterintuitive recommendations.


Patients face many medical decisions, and rarely is the evidence about the balance of benefits and harms so unequivocal that it can be assumed all patients would make the same choice if adequately informed. Evidence can be complicated and incomplete, and experts’ recommendations may conflict. Even when there is an evidence-based recommendation for a specific medical decision, patients’ values might lead to a different choice. Patients are exposed to social norms, media campaigns, and powerful anecdotes regarding testing. 1 , 2 Furthermore, human decision making rarely fits the idealized model of a rational, informed process. 3 , 4 Order of presentation, loss- vs gain-based framing, anchor effects, and perceived norms can introduce biases, 5 – 10 and adding information can make decisions more difficult. 11 – 14 Shortcuts (heuristics) used to simplify decisions often lead to suboptimal choices. 15 , 16

Thus, the ideal of the informed decision is difficult to achieve in practice. Charles et al note, “Patient preferences for information do not necessarily translate into information seeking behavior; nor do patients who express preferences for some form of shared decision making necessarily act on these in the medical encounter.” 17 Patients who may not have clearly defined values or preferences when asked to make a decision may, instead, construct a preference to justify their choice. 18 A Cochrane review of decision aids for treatment and screening decisions concluded there was high-quality evidence that decision aids could improve knowledge and reduce decisional conflict, moderate-quality evidence for helping people be more active in making decisions and improving risk perception, and low-quality evidence that decision aids led to decisions more congruent with patients’ values. 19

For preventive services, the focus has been more on promoting uptake; for cancer screening tests, the typical view is that more is better 20 , 21 given the paradigm of early detection increasing chances for a cure. Few patients understand that some screening tests may reduce mortality only modestly or can result in harm. 22 Little research has focused on helping clinicians and patients overcome their biases as they present information about screening benefits, harms, and uncertainties and attempt to make informed and/or shared decisions. 23

The United States Preventive Services Task Force’s (USPSTF) recommendation that women aged 40 to 49 years should make preference-based, individual decisions about mammography highlights the need for the development of effective, evidence-based approaches to help patients understand why seemingly counterintuitive recommendations might make sense. 24 , 25 The USPSTF recommendation against screening for prostate cancer with the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test 26 provides further impetus for such approaches.

Americans receive substantial amounts of low-value medical care. 27 – 33 When recommending against care can evoke fear and distrust, clinicians are challenged to explain why a test or treatment might not be beneficial, a challenge compounded by advocacy groups mounting campaigns based on strong, emotional messages rather than unbiased evidence.

Some authors have suggested that advocacy should be combined with unbiased information, sometimes described as informed advocacy 34 and beneficent persuasion. 35 Swindell et al argue that autonomy is not what patients value most in their medical decision making, nor do most medical decisions resemble the model of an informed, autonomous choice. 36 Typical medical practice more closely resembles an advocacy-based process than informed, shared decision making. Patients often receive recommendations about preference-sensitive choices with little or no discussion, and information is presented in an attempt to persuade only if they offer resistance. When strong, persuasive messaging is used to advocate for a specific choice, patients may need help understanding the rationale for making a considered decision.

In this article, we present the results of an initial evaluation of interventions developed to help patients consider and trust the 2009 USPSTF recommendations that women in their 40s should make an informed choice about mammography and the 2012 recommendation against prostate cancer screening.

Overview and Development of Interventions

This study proceeded in 3 phases; phases 1 and 2 focused on intervention development, and phase 3 tested intervention effectiveness. This report focuses on phase 3, but begins with a brief overview of the first 2 phases to facilitate understanding of our approach and interventions.

Phase 1 involved the conduct and qualitative analyses of 6 focus groups (2 in English and 1 in Spanish with men aged 50 to 74 years discussing prostate cancer screening and the same with women aged 40 to 49 years discussing mammography). The focus groups were conducted to help us understand participants’ attitudes toward the cancer screening tests we were addressing and factors that might lead patients to trust the USPSTF’s recommendations. We concluded that (1) discussion needed to begin with information about the harms and limited efficacy of the tests because, without that information, considering not being screened did not make sense; (2) participants were unaware of specific guidelines; (3) discussion of guideline development processes and potential bias had no impact on participants’ views; (4) participants were not familiar with the USPSTF, and attempts to distinguish the USPSTF from other groups using bias-prone processes had no impact; (5) anecdotal experiences of family and friends with cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment were powerful in shaping views about screening, even if the anecdotes were not about breast or prostate cancer screening; and (6) although no participant asked for evidence supporting cancer screening, many wanted to know there was good evidence supporting a recommendation to consider not being screened.

In phase 2, we developed sets of 3 videos of narrated slide presentations for each topic in both English and Spanish. One was framed as a conversation among friends, including a community health worker knowledgeable about the topic, 1 portrayed a physician-patient conversation, and the third was a presentation by an unseen narrator. The level of detail about the evidence varied in the presentations, being least in the first, and greatest in the last. We conducted 6 additional focus groups, organized as in phase 1, in which participants viewed the presentations in varying order and discussed their reactions to each. Other than 1 group of men disliking the friends’ conversation format, there were no strong preferences for any particular format. Some participants stated that a physician-patient conversation seemed more convincing, and some stated that hearing the complex information more than once was helpful.

Based on these findings and the current literature on persuasion and behavior change, we then developed video presentations of slide shows, framed as physician-patient conversations (mammography, English, at ; mammography, Spanish, at ; prostate cancer screening, English, at ; prostate cancer screening, Spanish, at ). Overall flow and content are available in the Supplemental Figure, . Duration of the video presentations ranged from about 13½ minutes to almost 23 minutes, with Spanish-language and mammography presentations being longer.

Comparator Interventions

We sought unbiased, evidence-based comparators that were reasonably consistent with USPSTF recommendations and freely available for public use. For prostate cancer screening, we chose a composite of 2 paper-based decision aids developed by a multidisciplinary prostate cancer work group for the Massachusetts Department of Public Health for dissemination to primary care clinicians for use with men in Massachusetts. 37 , 38 In a small pilot test, the decision aids were well received by patients and clinicians. For mammography, we used a paper-based Summary for Patients from the American College of Physicians that outlined the 2007 guidelines for mammography screening in women aged 40 to 49 years. 39

Participant Recruitment

Men aged 50 to 74 years without a history of prostate cancer and women aged 40 to 49 years without a history of breast cancer who spoke English or Spanish were eligible to participate. We recruited a convenience sample using a broad outreach approach, including mailings to potentially eligible participants attending primary care clinics identified from hospital and community health center administrative data, signs placed in the academic medical center, outreach to persons who had indicated interest in participating in research studies to the UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science, outreach to community contacts by study members from the Central Massachusetts Area Health Education Center, and ads posted on Craigslist. Our goal was to recruit a sample with as much racial, ethnic, linguistic, and socioeconomic variation as possible with our available resources. Participants were informed they would be paid $40 for up to 2 hours of their time. Interested eligible persons were scheduled to come in for a study visit with a bilingual community health worker.

Conduct of Study Sessions

All participants received both interventions. For the following reasons they were randomly assigned to see either our video intervention or the printed decision aid first: (1) comments in our phase 2 focus groups about the value of hearing the information more than once made us suspect we might see greater effects from multiple exposures; (2) as a formative study, we wanted to compare information from participants about the 2 types of interventions; and (3) we wanted to maximize the information we could obtain from each participant, knowing our resources were limited.

Study data were collected and managed using electronic data capture (REDCap) research tools 40 hosted at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS). Randomization was carried out via REDCap with concealed allocation, stratified by sex and language spoken. Participants responded to survey questions in English or Spanish using a touchscreen tablet that directly entered the data into REDCap; a community health worker provided assistance as needed. After answering questions about demographics, family history, and experience with the screening test, participants were asked to indicate whether they wanted the test (yes, unsure, no), felt getting the test was right for them, and expected to discuss screening with their physician in the coming year (5-point Likert scales from “definitely yes” to “definitely no”). The low-literacy version of the Decisional Conflict Scale 41 , 42 was used to measure 4 aspects of decisional conflict—uncertainty, feeling informed, clarity about personal values, and feeling supported in making the decision—with higher scores reflecting greater conflict. 41 We also asked them their opinion on the balance of benefits and harms of the screening test (based on a 5-point Likert scale) and to indicate how much the women thought regular screening reduced a person’s risk of dying of cancer (less than 25%, 25% to 49%, 50% to 75%, more than 75%, or absolutely no idea). Women were asked how often a woman should get mammograms once she started (every 1, 2, or 3 years, or not sure). Participants were then shown the intervention they had been randomized to see first and asked again to complete the Decisional Conflict Scale and the questions about their screening intentions and perceived benefits and harms.The community health worker offered to clarify any issues within their scope of training. Participants were shown the second intervention and asked to answer questions including those listed above.

This project was approved by the University of Massachusetts Medical School Institutional Review Board.

Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc). Nonparametric tests were used to assess significance of responses to questions with yes, unsure, no and Likert-scale scores. Changes on the Decisional Conflict Scale responses were assessed using t tests. We compared changes in screening attitudes and intentions after seeing each intervention, suspecting from previous feedback that attitudes might change progressively after seeing each intervention.

As shown in Table 1 , 27 men and 35 women participated. Most were non-Hispanic white, and nearly 90% had some education beyond high school. About one-fourth of women were Spanish-speaking Latinas, whereas only 1 man was a Spanish-speaking Latino.

Participant Demographics

As displayed in Figures 1 and ​ and2, 2 , preferences for both prostate cancer screening and mammography changed significantly after viewing the video presentations but not after viewing the print (control) decision aid. For men, preferences changed primarily from wanting to not wanting screening, whereas for women the change was more balanced between being unsure and not wanting screening. Because the order of the information given had no effect, we presented the analyses of changes after seeing each type of intervention, ignoring order. We found significant changes in participants’ desire for both tests, feeling the test was right for them, and perceptions of the balance of benefits and harms. There was also a smaller, but statistically significant, change in men’s perceptions of the balance of benefits and harms after viewing the print comparator ( Table 2 ). Although our interventions were intended for shared decision making, we found they resulted in a significant decrease in men’s intentions to discuss prostate cancer screening with their physicians; women’s intentions trended in the same direction, though they were not significant at the P <.05 level.

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Object name is 48saverfig1.jpg

Expressed preferences for prostate-specific antigen testing after seeing video, then paper, or vice versa (total n = 27 men aged 50–74 years).

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Expressed preferences for mammography testing after seeing video, then paper, or vice versa (total n = 35 women aged 40–49 years).

Changes in Screening Attitudes Toward Cancer Screening

PSA = prostate-specific antigen.

Note: Interventions were presented to participants randomly.

Desired frequency of mammography screening also changed after seeing the interventions. At entry, 54% of women reported that women should get annual mammograms once they started, and 34% indicated it should be biennial. This frequency changed to 14% annually and 60% biennially after viewing both interventions. Endorsement of biennial mammograms increased minimally (6%) after seeing the paper decision aid and more (20%) after our seeing our narrated video intervention, but this difference was not statistically significant.

Decisional Conflict Scale scores decreased substantially and progressively, and they were also not statistically significantly related to which intervention was received first. On a scale ranging from 0 (no conflict) to 100 (maximal conflict), scores for men decreased from a mean of 57 to 15 after seeing their first intervention and further decreased to a mean of 8 after seeing the second. For women, scores decreased from 32 to 18 to 13, respectively.

Our interventions, designed to help viewers trust and accept the recommendations from the USPSTF on prostate cancer screening for men and screening mammography for women aged 40 to 49 years clearly influenced a number of participants to reconsider whether they wanted screening and changed the reported preferences of statistically significant proportions of our participants. This outcome is notably different from those reported for the use of many decision aids, including a recently published randomized controlled trial comparing 4 print formats for presenting information about 3 low-value screening tests, including the PSA test 43 ; a recent evaluation of a decision aid for mammography for women in their forties that reported a significant decrease in decisional conflict, but no significant change in screening intentions 44 ; and the Cochrane review of decision aids, which found variable effects on choices, including mixed effects for PSA decision aids. 19

We believe there are several reasons why, in our study, men were more likely than women to change from desiring to rejecting screening and women were more likely to end up uncertain. Major harms associated with prostate cancer screening (eg, impotence and incontinence) are easily understood and highly undesirable, whereas some harms associated with mammography are less clear (eg, anxiety) or subtle and poorly understood (eg, overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Second, the evidence we presented indicated that prostate cancer screening might provide no benefit, saving 0 to 1 life per 1,000 men screened over 10 years, whereas mammography evidence indicated a modest mortality reduction of 1 life saved for every 2,000 women screened over 10 years. Third, our qualitative work found that women have been heavily socialized to value mammography, which was uncommon for PSA screening. Finally, the USPSTF recommendation is against prostate cancer screening; for mammography the recommendation is to make an informed choice, and women accepting the USPSTF’s recommendation might appropriately end up being uncertain, with fewer expected to decide against screening.

In developing this project, given the generally limited effects of knowledge on behavior, we had expected to focus on crafting persuasive messages rather than offering substantial amounts of the data about the tests. Our focus group work, however, led us to believe we needed to present the key data. We found that if we could get people to consider the USPSTF recommendations, they wanted to know the data were available on which the recommendations were based, even if it was hard to understand. For the USPSTF mammography recommendation, where patients are encouraged to make a personal, informed decision rather than a specific choice, we are unclear what the appropriate next step should be for those who, understanding the issues, find themselves uncertain about what to do. Providing additional resources may help some patients, but finding resources for unbiased, balanced, and sufficiently complete information is problematic. Choosing what information to present, the order and style of presentation, and the amount of detail is an editorial choice that reflects the views of the developers. The more controversial the decision, the more difficult and important such choices will be. Carefully trained navigators might be able to help uncertain patients make a choice without injecting bias, but sustainable funding for such efforts outside a few special cases seems unlikely. Our findings also highlight that better informed patients may be less likely to want to share decision making with their clinicians.

Of note, most women expressed a preference for biennial rather than annual screening after seeing both interventions. If such a decision were durable and acted upon, it would substantially reduce the harms and costs of mammography with a minimal decrease in benefit. 45

We found similarly substantial reductions in decisional conflict with our narrated, persuasive video interventions and the print decision-aid interventions, whereas only our video interventions had any effect on preferences. For mammography, we had hypothesized that a greater understanding of the issues might lead to greater decisional conflict, but we did not observe this outcome. Our findings should lead to careful thought about the role of decisional conflict in assessing overall decisional quality, because they suggest that a reduction in decisional conflict may be more reflective of going through the process of making or confirming a previous decision than of how well information was really understood and utilized.

Our study has a number of limitations. First, we measured a short-term change in attitudes, but we do not know whether this change will translate into action. Second, the print interventions we used for comparison cannot be assumed to be representative of all print decision aids intended to inform but not designed to be persuasive interventions. We believed it was important to present for comparison nonproprietary decision aids that did not conflict with the evidence summaries produced for the USPSTF. Our video interventions differed in many ways from the paper decision aids used for comparison besides their persuasive aims. The paper PSA decision aid encouraged making a choice based on personal values and consulting one’s physician, so any induced change would be expected to be smaller. Our narrated video slide shows with a story line were more engaging than the print presentations. Our video interventions ran 13 to 23 minutes, substantially longer than participants spent with the print decision aids and provided more detailed information, because our formative work indicated patients wanted to see the evidence when considering the counterintuitive USPSTF recommendations. It is possible that narrated presentations of similar length and detail but not designed to encourage viewers to trust and accept a specific recommendation would have had similar effects. Based on our experiences in phase 1 of this project, we think this is unlikely. Third, we chose to use the low-literacy version of the Decisional Conflict Scale, because we were expecting many participants to have limited literacy. The article describing the low-literacy version of the Decisional Conflict Scale raised some questions about distinctness and validity of some subscales, however, so our findings could be affected by specific characteristics of the low-literacy Decisional Conflict Scale. Finally, we tested our interventions with small, convenience samples of men and women in one city in central Massachusetts. Generalizability of our findings to other populations needs to be evaluated in future studies.

Given our results, we believe that findings from our prior qualitative work, along with guidance from behavioral science and marketing research, led to the success of our video interventions. If our video intervention findings are replicated in other populations, they could serve as a template for the development of persuasive interventions when targeting other controversial recommendations and low-value procedures. We offer the following points when developing such interventions:

  • Begin by asking people to think about the key questions without directly confronting their existing beliefs to set the stage for reconsideration while minimizing the risk of a defensive response.
  • Follow with describing harms and making explicit that benefits are smaller than most believe.
  • Offer difficult information more than once, with increasing detail, to allow viewers to grasp the overall message before they try to understand the finer details.
  • Portray a trusted professional as the source of information to encourage narrative engagement and evoke credibility.

A key question is whether interventions such as ours will lead to changes in behavior. An important next step is testing such interventions in pragmatic clinical trials to evaluate them in clinical practice.

We are aware that a persuasive approach is likely to arouse controversy, because persuasion is sometimes used to convince people to make choices not to their advantage. The reality, however, is that persuasive messages have been widely disseminated for many years, with the result that few patients are starting from a neutral position. We believe that it is important to accept that, in the face of advocacy messages and the power of anecdotes, persuasive counter-messaging may be both needed and warranted to convince consumers to be receptive to evidence and evidence-based recommendations that may run counter to existing beliefs and help them make more evidence-based choices.


We are grateful to the Edward M. Kennedy Community Health Center in Worcester, Massachusetts, for assistance in recruiting study participants. We are also grateful for the contributions of Joanne Calista, MS, LICSW of Central Massachusetts AHEC (now Center for Health Impact) for her contributions to development and conduct of this project.

Conflicts of interest: authors report none.

Funding support: Research reported in this article was funded through a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) Award (1IP2PI000633).

Disclaimer: The views, statements, and opinions presented in this paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), its Board of Governors, or Methodology Committee.

Previous presentations: This study was presented in part at the North American Primary Care Research Group Annual Meeting, November 9–13, 2013, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; the North American Primary Care Research Group Annual Meeting, November 21–25, 2014, New York, New York; and the 2015 AcademyHealth Annual Meeting, June 14–16, 2015, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Supplementary materials: Available at .


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