Changing the Face of Indian Farming

TIGR2ESS, a new, large-scale multi-partner project, aims to define the requirements for a second, more sustainable Green Revolution.

Changing the Face of Indian Farming

A farmer weeding a maize field in Bihar. Photo: CIMMYT/Flickr CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

The rains are less reliable. Sudden heat waves create challenging conditions for crops. Poor harvests result not only in debt, but also in malnutrition for smallholder farmers. Farming in India is not an attractive career option.

Many Indian farmers are turning their backs on the life altogether. The pull of the city, with the promise of better work and a better income, is drawing huge numbers of rural Indians away from the land.

Women in India have always been involved in farming, typically doing work between the traditionally ‘male jobs’ of sowing and harvesting, such as weeding and applying fertiliser. But they usually work land that belongs to their husbands’ families, and when households become more impoverished they have to work harder yet still earn less than the men.

“It’s becoming difficult to get a reliable income from agriculture in many parts of the Indian subcontinent,” says Dr Shailaja Fennell, from the Centre for Development Studies. “It’s quite common for the majority of younger family members to go to a town to look for work. In the last decade in regions like Punjab – which benefited from the Green Revolution – many of the young women are leaving the land, to study at school and college.

“So now the farming is left to the older women – the mothers and sometimes the grandmothers. They’re in the difficult situation of having to make do in households where incomes are falling. In poorer states such as Odisha, this can lead to malnourishment, which has long-term effects on the children.”

The record grain outputs of India’s ‘Green Revolution’ in the 1970s and 1980s established the country as one of the world’s largest agricultural producers, sustaining its booming population and boosting its economy. But the level of success varied from region to region, and the continued overuse of water, fertilisers and pesticides, together with post-harvest crop losses, has put increasing pressure on natural resources. India’s rapid population growth continues, and the UN estimates it will surpass China by 2022 to become the most populous country in the world. And more people means more mouths to feed.

Fennell is a co-investigator of TIGR 2 ESS: a new, large-scale, multi-partner project that has just been awarded £6.9m funding from the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) by Research Councils UK to address this complex web of issues. Drawing together a formidable network of partners from research, industry, government and NGOs in the UK and India, the project aims to define the requirements for a second, more sustainable Green Revolution, and to deliver this through a suite of research programmes, training workshops and educational activities.

The funding forms part of the UK government’s Official Development Assistance commitment, and partners from both countries will work together, with over 22 new researchers funded in both the UK and India.

“India is developing fast. A new approach is urgently needed to ensure a more resilient outcome for the future of the country’s food production,” says plant scientist Professor Howard Griffiths, who leads TIGR 2 ESS. “To be successful, we need to address the challenges in India today, from equality and sustainability in agriculture to the problems associated with climate change.”

The empowerment of women will be a key theme of this multifaceted project. Providing India’s women with the skills and knowledge to contribute to improved food security for their country, and better nutrition for their families will take various approaches. The UK–Indian partnership will set up ‘nutrition kitchens’ in Indian villages alongside existing health centres to run monthly cooking classes and provide nutrition-relevant education. And in the field, workshops will educate female farmers to help them improve their farming practices.

“Some crops, like certain varieties of millet, for example, are currently used only for animal feed,” says Griffiths. “But they have a better nutrient balance and are more climate-resilient than the preferred staples like wheat, so switching may partly be a question of education.”

“In parallel, our research will be looking for ways to increase the value of these crops, to raise family incomes,” adds Fennell. “These are very specific interventions that have a huge potential impact. TIGR 2 ESS will bring together science and social science to drive interventions that actually work for Indian farmers and their communities.”

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

Providing Indian women with the skills and knowledge to contribute to improved food security for their country, and better nutrition for their families will take various approaches. Credit: PTI

TIGR 2 ESS will include fundamental research addressing crop productivity and water use in India and will identify appropriate crops and farming practices for different climatic regions. It also includes a capacity-building programme of researcher exchanges between the UK and India to ensure skills development and build expertise for the long term. And it will draw on expertise at Cambridge’s Centre for Science and Policy with the aim of bringing about policy change in India, to ensure that it is not just the men who receive farming support.

“Recognising that an increasing number of India’s smallholder farmers are women, we need to ensure that state resources and services, and knowledge, are equally accessible to them,” says Dr V. Selvam, executive director of the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation in Chennai, one of the India-based project partners.

“The ultimate impact of TIGR 2 ESS will be to deliver sustainable practices and improved food security, whilst promoting equal opportunities and enhancing nutrition and health for rural communities across different regions and climatic zones in India,” says Griffiths. “For Cambridge, this is an opportunity to build on our commitment to international scientific excellence and to translate this into real benefits for society through our partnership with India’s Department of Biotechnology and institutions across India.”

Changing the way we eat, grow and distribute food

While TIGR 2 ESS focuses on improving India’s food production, a £340m EU Innovation programme involving Cambridge aims to put Europe at the centre of a global revolution in food innovation and production.

Around 795 million people worldwide don’t have access to enough food to meet their minimum daily energy requirements, while at least two billion consume too many calories but don’t get the nutrients they need. Both the hungry and the overweight suffer the health consequences of poor diet.

And while our increasing population is creating a growing demand for food, 25% of what we already produce is going to waste. Add to this the changing climate affecting crop growing conditions, rapid urbanisation and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods like meat – the net result is a food system that’s increasingly under pressure.

Cambridge is one of several European universities and companies that last year won access to a £340m EU Innovation programme to change the way we eat, grow and distribute food.

The project, funded by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) and called EIT Food, has ambitious aims to halve the amount of food waste in Europe within a decade and to reduce ill health caused by diet by 2030.

“Sustainability is a top-level agenda which is engaging both global multinational food producers and academics,” says Professor Howard Griffiths, who helped to lead Cambridge’s involvement in EIT Food, a consortium of 55 partners from leading European businesses, research centres and universities across 13 countries.

“Our joint goal is in making the entire food system more resilient in the context of a changing climate, and improving health and nutrition for people across the world.”

The original article was published on University of Cambridge’s website . Read the original here . 

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

Agriculture

The future of indian agriculture.

There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

By Madhu Sharma

Published: thursday 04 february 2021.

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

Agriculture in India is livelihood for a majority of the population and can never be underestimated.

Although its contribution in the gross domestic product (GDP) has reduced to less than 20 per cent and contribution of other sectors increased at a faster rate, agricultural production has grown. This has made us self-sufficient and taken us from being a begging bowl for food after independence to a net exporter of agriculture and allied products.

Total foodgrain production in the country is estimated to be a record 291.95 million tonnes, according to the second advance estimates for 2019-20. This is news to be happy about but as per the estimates of Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR), demand for foodgrain would increase to 345 million tonnes by 2030.

Increasing population, increasing average income and globalisation effects in India will increase demand for quantity,  quality and nutritious food, and variety of food. Therefore, pressure on decreasing available cultivable land to produce more quantity, variety and quality of food will keep on increasing. 

India is blessed with large arable land with 15 agro-climatic zones as defined by ICAR, having almost all types of weather conditions, soil types and capable of growing a variety of crops. India is the top producer of milk, spices, pulses, tea, cashew and jute, and the second-largest producer of rice, wheat, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, sugarcane and cotton.

In spite of all these facts, the average productivity of many crops in India is quite low. The country’s population in the next decade is expected to become the largest in the world and providing food for them will be a very prime issue. Farmers are still not able to earn respectable earnings.

Even after over seven decades of planning since the independence, majority of the farmers are still facing problems of poor production and/or poor returns. Major constraints in Indian agriculture are:

  • According to 2010-11 Agriculture Census, the total number of operational holdings was 138.35 million with average size of 1.15 hectares (ha). Of the total holdings, 85 per cent are in marginal and small farm categories of less than 2 ha (GOI, 2014).
  • Farming for subsistence which makes scale of economy in question with majority of small holdings.
  • Low-access of credit and prominent role of unorganised creditors affecting decisions of farmers in purchasing of inputs and selling of outputs
  • Less use of technology, mechanisation and poor productivity for which first two points are of major concern
  • Very less value addition as compared to developed countries and negligible primary-level processing at farmers level.
  • Poor infrastructure for farming making more dependence on weather, marketing and supply chain suitable for high value crops.

Future of agriculture is a very important question for the planners and all other stakeholders. Government and other organisations are trying to address the key challenges of agriculture in India, including small holdings of farmers, primary and secondary processing, supply chain, infrastructure supporting the efficient use of resources and marketing, reducing intermediaries in the market. There is a need for work on cost-effective technologies with environmental protection and on conserving our natural resources.

The reforms towards privatisation, liberalisation and globalisation affected inputs market at a faster pace. Agricultural marketing reforms after 2003 made changes in marketing of agricultural outputs by permitting private investment in developing markets, contract farming and futures trading, etc. These amendments in marketing acts have brought about some changes but the rate is less.

Along with this, the information technology revolution in India, new technologies in agriculture, private investments especially on research and development, government efforts to rejuvenate the cooperative movement to address the problems of small holdings and small produce etc are changing face of agriculture in India.

Many startups in agriculture by highly educated young ones show that they are able to understand the high potential of putting money and efforts in this sector. Cumulative effects of technology over the next decade will change the face of agriculture.

All the constraints in agriculture make the productivity and returns complex but still a high untapped potential is there in India’s agriculture sector.

Advantageous weather and soil conditions, high demand for food, untapped opportunities, various fiscal incentives given by the government for inputs, production infrastructure, availability of cheap credit facilities and for marketing and export promotion are attracting many individuals, big companies, startups and entrepreneurial ventures to do a lot of investments on innovations, inventions, research and development and on other aspects of business.

The efforts are being done to convert all the challenges in agriculture into opportunities and this process is the future of agriculture. 

Key trends expected

1. Changing demand due to increase in incomes, globalisation and health consciousness is affecting and going to affect more the production in future. Demand for fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fish and meat is going to increase in future.

2. Researches, technology improvements, protected cultivation of high value greens and other vegetables will be more. There will be more demand of processed and                      affordable quality products.

3. More competition will be there among private companies giving innovative products, better seeds, fertilisers, plant protection chemicals, customised farm machinery and feed for animals etc in cost effective ways at competitive prices giving more returns on investment by farmers. Use of biotechnology and breeding will be very important in developing eco-friendly and disease resistant, climate resilient, more nutritious and tastier crop varieties.

4. Some technologies will be frequently and widely used in future and some will become common in a short time while some will take time to mature. For producing the same products in other way so as to use resources judiciously and using new resources also like hydroponics, use of plastics and bio-plastics in production. There will be more of vertical and urban farming and there will also be efforts in long term to find new areas for production like barren deserts and seawater.

5. Precision farming with soil testing-based decisions, automation using artificial intelligence will be focused for precise application inputs in agriculture. Sensors and drones             will be used for precision, quality, environment in cost effective manner.

Small and marginal farmers will also be using these technologies with the help of private players, government or farmer producer organisations (FPO). Use of GPS technology, drones, robots etc controlled by smart phones etc can make life of farmers easy and exciting with good results. These advanced devices will make agriculture be more profitable, easy and environmentally friendly.

6. Use nano-technology for enhancement of food quality and safety, efficient use of inputs will be in near future. Nano-materials in agriculture will reduce the wastage in use of chemicals, minimise nutrient losses in fertilisation and will be used to increase yield through pest and nutrient management. IFFCO has already done successful tests in nano-fertilisers.

7. India has improved remarkably in its digital connectivity and market access has become very easy. The number of internet users is projected to reach 666.4 million in 2025. Farmers will be behaving more smartly with mobiles in hands and would be able to be more aware and connected with different stake holders. Government will be making wide use of digital technology for generating awareness among farmers, information sharing, government schemes using digital technology for direct transfers of money.

8. There will certainly be more work by government, village communities, agri startups and private players in conserving sharply depleting water resource. Use of digital technology can make revolution in this direction. There will be use of satellites, IoT, drones for better collection of data regarding soil health, crop area and yield which will make cost for insurers less with better estimations and system will be more exact and effective.

9. There will be more of niche marketers in operations, area, and crop specific small equipments which will make operations even at small farms easier and efficient. Food wastage will be less and better use of waste materials in agriculture will be more. Number of warehouses in private sector will be more and linkages between government and private warehouses will be increasing. This will help in balancing supply with demand and stabilisation of prices of agri-outputs in the market.

10. Retailing in agriculture will largely be digitalised. A study estimates that over 90 per cent of kirana stores across the country will be digitalised by 2025 with modern traceable logistics and transparent supply chain. Many players have already taking kiranastores to the door steps of consumers like Amazon and Jio Mart.

Question arises whether farmers will be able to make use of modern technologies in a country where education, holding size, infrastructure, low level of technology adoption and many other constraints are there. 

Views expressed are the author’s own and don’t necessarily reflect those of Down To Earth

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

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essay on changing face of indian agriculture

Indian agriculture is expected to feed a growing and increasingly urbanised population. But if everyone wants to move to towns and cities, who is left to farm the land?

The farming is left to the older women – the mothers and sometimes the grandmothers. They’re in the difficult situation of having to make do in households where incomes are falling. Shailaja Fennell

The rains are less reliable. Sudden heat waves create challenging conditions for crops. Poor harvests result not only in debt, but also in malnutrition for smallholder farmers. Farming in India is not an attractive career option.

Many Indian farmers are turning their backs on the life altogether. The pull of the city, with the promise of better work and a better income, is drawing huge numbers of rural Indians away from the land.

Women in India have always been involved in farming, typically doing work between the traditionally ‘male jobs’ of sowing and harvesting, such as weeding and applying fertiliser. But they usually work land that belongs to their husbands’ families, and when households become more impoverished they have to work harder yet still earn less than the men.

“It’s becoming difficult to get a reliable income from agriculture in many parts of the Indian subcontinent,” says Dr Shailaja Fennell, from the Centre of Development Studies. “It’s quite common for the majority of younger family members to go to a town to look for work. In the last decade in regions like the Punjab – which benefited from the Green Revolution – even many of the young women are leaving the land, to study at school and college.

“So now the farming is left to the older women – the mothers and sometimes the grandmothers. They’re in the difficult situation of having to make do in households where incomes are falling. In poorer states such as Odisha, this can lead to malnourishment, which has long-term effects on the children.”

The record grain outputs of India’s ‘Green Revolution’ in the 1970s and 1980s established the country as one of the world’s largest agricultural producers, sustaining its booming population and boosting its economy. But the level of success varied from region to region, and the continued overuse of water, fertilisers and pesticides, together with post-harvest crop losses, has put increasing pressure on natural resources. India’s rapid population growth continues, and the UN estimates it will surpass China by 2022 to become the most populous country in the world. And more people means more mouths to feed.

Fennell is a co-investigator of TIGR 2 ESS: a new, large-scale, multi-partner project that has just been awarded £6.9m funding from the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) by Research Councils UK to address this complex web of issues. Drawing together a formidable network of partners from research, industry, government and NGOs in the UK and India, the project aims to define the requirements for a second, more sustainable Green Revolution, and to deliver this through a suite of research programmes, training workshops and educational activities.

The funding forms part of the UK government’s Official Development Assistance commitment, and partners from both countries will work together, with over 22 new researchers funded in both the UK and India.

“India is developing fast. A new approach is urgently needed to ensure a more resilient outcome for the future of the country’s food production,” says plant scientist Professor Howard Griffiths, who leads TIGR 2 ESS. “To be successful, we need to address the challenges in India today, from equality and sustainability in agriculture, to the problems associated with climate change.”

The empowerment of women will be a key theme of this multifaceted project. Providing India’s women with the skills and knowledge to contribute to improved food security for their country, and better nutrition for their families, will take various approaches. The UK–Indian partnership will set up ‘nutrition kitchens’ in Indian villages alongside existing health centres to run monthly cooking classes and provide nutrition-relevant education. And in the field, workshops will educate female farmers to help them improve their farming practices.

essay on changing face of indian agriculture

“Some crops, like certain varieties of millet for example, are currently used only for animal feed,” says Griffiths. “But they have a better nutrient balance and are more climate resilient than the preferred staples like wheat, so switching may partly be a question of education.”

“In parallel, our research will be looking for ways to increase the value of these crops, to raise family incomes,” adds Fennell. “These are very specific interventions that have huge potential impact. TIGR 2 ESS will bring together science and social science to drive interventions that actually work for Indian farmers and their communities.”

TIGR 2 ESS will include fundamental research addressing crop productivity and water use in India, and will identify appropriate crops and farming practices for different climatic regions. It also includes a capacity-building programme of researcher exchanges between the UK and India to ensure skills development and build expertise for the longterm. And it will draw on expertise at Cambridge’s Centre for Science and Policy with the aim of bringing about policy change in India, to ensure that it is not just the men who receive farming support.

“Recognising that an increasing number of India’s smallholder farmers are women, we need to ensure that state resources and services, and knowledge, are equally accessible to them,” says Dr V. Selvam, Executive Director of the M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation in Chennai, one of the India-based project partners.

“The ultimate impact of TIGR 2 ESS will be to deliver sustainable practices and improved food security, whilst promoting equal opportunities and enhancing nutrition and health for rural communities across different regions and climatic zones in India,” says Griffiths. “For Cambridge, this is an opportunity to build on our commitment to international scientific excellence and to translate this into real benefits for society through our partnership with India’s Department of Biotechnology and institutions across India.” 

Inset image: A farmer at work weeding in a maize field in the Indian state of Bihar. Credit: M. DeFreese/CIMMYT .

Changing the way we eat, grow and distribute food

While TIGR 2 ESS focuses on improving India’s food production, a £340m EU Innovation programme involving Cambridge aims to put Europe at the centre of a global revolution in food innovation and production.

Around 795 million people worldwide don’t have access to enough food to meet their minimum daily energy requirements, while at least two billion consume too many calories but don’t get the nutrients they need. Both the hungry and the overweight suffer the health consequences of poor diet.

And while our increasing population is creating a growing demand for food, 25% of what we already produce is going to waste. Add to this the changing climate affecting crop growing conditions, rapid urbanisation and the increasing demand for resource-intensive foods like meat – the net result is a food system that’s increasingly under pressure.

Cambridge is one of several European universities and companies that last year won access to a £340m EU Innovation programme to change the way we eat, grow and distribute food.

The project, funded by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) and called EIT Food, has ambitious aims to halve the amount of food waste in Europe within a decade, and to reduce ill health caused by diet by 2030.

“Sustainability is a top-level agenda which is engaging both global multinational food producers and academics,” says Professor Howard Griffiths, who helped to lead Cambridge’s involvement in EIT Food, a consortium of 55 partners from leading European businesses, research centres and universities across 13 countries.

“Our joint goal is in making the entire food system more resilient in the context of a changing climate, and improving health and nutrition for people across the world.”

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The challenges that india’s agriculture domain faces.

Anjami Nayyar

Anjami Nayyar

Anjami Nayyar (Agritech Expert)

Agriculture is a major contributor to India’s economy and accounts for about 18 per cent of the country’s GDP; it provides employment to nearly 50 per cent of India’s population

R apid advancements in technology are revolutionizing the agricultural sector in India, but the domain still faces several challenges that impact its productivity and sustainability. Here are some key challenges that the sector in India faces…

  • Lack of access to credit & finance : Small and marginal farmers often face difficulties in accessing credit and financial services. Limited availability of affordable credit restricts their ability to invest in modern farming equipment and quality seeds and fertilizers, hampering their productivity.
  • Small landholdings : Average farmers are small landholders, leading to fragmented and uneconomical farming practices. This makes it challenging for them to adopt modern agricultural methods and technologies, resulting in lower productivity.
  • Outdated farming practices : A significant portion of Indian farmers still rely on traditional and outdated farming methods. Limited access to information, lack of awareness about modern techniques and resistance to change hinder the adoption of advanced farming practices.
  • Water scarcity & irrigation : India’s agriculture is heavily dependent on monsoon rain, making it vulnerable to droughts and inconsistent rainfall patterns. Access to irrigation facilities and water management are crucial challenges, particularly in regions with limited water resources.
  • Soil degradation & land erosion : Improper land use practices, excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and inadequate soil conservation measures contribute to soil degradation and erosion. This leads to reduced soil fertility and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases, besides reducing agricultural productivity.
  • Inadequate agricultural infrastructure : Insufficient storage and cold chain facilities, inadequate rural roads and limited access to markets contribute to post-harvest losses. These infrastructure gaps add to the cost of production and limit farmers’ ability to fetch fair prices for their produce.
  • Market volatility & price fluctuations : Farmers in India often face price volatility due to lack of effective market linkages, intermediaries and price information. This leaves them vulnerable to price exploitation and uncertain returns on their investments.
  • Climate change & natural disasters : Increasingly unpredictable weather patterns, climate change and occurrences of natural disasters—such as floods, cyclones and droughts—pose significant challenges to the country’s agriculture industry. These events can lead to crop losses, livestock mortality and increased vulnerability for farmers.
  • Limited access to technology & research : Limited access to agricultural extension services, modern technologies and scientific research hinders the adoption of innovative practices. Farmers require better dissemination of knowledge, training and access to affordable technology solutions tailored to their needs.
  • Lack of farmers’ empowerment : Farmers’ voices and representation in policy-making processes are often inadequate. Restricted farmers’ empowerment and involvement result in policies and initiatives that may not address their specific challenges effectively.

The present challenges that plague Indian agriculture are limited knowledge and insufficient infrastructure, especially in the rural areas. Problems related to lack of infrastructure, such as irrigation, market and transport, add huge costs to farmers’ operations. In addition, there are no proper delivery systems. There are several schemes to bring development to agriculture. But there is no effective delivery mechanism that can improve productivity, reduce costs, or increase price realization at the grassroots level. Moreover, without government support, the issues only worsen. Thus, corporate farming could be a solution to the Indian agrarian sector, but it needs serious consideration, innovations and better policies, so that neither the business houses nor the farmers incur huge losses.

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Changing Face of Rural India

Profile image of Surinder S Jodhka

2014, Economic and Political Weekly

R ural development" has been among the most critical components of the offi cial discourse on social and economic change during the post-Independence period in India. This is quite understandable. Given that at the time of India's Independence nearly 85% of the Indian population lived in its more than half a million rural settlements, the "rural" had to be among the foremost concerns of the emerging democratic state. "Rural" was not merely a site of backwardness. It was where the soul of India lived, in its fi elds, in its working kisans and in its traditions.

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Srijit Mishra

After more than half a century of planned economic development and high levels of aggregate growth over the last two decades, the Indian economy still remains predominantly rural. In 1999–2000, 72 per cent of population and 76 per cent of workforce in India were rural. In terms of overall growth, the last two decades have witnessed unprecedented high rates.

narasimha reddy

Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research

Md. S H A H N A W A Z Abdin , Rahul Kumar

India has been predominantly a rural country with two third of its population still residing in rural areas. India's 70% workforce still resides in rural areas. It is said that true India lives in her villages. The rural growth and development drive the overall growth and development of India as the rural economy of India constitutes around 50% in national income of India. The rural economy of India has continuously been supporting and contributing to the economy of India. Studies show that even when there was slowdown in the overall economy in India, the rural economy of India still showed growth and helped the economy in difficult times. Thus, the rural economy of India is backbone of the Indian economy. India is predicted to be a rural country in the time to come and its 50% population is projected to be residing in the rural areas even by the year 2050. So, India is still going to be predominantly a rural country in the future. Thus the overall growth and development in India will majorly be driven by the growth and development of rural areas of India and growth of its population. The Indian economy is characterized by the dominance of agriculture. The dominance of agriculture in the Indian economy can be understood from the fact that more than 60% of India's population is still engaged in agricultural activities forlivelihood and survival. However, there has been a gradual shift in the occupation of rural areas of India from agricultural to non-agricultural activities and rural India has witnessed growth of non-farm income in recent times. It has witnessed people in rural areas resorting to alternate employment opportunities. This shift has been mainly caused by, as per the studies, the lack of modern methods of agriculture, below subsistence level of production in many areas, increasing education and awareness among rural people and seasonal unemployment in agriculture sector. Moreover, the rural youth, who is more educated and aware, aspires for employment that suits their skills and knowledge. The rural youth is hesitant to follow the footprints of their forefathers as they don't see promising future in agriculture. The Indian economy aspires to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by the year 2025. In making the Indian economy a 5 trillion dollar economy the role of rural economy will be of utmost importance. The rural economy will play a significant role in making the Indian economy a 5 trillion dollar economy. This paper tries to analyse the role of rural economy of India in making it a 5 trillion dollar economy. The present paper (i) studies the sectoral composition of rural economy, (ii) analyses the role of rural economy in making India a 5 trillion dollar economy, and (iii) identifies the challenges in rural economy especially in the agriculture sector in making the Indian economy a 5 trillion dollar economy by the year 2025. The findings of the study will be used to suggest strategy for future development of India’s rural economy and, hence, the role of rural economy in making India a 5 trillion dollar economy.

Amit Basole

The agricultural sector has performed worse than the other sectors over the years. The shares of non-agricultural employment and output have increased, while 70% of agricultural households cannot meet their low consumption needs even after diversifi cation of sources of income. An analysis of budgetary p rovisions for the rural economy suggests that the government has not done enough to address some of these well-documented problems, and does not have the required vision to substantially increase rural employment opportunities. A fter the high economic drama of demonetisation and the resulting shocks to the economy, the 2017– 18 budget, the fourth one presented by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley, could be seen as an attempt to regain some credibility for the government and calm the general populace as well as international investors. It has been seen as a “routine” budget but also a “pro-growth” one, promising large increases in public invest ment in social and physical infrastructure...

This study attempts to assess the changing structure of rural production and employment in the last two decades and its implications on rural labor market. The rural labor market has undergone profound structural transformation with labor moving from agriculture towards non-agricultural activities. Currently, non-farm sector is no longer a residual sector, but an emerging driver of rural development and transformation, contributing 65% to the rural Net Domestic Product in 2010. There has been an absolute decline in labor force in recent times with a decline in agriculture employment for both male and female laborers and this decline in female workforce is much higher than male workforce in agriculture. The key drivers of changes include inter alia – higher growth in non-farm sector specially infrastructure and construction, coupled with improved transportation and communication, differential wage rates, improved literacy and Government programs. Such change in employment structure a...

alice tilche

Indian journal of agricultural economics

Yoginder K Alagh

We discuss the demand for Indian agriculture and the spread of markets. Our argument is that Indian agriculture should be seen as a rural-urban continuum and opportunities perceived accordingly. We have been arguing for some time that urbanisation and structural change in the labour force is taking place at a faster pace than usually argued. The Labour Bureau has reportedly argued this recently and that reinforces our earlier arguments (Alagh, 2007).

Publishing India Group

Rural transformations imply dramatic social changes, and often radical changes in social as well as economic policies. This paper focuses on the rural transformation that occurs with the economic growth in India. The paper focuses on the forces that drive this transformation, how this transformation proceeds, and what are the potential traps and inefficiencies are that may inhibit it. We also examine the growth of infrastructure in rural areas and inclusiveness of the growth and rural transformation along with the role of rural transformation and integration in India's economic growth. The impact of the growth of an economy trickles down to the lowest level entity which may be considered as village. On the other hand growth and development of the lowest level can contribute to the overall growth of the economy through multiplier effect. The pace of trickledown from top to bottom depends on the efficient planning and implementation of the Government's schemes and programmes. Poverty alleviation focussing rural areas has been on the national policy agenda since independence. The importance of reduction in poverty, provision of other basic needs and equitable development has been emphasised in all the five year plans since independence particularly since the 5th Five-Year Plan. Significant development has taken place in the post-reform period; India has done well in some indicators such as economic growth, exports, balance of payments, resilience to external shocks, service sector growth, significant accumulation of foreign exchange, information technology (IT) and stock market, improvements in telecommunications etc. However, exclusion continued in terms of low agriculture growth, low quality employment growth in rural areas, rural-urban divides, and regional disparities etc. Overall poverty in rural areas has declined, but still around 25 percent of rural population is living below poverty line and not been getting basic necessity of live. Lot of social infrastructure like health, educational, rural roads, rural housing, drinking water facilities, toilets, and Anganwadi centres have been created under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) of the Government of India. But still various rural areas of

Sooper Articles (United Kingdom)

Trilok Singh

As​ ​ we​ ​ know​ ​ that,​ ​ rapid​ ​ rural​ ​ employment​ ​ growth​ ​ and​ ​ agriculture​ ​ growth​ ​ were​ ​ always​ ​ the​ ​ main focus​ ​ of​ ​ India's​ ​ top​ ​ policy​ ​ makers.​ ​ In​ ​ order​ ​ to​ ​ this;​ ​ Education,​ ​ Health,​ ​ human​ ​ security​ ​ as​ ​ well​ ​ as cyber​ ​ security,​ ​ infrastructure​ ​ and​ ​ agricultural​ ​ structure​ ​ are​ ​ becomes​ ​ the​ ​ most​ ​ significant determinants​ ​ of​ ​ India's​ ​ growth/development​ ​ or​ ​ Rural​ ​ development​ ​ of​ ​ India.​ ​ We​ ​ "​ Need​ ​ for massive​ ​ increase​ ​ in​ ​ investments​ ​ for​ ​ Education,​ ​ health,​ ​ agriculture,​ ​ human​ ​ security​ ​ (Also, Cyber​ ​ Security)​ ​ and​ ​ Rural​ ​ infrastructure​ ​ by​ ​ simultaneously​ ​ improving​ ​ the​ ​ Institutions​ ​ For batter​ ​ delivery​ ​ systems.​ ​ Government​ ​ is​ ​ thinking​ ​ for​ ​ big​ ​ puss​ ​ to​ ​ health​ ​ and​ ​ education​ ​ in such​ ​ plans.​ ​ Significantly,​ ​ such​ ​ a​ ​ big​ ​ push​ ​ is​ ​ also​ ​ needed​ ​ for​ ​ agriculture​ ​ sector​ ​ for​ ​ food security,​ ​ sustainability,​ ​ livelihoods,​ ​ and​ ​ transformations​ ​ too".​ ​ ​ With​ ​ the​ ​ same​ ​ light,​ ​ we​ ​ need to​ ​ keep​ ​ in​ ​ mind​ ​ above​ ​ while​ ​ dealings​ ​ with​ ​ 'The​ ​ latest​ ​ story​ ​ of​ ​ India's​ ​ Rural​ ​ Transformation'.​ ​ ​ In this​ ​ very​ ​ writing​ ​ attempt​ ​ has​ ​ been​ ​ made​ ​ to​ ​ understand​ ​ the​ ​ changing​ ​ notion​ ​ of​ ​ rural​ ​ development and​ ​ assess​ ​ the​ ​ role​ ​ of​ ​ present​ ​ government​ ​ about​ ​ the​ ​ same..​ ​ However,​ ​ in​ ​ India​ ​ rural development​ ​ paradigm​ ​ differ​ ​ hugely​ ​ on​ ​ account​ ​ of​ ​ myriad​ ​ societal​ ​ and​ ​ economic​ ​ norms. Therefore,​ ​ there​ ​ are​ ​ hardly​ ​ any​ ​ universal​ ​ notion​ ​ of​ ​ rural​ ​ development​ ​ due​ ​ to​ ​ changing​ ​ context that​ ​ we​ ​ need​ ​ to​ ​ keep​ ​ in​ ​ mind​ ​ while​ ​ dealing​ ​ with​ ​ the​ ​ concept​ ​ of​ ​ ​ 'The​ ​ Latest​ ​ Story​ ​ of​ ​ India's Rural​ ​ Transformation'​ .. Preface In​ ​ India​ ​ the​ ​ rapid​ ​ growth​ ​ has​ ​ been​ ​ both​ ​ ​ " sustainable​ ​ and​ ​ inclusive " ​ ​ ​ but​ ​ it​ ​ poses​ ​ formidable challenge​ ​ for​ ​ existing​ ​ rural​ ​ panning​ ​ in​ ​ India​ ​ in​ ​ order​ ​ to​ ​ agriculture​ ​ and​ ​ such​ ​ other​ ​ schemes. Also,​ ​ The​ ​ process​ ​ of​ ​ urbanization​ ​ can​ ​ be​ ​ carried​ ​ out​ ​ by​ ​ creating​ ​ additional​ ​ space​ ​ for​ ​ them​ ​ who are​ ​ yet​ ​ to​ ​ become​ ​ the​ ​ part​ ​ of​ ​ process.​ ​ Redistribution​ ​ of​ ​ resources​ ​ and​ ​ people​ ​ has​ ​ to​ ​ be​ ​ there​ ​ in order​ ​ to​ ​ make​ ​ our​ ​ villages​ ​ more​ ​ equitable​ ​ that​ ​ can​ ​ be​ ​ done​ ​ only​ ​ when​ ​ there​ ​ is​ ​ a​ ​ equal​ ​ amount of​ ​ share​ ​ between​ ​ rural​ ​ and​ ​ urban​ ​ sphere.​ ​ Our​ ​ effort​ ​ is​ ​ here​ ​ to​ ​ assess​ ​ the​ ​ major​ ​ aspects​ ​ of Rural​ ​ panning​ ​ in​ ​ India.​ ​ ​ Hence,​ ​ ​ focus​ ​ is​ ​ on​ ​ reorientation​ ​ of​ ​ rural​ ​ planning​ ​ to​ ​ address​ ​ the​ ​ long standing​ ​ challenges​ ​ of​ ​ rural​ ​ areas,​ ​ which​ ​ are​ ​ likely​ ​ to​ ​ be​ ​ very​ ​ important​ ​ in​ ​ India's​ ​ current​ ​ stage of​ ​ rural​ ​ development.​ ​ The​ ​ faster​ ​ growing​ ​ States​ ​ had​ ​ formulated​ ​ laws​ ​ for​ ​ amalgamation​ ​ of​ ​ farm holdings​ ​ into​ ​ viable​ ​ units​ ​ for​ ​ investments,​ ​ productivity​ ​ and​ ​ growth.​ ​ Indian​ ​ farmers​ ​ were​ ​ always concerned​ ​ about​ ​ the​ ​ availability​ ​ of​ ​ adequate​ ​ credit​ ​ at​ ​ reasonable​ ​ cost​ ​ in​ ​ a​ ​ timely​ ​ manner.

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