Nontraditional Security Concerns in India pp 53–73 Cite as
Cyber Terrorism: A Growing Threat to India’s Cyber Security
- Shalini Prasad 3 &
- Abhay Kumar 4
- First Online: 02 April 2022
The chapter draws attention to cyber threats, which endanger the safety of modern states, organisations and international relations. It explains the concept of cyber terrorism and what are the various dangers and challenges posed by cyber terrorism specifically for India’s national security? It further examines the various initiatives commenced by the Indian government to counter cyber terrorism both at the state and global level? The first part of the research aims to understand the concepts and meaning of cyber terrorism and delineate it from other terms like cybercrime, cyber-attacks, etc. Further, it will identify the people involved in these types of activities and what are the motives and intentions to carry out cyber terrorist’s attacks. The study also investigates the adverse impact of cyber terrorism on the national security of India. It describes various types of threats and challenges that India’s cybersecurity has been facing or is likely to be in the future. It tried to dig out the options about how cyber terrorism might become a bigger menace in the future which could threaten India’s security. And in the last part, it will evaluate several measures, initiatives adopted by the Indian government to counter cyber terrorism at national and as well as at the international level. It will underline the evolution of the cybersecurity policy in India. The study proceeds by critically analysing various policies that the Indian government has devised over the years as a response to counter these threats and challenges. At the national level, what are the several policies and acts that have been initiated and to what extent these initiatives have been able to counter cyber terrorism? It will identify its inadequacies as well as its prospects. At the international level, India is actively cooperating with other states like the United States, and international organisation like United Nations to tackle cyber terrorism. Lastly, the research will try to identify cyber threats and assess various policies, initiatives and international cooperation.
- Cyber terrorism
- Cyber crime
- Cyber Security
- Information technology
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Prasad, S., Kumar, A. (2022). Cyber Terrorism: A Growing Threat to India’s Cyber Security. In: Singh, S.K., Singh, S.P. (eds) Nontraditional Security Concerns in India. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-3735-3_4
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Home » Security Issues » Cyber Security » Various Cyber Threats » Cyber Terrorism
- Cyberterrorism is any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information systems, programs and data that results in violence.
- Cyber-terrorism can also be understood as “ the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (such as energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population.”
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Cyber Terrorism: An emerging threat to India By Muthyala Soujanya Priya
Just as there are two sides to every coin so does the technology, thus introducing the concept of cyber terrorism. the greater dependency over technology and the internet had generated perils to the security of the country as well as individuals. most of the cyber terrorism dangers approach in disguised ways which makes it necessary to spread awareness… read more ».
Just as there are two sides to every coin so does the technology, thus introducing the concept of cyber terrorism. The greater dependency over technology and the internet had generated perils to the security of the country as well as individuals. Most of the cyber terrorism dangers approach in disguised ways which makes it necessary to spread awareness about it. Cyberspace is being used to intimidate the citizens of the country. With the growing population, there has also been an increase in the crime rate. To sustain the nation against these crimes there has to be the development of new strategies.
The main aim of this essay is to discover the new threat posed to the country in the form of cyber terrorism. This paper attempts to define the term in a clear and simpler way. A study has been made of the challenges of fighting this terrorism. India’s existing counter-terrorism strategies had been examined carefully and countermeasures were described. This paper leads to the elucidation of the cybersecurity in a simpler way using illustrative examples. Many research papers, books, and prominent websites were referred for this study. It provides the reader with an insight into the depth of the danger.
According to a report by NCRB, India recorded 21,796 cyber-crimes in 2017 with an increase of 77% from 2016. With the advancement of technology around the world, new methods have emerged which pose a great threat of destruction and loss to the country. These new methods that are adopted by terrorists are more dangerous than the old form of terrorism.
Technology which can be used for various advantageous things, on the other hand, can also be used destructively. Almost in every sector including Government institutions, railways, Judiciary, Aviation, Defence, Banks, etc. are using technology to the maximum extent for storing information, communicating, controlling, etc.
All these sectors are striving to be fully computerized. Online payments have become common and it is used widely from small retailers to large companies and even in few government organizations. With the world developing at a faster rate there is an increase in the competition among the countries that leads to a stronger feeling of nationalism which is also one of the reasons for terrorism. In this modern world, we are confronting a new mode of terrorism known as “Cyber Terrorism”. There is a lot of confusion and misconception among people about cyber terrorism.
What is Cyber Terrorism?
There is no proper delineation of cyber terrorism which is globally abided.
Dorothy E. Denning defines cyberterrorism as, “Cyber-dependent crime perpetrated for political objectives to provoke fear, intimidate and/or coerce a target government or population, and cause or threaten to cause harm. Examples of this narrow conception of Cyberterrorism include attacks that lead to death or bodily injury, explosions, plane crashes, water contamination, or severe economic loss. Serious attacks against critical infrastructures could be acts of Cyberterrorism, depending on their impact”.
According to, The IT Act,2000 as amended by the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008, a crime of Cyber Terrorism under Section 66-F :
“Whoever, with intent to threaten the unity, integrity, security or sovereignty of India or to strike terror in the people or any Section of the people by – denying or cause the denial of access to any person authorised to access computer resource; or attempting to penetrate or access a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorised access; or introducing or causing to introduce any computer contaminant and by means of such conduct causes or is likely to cause death or injuries to persons or damage to or destruction of property or disrupts or knowing that it is likely to cause damage or knowingly, intentionally penetrates or accesses a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorised access, and by means of such conduct obtains access to information, data, computer database that is restricted for reasons of the security of the state or foreign relations; or any restricted information, data or computer database, with reasons to believe that such information, data or computer database so obtained may be used to cause or likely to cause injury to the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, Friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, group of individuals or otherwise, commits the offence of cyber terrorism”.
By the above-quoted definitions, it is evident that there is a distinction between cyber terrorism and cybercrimes. Cybercrimes are usually committed by individuals for their own personal benefits without causing harm to national security. But cyber terrorism includes group activities that are politically motivated to damage the integrity and security of a country.
Techniques used by Cyber Terrorists
- Hacking : Unauthorised access to a computer system or network is hacking. This technique has become famous because of its free availability of tools like Ping of Death, Hacker Evolution, Netstat live, Advanced Port Scanner, etc.
For example, recently Indian scholars, activists, and journalists were targeted by the hackers using spyware, known as Pegasus which was secretly installed into their phones using a vulnerability in the WhatsApp app that provided access to their text messages and location.
- Trojan horse : A Trojan is software that seems lawful but is actually harmful that damages computers. It usually deceives the computer user. There are various types of trojans like Backdoor Trojan, DDoS, Downloader Trojan, Fake AV Trojan, etc.
- Spreading Viruses and Worms: Viruses and worms are usually spread through email attachments from one computer to another computer and put the operating system at risk. They spread at a faster rate.
- Crimes through emails: Though many Cyber-crimes can be committed through emails, email bombing results in more serious problems. Email bombing means sending numerous emails to the victim by which the victim’s computer crashes or loses network connectivity. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks can also be carried out through emails.
- Encryption: Most of the terrorist groups today use encryption as a tool to hide and escape from detection. They use encryption codes designed by others. Mujahedeen Secrets is one of the famous encryption tools used by Al-Qaeda. In this Digital age, terrorists are well versed with all the encryption techniques.
Challenges of Fighting Cyber Terrorism
Information and communications technology (ICT) : The dependence on ICTs results in attacks against critical infrastructure. It also causes financial damages to businesses. ICT is one of the major risks for the military as well as civil communications. Both developed and developing countries greatly depend on ICT.
For example, terrorists in the 26/11 Mumbai attack used the latest technology to communicate and assist in the bombings like Google Earth and VoIP calls to get away from phone-tapping.
- Internet growth : Globally the number of internet users increased from only “413 million” in 2000 to over 3.4 billion in 2016. With this rapid growth of the internet, it is strenuous for the police force to identify the offenders as illegal activities increases.
- The Easy Availability of Devices and Access : Cyber terrorism is cheap and accessible as the offenders can download software tools and use them for committing crimes. They don’t need to use the latest technology for crimes as they only need a piece of equipment for carrying out illegal activities. Another important piece of equipment is internet access. Terrorists use Public Internet terminals, Open (wireless) networks, hacked networks, and Prepaid services without registration requirements for easy access to the internet without being identified which is called “wardriving” .
- Lack of Control : Due to poor control over internet communications the criminal investigations are delayed.
- International Support: Cybercrimes can be committed without any presence at the crime site. Offenders from other countries committing a crime in our country must be investigated which is impossible without international cooperation. This leads to delay in investigations as all countries would not be willing to cooperate.
- Google Dorking : With the easy availability of internet users can attain any information. There are many web pages and blogs through which the offenders can acquire information about how to build a bomb or learn hacking techniques. “Google Dorking” or “Google hacking” is an information-gathering tool used by offenders to find security holes.
- Botnets: It is a malware that is used to collect data about targets. Botnets are a group of compromised computers running programs under external control. It is used to carry out illegal activities. It is a threat to the police force as it is difficult to trace offenders using botnets. The original offender can easily hide.
- Anonymous communications: On one side anonymous emails are boon to users as they can express themselves over politics and government without revealing their identity, on the other side these emails can also be misused by the offenders. Many emails can be created without actual verification and public internet terminals could also be used which makes them difficult to identify.
India’s Counter-Terrorism Strategies
- Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (Cert-In) : It is an organization of Government of India which aims to secure India’s cyberspace by responding to cyber-attacks. It also functions to spread awareness among citizens regarding security practices, reports and forecasts cyber incidents. Cert-In collects and examines the information about cyber incidents.
- Cyber Swachhta Kendra : It is a centre for botnet cleaning and malware analysis under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India. This center is a unit under Cert-In which enhances cybersecurity in the country by providing information and raising awareness about the malware and botnets.
- Cyber Security Policy : Following the leaks by NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden about the spying of US government agencies on Indian users, the Government of India presented Cyber Security Policy in 2013 with an objective to safeguard the country from cyber-attacks. It aims to protect the privacy of citizens. A pan-India dedicated cybersecurity grid is envisaged that would maintain the entire national Internet user base on a dedicated platform for monitoring service mechanisms (Indians).
- National Investigation Agency (NIA) Amendment Bill : Restating ‘zero tolerance’ policy by the government against terrorism, Lok Sabha passed NIA Bill on July 8, 2019, which amends the NIA Act,2008 to give more power to anti-terror agency. This Bill enables the agency to investigate and probe cases of Scheduled Offences, including those committed outside India. The setting up of Special Courts for the trial of scheduled offenses is also a key change in the Bill. The main purpose of this Bill is to speed up the investigations.
- India-US Cyber Security Forum 2001 : This conference was held bilaterally after the visit of former Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee to the U.S to counter-terrorism in both the countries. Some of the key features include Interaction of security forces of both the countries by identifying and safeguarding common concerns in cybersecurity, Establishment of India “Information Sharing and Analysis Centre” (ISAC) and India Anti Bot Alliance to raise awareness regarding anti-hacking measures, Expansion to new areas by the collaboration between US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and India’s Standardization Testing and Quality Certification (STQC).
- INTERPOL: International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is an inter-governmental organization with 194 countries as its members. It has three main crime programs: Counter-Terrorism, Organised and Emerging Crime, Cybercrime. A part of these programs includes training police officials, assisting member countries in identifying and analyzing cybercriminals. They connect police officials of all the countries providing them access to databases.
- IMPACT : International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) is a non-profit global organization designed to assist member countries in tackling cybercrimes. It has four main activities: Global Resource Centre (GRC), Training and Skills Development, Security Assurance & Research, Centre for Policy and International Co-operation. It works with INTERPOL, Council of Europe, OECD, etc. to enhance cybersecurity globally. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) declared IMPACT as its physical home for cybersecurity measures. It has 191 countries as members including India.
- FIDO Alliance : The report released by World Economic Forum with the collaboration of FIDO Alliance, has suggested five top passwords fewer authentication technologies, ready for implementation by global companies. They are biometrics, behavioral analytics, zero-knowledge proofs, QR codes, and security keys. This report shows that primary dependence over passwords is not secure and better authentication practices should be incorporated.
Despite these strategies of India to combat cyber terrorism, there is still growth of cybercrimes in the country. According to NCRB, countrywide 1.7 Cybercrimes were committed per one lakh population in 2017. This report manifests the failure of India’s strategies. Hence the security measures have to be more strengthened to safeguard the nation.
With the expansion of new modes of terrorist attacks, the old ways to defend terrorism are proving to be incompetent. New strategies have to be framed in order to protect critical infrastructures. The offenders are well versed with all the existing practices which give them opportunities to escape easily and step forward with the use of the latest technologies. Legislators need to take cyber threats seriously.
There are many loopholes in the existing laws and policies which need modifications. Negotiating with terrorist groups can be a utilitarian way to decrease violence. It can be difficult to approach any settlements with the terrorists but in this way, the long-lasting disputes could be solved.
Law enforcement departments and other Judicial offices need to facilitate themselves with the latest technology. Training and awareness are other important aspects while dealing with cybersecurity. Audit systems and check logs to help in detecting and tracing an intruder. Passwords should be difficult and uncommon. Not responding to unknown emails and links is a way to prevent any cyber-attack.
The latest anti-virus software must be installed on computers. Avoid using open wireless networks as they are more prone to dangers. If something unusual is detected in the computer then it must be immediately verified with the network provider. However, these are a few measures to combat terrorism. Re-examination of existing beliefs and re-educating legislators regarding the perils of cyber terrorism. It is the responsibility of every individual to shield national security in their own capabilities.
-By Muthyala Soujanya Priya, GITAM School of Law, Visakhapatnam
 Sumant Sen, NCRB data: Cybercrimes reached a new high in 2017, THE HINDU (Feb. 04, 2020, 16:50 PM), https://www.thehindu.com/data/cyber-crime-cases-in-india-jumped-77-in-2017-compared-to-2016/article29889061.ece .
 Syed Mohd Uzair Iqbal, 2013, Cyber Crime & Cyber Terrorism in India, Ph.D. thesis, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (Feb. 25, 2020, 15:30 PM), http://hdl.handle.net/10603/63591.
 UNODC, Cybercrime Module 14 Key Issues, UNODC ORGANIZATION (Feb. 04, 2020, 18:30 PM), https://www.unodc.org/e4j/en/cybercrime/module-14/key-issues/cyberterrorism.html.
 ADVOCATE PRASHANT MALI, CYBER LAW & CYBER CRIMES 20-21 (2015).
 BBC News, Pegasus breach: India denies WhatsApp hack amid outrage (Jan. 30, 2020, 10:00 AM), https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-50258948.
 Mathiha Nehla Hani & Aswathy Rajan, A Critical Study on Cyber Terrorism with Reference with 26/11 Mumbai Attack, 119 IJPAMS 17, 1617-1636 (2018).
 Jeremy Kahn, Mumbai Terrorists Relied on New Technology for Attacks, N.Y. TIMES (Feb. 11, 2020, 17:00 PM), https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/09/world/asia/09mumbai.html.
 Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie & Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Internet, OUR WORLD IN DATA (Feb. 06, 2020, 19:30 PM), https://ourworldindata.org/internet.
 Gabi Sobliye, Search Smarter by Dorking, THE KIT (Feb. 12, 2020, 23:36 PM), https://kit.exposingtheinvisible.org/how/google-dorking.html.
 Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, Roles and Functions, CERT-IN (Feb. 07, 2020, 14:30 PM), https://www.cert-in.org.in/.
 Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, About Us, CYBER SWACCHTA KENDRA (Feb. 07,2020,18:40 PM), https://www.cyberswachhtakendra.gov.in/about.html.
 Aksheev Thakur, Pan-India cybersecurity grid needed , DC, Jan 12, 2020, p.9.
 Business Today, Lok Sabha passes NIA Amendment Bill to give more power to anti-terror agency; here’s all you need to know, BUSINESS TODAY (Jan. 30, 2020, 15:30 PM), https://www.businesstoday.in/current/economy-politics/lok-sabha-passes-nia-amendment-bill-to-give-more-power-to-anti-terror-agency-here-all-you-need-to-know/story/364609.html.
 Ibid .
 Ministry of External Affairs, India-US Cyber Security Forum – Fact Sheet, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (Feb. 08, 2020, 13:20 PM) , https://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/6014/IndiaUS+Cyber+Security+Forum++Fact+Sheet.
 IMPACT, International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber-Terrorism, INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION, (Feb. 12, 2020, 17:45 PM), http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/conferences/rpm/2009/asp/documents/IMPACTOverview.pdf.
 Davos, Passwordless safety pitched at Davos , DC, Jan 23, 2020, p.11.
 Sen, supra note 1.
 Sarah Gordon & Richard Ford, Cyberterrorism, 21 COSE, 636-647 (2002), 10.1016/S0167-4048(02)01116-1.
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Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism in India
by Editor IJSR
From cars to kitchen appliances, computers and the Internet continue to pervade human life in everything. With the discovery of machines, the Internet has amplified human enslavement. Although we have achieved many benefits in terms of effectiveness and management, many detrimental consequences and drawbacks have also been brought to the forefront. Cyberspace may now be used by individuals or organizations to serve foreign governments, or to terrorize a nation's people. By hooking a person "Cracking" on a government or military-maintained website, the crime of "cracks" will accelerate into terrorism. Cyber-terrorism could be a hospital hack. As a retaliatory act, dose. Informatics is a double-edged sword that can be used both for negative and positive work. Therefore, the fate of many businesses depends on the benevolent or vice intentions of the individual working with and through the technology, as the case may be. A malevolent intention communicated in the form of hacking, data theft, virus attack, etc., for example, can only bring negative effects. However, these methods can also be used to search for the authenticity, protection and security of one's technical device, which has been mainly relied on and effective to provide a specific organization with security. The whole thing seems to be intolerable, for example, the train ticketing system, if we currently think of society without the machine. Airline Ticketing and Traffic Control as well. Bill for electricity. The Telephone Bill Office functions etc. Without the machine, it seems to be intolerable. The most important means of communication, information, trade and entertainment has become computers with the aid of the Internet today. The internet is like life being expanded and carrying on in the real world in another medium that cuts space, time, nationality, citizenship, across borders, Competence, gender, sexual orientation, and age. Likewise, each coin has two sides, the internet with all the advantages of obscurity, transparency, and convenience has become an ideal place for criminals involved in making the net for illicit lucrative purposes, either monetary or otherwise.
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India has been the Victim of Cyberterrorism
By Colonel B. S. Nagial (Retd.)
Cyberterrorism is a global phenomenon but not much recognised in India. However, India ranks second highest user of the Internet after China. It is estimated that about 20% of the Indian population uses Internet facilities. In contrast, in the US and UK, 90% of people use the Internet. And people who use the Internet facilities are also called ‘Netizens.’ The over-dependence on the Internet increases susceptibilities & weaknesses. Sometimes the feelings of aggression are transformed into anger and revenge, which turns them into criminals.
Most people in India aren’t sensitive to cyber threats posed by the virtual world. Information Technology (IT) has opened a plethora of opportunities for the world to develop its financial infrastructures and other e-commerce facilities. Cyber crimes are increasing daily. The ‘netizens’ are ignorant and in denial that their activities are safe and secure. We usually share our important & sensitive data & information inadvertently on social media.
The momentous growth of the cyber world has further posed the threat of cyberterrorism. Cyber attacks depict lethal and non-lethal psychological problems faced by people. Cyberterrorism is typically considered a tool that only affects the national security system. But in fact, it also affects the psyche of the people. Cyber terrorists have increased the employment of cyber attacks dramatically in the past few years. It has caused mass destruction & damage to various facilities such as health, energy, nuclear, and critical command & control facilities. Cyber professionals are at work to reinforce capacity-building measures to restrain cyber attacks on critical systems in India.
What is Cyberterrorism?
As per the dictionary, cyber-terrorism is ‘the motivated use of computers and information technology to cause extreme interruption or extensive fear in society.’ Dorothy Denning, a professor of computer science, has given the most notable definition of cyberterrorism. He has put forward an admirably unambiguous definition in numerous articles and in her testimony before the US House Armed Services Committee in May 2000 – Cyberterrorism is the conjunction of cyberspace and terrorism. It denotes illicit attacks and threats of attacks against computers, networks and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people. Also, to qualify as cyberterrorism, an attack must cause violence against persons or property or inflict sufficient harm to cause fear. Attacks which cause death or bodily injury, explosions, or severe economic loss are a few examples. Grave attacks against critical infrastructures could be acts of cyberterrorism, depending on their impact.
Cyberterrorism is a deliberate attempt, which is a politically, socially or religiously inspired attack against information systems, programs and data. The definition is occasionally expanded to include any cyber attack that intimidates or generates fear in the target population. Attackers often do this by inflicting damage or disruption to critical infrastructure.
Cyberterrorism is also known by terms such as electronic terrorism, electronic jihad, information warfare or cyber warfare. The fact is that cyberterrorism threats can come from so many different sources, and sometimes it would seem impossible actually to defend ourselves from them.
Objectives of Cyberterrorism
The fundamental objective of a cyber-attack is hacking, generally to satisfy the ego of hackers by creating terror. Sometimes it seems too similar or overlapping, like cyber attacks and cyberterrorism.
The objective of cyberterrorism is to instil feelings of terror in the mind of cyber victims. Cyberterrorism also threatens the most vulnerable points covering physical and virtual worlds. It includes the commission of acts of destruction, alteration, acquisition and acts of transmission against the following:
- Defence forces.
- Internal security system.
- Health care system.
- Financial infrastructure.
- Other important civilians networks.
- Destructions of supervisory control and data acquisition system of smart cities.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be used to help the commission of terrorist-related offences. It can be promoted to use, promote, support, facilitate, and engage in acts of terrorism such as spreading propaganda, recruitment, radicalisation, incitement to terrorism, terror financing, training planning and execution of terrorist attacks.
Modus Operandi of Cyberterrorism
Cyberterrorism is gaining far-fetched attention due to extensive reporting by the media and numerous other institutions, both from the public as well as private sectors. They accept that cyberterrorism is capable of rendering catastrophic impacts. Thus, it is imperative to share awareness among the general public to alleviate cyberterrorism threats effectively.
Most cyberterrorism cases have numerous common traits. It is essential to clearly define what a cyberterrorism attack looks like to avoid misunderstandings leading to confusion later on. Usually, the victims of cyberterrorism attacks are specifically targeted by the attacker(s) for predetermined reasons. There have been random cases of cyberattacks carried out in the past, such as releasing harmful viruses and worms through the Internet. However, in reality, the targets were arranged by cyber terrorists. This is because if the attacks are more focused and intended towards an explicit target, there are better chances of inflicting severe damage on the target chosen.
The most common objective of cyberterrorism is to inflict damage or destroy completely a particular target which may be an organisation, industry, sector, or economy, or to impact particular targets. These types of attacks are becoming popular. Thus, specific countermeasures will be required to prevent the targeted entities from falling victim to such attacks. One more common feature of cyber terrorism is the resolve which is to further the terrorist or terrorist groups’ own goals, such as to inflict heavy damages on the former employer due to unsettled disputes or to create chaos among the general public.
Cyber terrorists deploy various types of cyberterrorism attacks. As per the Center for the Study of Terrorism and Irregular Warfare at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, USA, cyber terrorism capabilities can be grouped into three main categories; simple unstructured, advanced-structured and complex-coordinated.
This is the fundamental capability to conduct hacks against individual systems employing tools created by others. This type of organisation possesses little target analysis, command and control skills, and limited learning capability.
This is the advanced competence to conduct more experienced attacks against several systems or networks and possibly to modify or create the most fundamental hacking tools. The organisation possesses an elementary target analysis, command and control skills, and relatively modest learning capability.
Under this category, coordinated attacks are capable of causing mass disruptions against unified and diverse defences. Terrorists can create sophisticated hacking tools. They are also highly proficient in conducting target analysis and command and control. They also possess advanced organisational learning capabilities.
There are five main types of cyberterrorism attacks: incursion, destruction, disinformation, denial of service and defacement of websites. Few such attacks are more severe than others and have diverse objectives. We must recognise the various attack methods to understand how they can be countered effectively.
- Incursion. These attacks are carried out to gain access or infiltrate computer systems and networks to get or alter information. This method is widespread and widely used, with a high success rate. Many loopholes exist in unprotected computer systems and networks, and terrorists can benefit from attaining and modifying vital information, which can inflict further damage to the organisation or for personal gain.
- Destruction. Through this method, the attackers intrude into computer systems and networks to inflict severe damage or destroy them. The implications of such an attack can be disastrous, whereby organisations might be forced to be out of operations for the time being, depending on the harshness of the attacks. It can prove very costly for the affected organisations to get their operations up and running again. Therefore, it will affect them financially and also impair their reputation.
- Disinformation. Generally, this technique is used to blow out rumours which can seriously affect the target chosen. Notwithstanding whether the rumours are true or false, such attacks can irresponsibly create chaos for the target. Such an attack is brutal to curb as it can be done almost suddenly without access to computer networks.
- Denial of Services. Denial of Service attacks, or DOS attacks as popularly known, are also standard. The effect of such attacks is felt by e-commerce-enabled businesses selling products or services online. Public websites are often also the targets of such attacks by cyber terrorists. The foremost aim of DOS attacks is to disable or disrupt online operations by flooding the targeted servers with a vast number of queries which would eventually lead to the servers being unable to handle routine service requests from legitimate users. The impact of such attacks can be catastrophic from both economic as well as social perspectives, where it can cause organisations to suffer huge losses.
- Defacement of websites. Such attacks are targeted to disfigure the websites of the targets chosen. Either the websites are changed to post messages from the cyber terrorists for propaganda or re-direct these messages to the users to other websites which may contain similar messages. However, a small number of such cases are still happening.
State of Cyberattacks in India
As per the reports, Indian government websites faced the highest number of cyber-attacks in 2022. India, the US, Indonesia, and China suffered 45% of cyberattacks on government entities worldwide in 2022. The report claims that the number of attacks on government agencies was up 95% yearon-year.4 India was the most besieged in 2022, as attacks on government agencies doubled.
In Dec 2022, India’s top government-managed hospital, All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), was affected by a cyberattack disrupting online services for more than two weeks. India’s controlling agency of cyber security, Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), found in its investigation that five AIIMS servers were compromised during the attack, and hackers encrypted nearly 1.3 terabytes of data.
In the year 2020, CERT-In handled 1158208 incidents. In the year 2021, Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) handled 1402809 incidents. The type of incidents handled were: Website Intrusion & Malware Propagation, Malicious Code, Phishing, Distributed Denial of Service attacks, Website Defacements, Unauthorised Network Scanning/ Probing activities, Ransomware attacks, Data Breaches and Vulnerable Services. Remedial measures for handling incidents were suggested and implemented in coordination with relevant stakeholders.
CERT-In is an organisation of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, intending to secure Indian cyberspace. CERT-In provides Incident Prevention and Response services and Security Quality Management Services.
Building Cyber Resilience
Cyber resilience is a perception that brings operational continuity, information systems security and organisational resilience into one place. This concept describes the ability to continue delivering intended outcomes despite experiencing threats of cyberattacks or natural disasters. In other words, a measured level of information security proficiency and resilience affects an organisation.
A cyber resilience strategy is dynamic for business sustainability. It could deliver paybacks out there, growing an enterprise’s security stance and plummeting the risk of revelation to its critical infrastructure. Cyber resilience also benefits from reducing financial loss and reputational damage. And if an organisation receives cyber resilience certification, it can instil trust in its clients and customers. Further, a cyber-resilient company can optimise the value it generates for its customers, increasing its competitive advantage through effective and efficient operations.
Cyber resilience is defined as the capability of an organisation or business process to:
Anticipate: Maintain a state of informed preparedness to forestall compromises of mission/ business functions from adversary attacks.
Withstand: Continue essential mission/ business functions despite the successful execution of an attack by an adversary.
Contain: Localise containment of crisis and isolate trusted systems from untrusted systems to continue essential business operations in the event of cyber attacks.
Recover: Restore mission/ business functions to the maximum extent possible after the successful execution of an attack by an adversary.
Evolve: To change missions/ business functions and the supporting cyber capabilities to minimise adverse impacts from actual or predicted adversary attacks.
Cyberspace is an intricate environment comprising communications between people, software and services, reinforced by the worldwide dispersal of information and communication technology (ICT) devices and networks.
Due to various benefits of technological advancements, cyberspace today has become a shared platform utilised by people, businesses, critical information infrastructure, the military and governments. Thus it makes it difficult to demarcate clear-cut limits among entities. Cyberspace is anticipated to be more multifaceted in the conceivable future.
Information Technology (IT) is one of the vulnerable sectors with space in cyberspace. It is the most potent growth catalytic agent for the Indian economy. Besides powering India’s economy, this sector is also positively influencing the lives of its people directly or indirectly. The IT sector has been essential in renovating India’s image worldwide. The government has been a critical driver for the increased adoption of IT-based products and IT-enabled services in Public services, Healthcare, Education, Defence and Financial services, etc. Such inventiveness have enabled increased IT adoption in various sectors.
The fast-increasing dependency of man on cyber network systems has an unrestrained generation of cyberthreat called cyberterrorism. The widely available cyberspace has provided a valuable operational space to terrorist organisations for planning and execution of cyberattacks on critical infrastructures, spreading hate propaganda over the Internet and using this platform for recruitment, planning and execution of subversive activities. Moreover, it has thrived terror arrangements and transformed how terrorists operated earlier. The most urgent requirement is to secure our cyberspace from such arduous cyber threats. Articulating a cybersecurity strategy incorporating international organisations is a prerequisite to challenging ever-increasing cyberterrorism, which poses a severe threat to global security.
- Cyberterrorism How Real Is the Threat? https://www.usip.org ‘ sites ‘ default ‘ files. Accessed on 4 Jan 2023.
- Cyber Terrorism in India: A Physical Reality Orvirtual Myth https:// journals.indexcopernicus.com ‘ file ‘ viewByFileId. Accessed on 4 Jan, 2023.
- Countering Cyber Terrorism Effectively – GIAC Certifications https:// www.giac.org ‘ paper ‘ gsec ‘ countering-cy. Accesed on 5 Jan 2023.
- India saw the highest number of cyberattacks on govt … – Mint https:// www.livemint.com ‘ technology ‘ tech-news. Accessed on 5Jan 2023.
- Annual Report (2020) https://www.cert-in.org.in. Accessed on 5 Jan 2023.
- Cyber Crisis Management Plan for Countering … – CERT-In https:// www.cert-in.org.in. Accessed on 5 Jan 2023.
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For all things cyber, a beginner’s guide to cyber terrorism in india.
Yoshita Phaphat August 19, 2022 Law
According to the Global Risks Report 2021 , the failure of cyber security will be one of humanity’s most significant concerns in the coming decade. With a sizeable internet population, India has confronted significant cyber terrorism challenges in the last few decades. Cyber terrorism commonly includes coordinated and politically motivated attacks on information systems, programmes, or data. Cyber incidents that are menacing or frightening can be included in the definition of cyber terrorism. Attackers primarily aim to destroy or disrupt a country’s critical infrastructure.
Explanation to Section 70(1) of the Information Technology Act, 2000 defines critical information infrastructure as
“computer resource, the incapacitation or destruction of which, shall have debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety.”
Section 70A of the same act recognises National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre ( NCIIPC ) as the national nodal agency. NCIIPC considers the following sectors as critical infrastructure: power, energy, banking, financial services, insurance, telecom, transport, government, strategic and public enterprises.
Prominent cyber terrorism incidents in India
Investigation of the 26/11 terrorist attack in Mumbai revealed evidence of terrorists using telecommunication technologies to learn about the map, human infrastructure, and location. They actively used Google Earth, a mobile network, and a social media platform to track the activities of Indian forces. Furthermore, they employed technology for converting auditory signals into data, making it impossible for Indian agencies to track down information sources.
In another instance, in June 2011, a security incident led to flight delays at Delhi’s IGI Airport Terminal 3. This incident led to the failure of the Common Use Passengers Processing System (CUPPS). CUPPS handles boarding gates, check-in counters, and information about arrival and departure times for the terminal. The system was down for more than 12 hours, and the airport management termed this a back-end server glitch in their press release. However, CBI registered a case for a virus attack wherein the perpetrator had executed malicious code from a remote location. The 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament also deserves mention. We have discussed this incident in detail here . Other examples of cyber terrorism include a cyber attack on the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant and small drones that dropped explosives at the Jammu Air Base.
In 2020, there was a tense stand-off at the India-China border along the Line of Control (LOC). A New York Times report claimed China was targeting India’s critical infrastructure to coerce India on the border issue. Red Echo, a state-sponsored attacking group backed by China, was considered responsible for this attack, resulting in Mumbai facing an electricity blackout.
Where does the Indian law stand?
The 2008 amendment to the Information Technology Act, 2000 added Section 66F, which deals with cyber terrorism. This provision provides life imprisonment for acts that threaten India’s integrity, unity, security, and sovereignty or to strike terror in the general public. The “acts” here include denying access to computer resources, attempting to penetrate a computer resource without authorisation, and introducing any computer contaminant. These acts are likely to cause death or injuries, destroy property, prevent supplies of services essential to the community, or adversely affect the country’s critical information infrastructure.
In the case of Mehid Masroor Biswas v. State of Karnataka , the accused-petitioner from Bangalore was operating a Twitter account to support the claims of ISIS. The accused successfully masked his identity using VPN and ghost IP addresses. He sent thousands of messages and posted content glorifying the Islamic Caliphate through his Twitter account. He was in regular contact with British Jihadis and even praised them as martyrs if they did. Channel 4 exposed him in December 2014, and the police charged him under various provisions of the Unlawful Action (Prevention) Act, 1967, the Indian Penal Code, 1860, and the Information Technology Act, 2000. While rejecting the accused’s bail petition, the Karnataka High Court opined that the allegations are prima facie true.
There are also examples of cases where Section 66F has been misapplied. For example, the Tamil Nadu Police filed an FIR against a social activist for creating a documentary about manual scavenging. In Amish Devgan v. Union of India & Ors , the police charged Amish Devgan, a news anchor, under Section 66F for allegations of hurting religious sentiments.
As our dependency on the internet increases, the potential damage of cyber terrorism will follow the trend. Attackers continuously evolve their tactics and look for the next target; we cannot sit back and relax. If malicious actors successfully infiltrate critical infrastructure, the impact is likely to be adverse and affect public life at large. In such a situation, the role of agencies like NCIIPC and CERT-in becomes more crucial than ever.
Featured Image Credits: Cyber background vector created by freepik – www.freepik.com
Cyber Terrorism And Laws In India
- To study the Conecpt of Cyber crimes or Cyber Terrorism.
- Cyber terrorism in India and its punishment in Indian Law.
- Initiatives taken by World and our country for the Cyber terrorisms.
- Like, air traffic, military networks, financial and energy systems, telecommunications and others, to cause physical devastation.
- Cause disruptions sufficient to compromise the industrial and economic operations of a country. A Cyber terror attack thwacks a large part of the world population and causes monetary disorder and loss of data.
- Cause physical injuries, loss of lives, explosions, crashing of aircraft and other aerial vehicles, theft of technology and privileged information.
- Move beyond the realms of destruction and send a signal of ferocious disruption and fear to governments.
- cyber terrorism constitutes a low-cost asymmetric warfare element for terrorists as it requires fewer resources in comparison to physical terror attacks. The terror groups can inflict more damage to people and society with the same amount of funds. Thus, the benefit�cost ratio for a Cyber terror attack is very high.
- Cyberspace provides anonymity, thereby enabling Cyber terrorists to hide their identity. The Indian government had admitted in Rajya Sabha that attackers compromise the computer systems situated in different locations of the globe and use masquerading techniques and hidden servers to hide the identity of the computer system from which the cyber attacks are propelled. It is the anonymous nature of cyberspace that makes it arduous to attribute cyber attacks to any state.
- The CIs and other valuable state resources are not fully protected and thus become an obvious target of Cyber terrorists. After designation of the target, the cyber attack can be launched without any unwarranted delay and need for further preparation.
- The Internet enables Cyber terrorists to initiate a cyber attack on any distinct part of the world. Unlike physical terror attacks, there are no physical barriers or checkpoints that block Cyber terrorists in the execution of predetermined cyber attacks on designated targets. Likewise, cyber terrorism involves less risk than physical terrorism.
- Cyberspace provides broad avenues for disseminating terror organisation propaganda. It provides a larger audience for Cyber terror attacks, whose impact goes beyond cyberspace to diverse systems.
- Improving domestic capabilities to confront futuristic and present-day cybersecurity challenges.
- Continuously upgrading and enhancing defence of CIs in the country.
- Fostering the republic's standing as an international hub for the development of ICTs.
- Promoting effective coordination and cooperation among the government, academia and private players.
Initiatives Taken In India:
- unlawful denial of access to any legally authorised person from accessing any online or computer resource or network;
- unauthorised attempt to intrude or access any computer resource; or
- introduce or cause to introduce any computer contaminant.
- Collect, analyse and disseminate information on cybersecurity incidents;
- Forecast and issue alerts on cyber �incidents;
- Emergency measures to handle cybersecurity incidents;
- Coordinate cyber attack response activities;
- Issue guidelines, advisories, over cybersecurity measures, etc.
- Information Technology Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000), Chapter III, Section 66F(2).
- Ibid., Section 66F(1)(A)(i).
- Ibid., Section 66F(1)(A)(ii).
- Ibid., Section 66F(1)(A)(iii).
- Ibid., Section 66F(1)(B).
- Ibid., Section 70.
- Ibid., Section 70(3).
- Misra, S.N.; Indian Penal Code; Central Law Publicaions;ed-13;p-88
- Cyber Law and its Applications by Prof. Shilpa S. Dongre
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Type of paper: Essay
Topic: Social Issues , Terrorism , Information , Police , Supreme Court , Victimology , Violence , Crime
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The society we live now is strongly dependent on information technology. However, despite the many benefits that come along with it, it also makes the society vulnerable to the activities of people who use the technology for wrongful purposes or personal interests. Information technology has bred world-class hackers who are responsible for significant damages and disruptions to information systems. However, hackers are not the only criminals in the information technology sector; there are also terrorist’s organizations that use information systems to plan and facilitate their activities. In definitional terms, cyber-terrorism is an unlawful attack against networks, computers, and where information is stored with the purpose of coercing or intimidating a government or people (Cottim, 2010). The leading form of threat in the information technology sector is, in fact, the cyber-terrorists; who attack technological infrastructure with the purpose to boost their terrorism plans. Cyber-terrorism takes place in a cyberspace- a virtual world of computers and computer networks. The local police have a jurisdiction over the cyber-terrorism. However, they do not have enough knowledge and skills to investigate cyber-terrorism. In most cases, they rely on the expertise from the federal government which is the one that mostly deals with international cyber-crimes (Wall, 2007). The police involvement in cyber-terrorism is subtle because they miss the first response role. Most of the police executives agree that, currently the police are “behind the curve” in their involvement with the crime. The jurisdiction on cyber-terrorism has created a lot of challenges as acknowledged by many security agencies. This is because an act of cyber-terrorism committed by a perpetrator thousand miles away becomes a challenge to local police since police departments work within a given jurisdiction, but cyber-terrorists know no boundaries (Wall, 2007). Therefore, the jurisdiction theory is determined by the place in which the crime was committed. Cyber-terrorism is a crime that can be prosecuted by FBI in a federal court. For example; according to security focus journal, in 2004, the FBI agents arrested a man from Louisiana –Jeansonne - for allegedly tricking a few MSN TV users into installing and running a malicious e-mail attachment, which in turn reprogrammed the user’s set-top boxes to dial the 9-1-1 emergency number. The man was charged under the provision of federal computer crime statute because the attack caused a threat to public health and safety. In that case, the provision of federal computer crime gives the FBI agent a mandate to prosecute cyber-terrorism crime. With the increased cases of cyber-terrorism around the world, many states have put in place laws that govern the crime. In India, an amendment was made on laws under the information technology act, 2000 to define the term “Cyberterrorism” U/Sec. 66F. It was the first time the Indian constitution defined the term and stipulated a punishment for the latter. In America, the Cybersecurity Act of 2012 was the latest attempt by the congress to counter threats on cyber-crimes and attacks. The examples of recent cyber-attacks that were launched as large scale terrorism include Hannaford Bros, a grocery retailer. In 2007, Hannaford Bros suffered a four-month long cyber-attack where over 4.2 million credit and debit cards numbers and other crucial information were accessed by hackers who installed a malware program on the grocery store servers instead and accessed company’s database. The mastermind for the hacking was a man named Albert Gonzales, who created shadowcrew.com (Cottim, 2010). Another example of a cyber-attack was called ‘operation aurora’ in which Yahoo was the subject. The attack originated from China and was conducted by a group called Elderwood that was based in Beijing, and that had links with the People Liberation Army. The group used advanced threats that were persistent from mid-2009 up to December 2009. The above examples are just few among many other cases (Cottim, 2010). In the case where the cyber-terrorism act is not against the law, the person who performs the crime will not be prosecuted. This is especially the case when the country that the hacker resides in does not have any laws against hacking. For example, in the year 2000, millions of computers were affected by a virus called “Love Bug” that was traced back to Philippines by the United States law enforcers. The virus had caused a lot of damages, and the United States wanted the extradition of the suspect, but they failed because of lack of laws against hacking in the Philippines (Cottim, 2010). In most cases, local police work hand-in-hand with the FBI to fight against cyber-terrorism. This is however not deep into the task because police jurisdiction is very limited. Local police, usually, hands over cyber-terrorism cases to the FBI if the particular case under investigation is beyond their jurisdiction; or if it involves millions of dollars and finally if it is a case that has international components.
Jurisdiction limitation seems to be the biggest factor or issue hindering progress in the fight against cyber-terrorism. The fact that cyber-attacks can be carried out from anywhere in the world makes the investigation and taking the offenders to court a very difficult task that can only be achieved through international cooperation (Cottim, 2010). In addition to that, there is a need to train the local police and the same time equipped them with skills and resources needed to investigate and bring offenders to justice.
Wall, D. S. (2007). Policing cybercrimes: Situating the public police in networks of security within cyberspace. Police Practice and Research, 8(2), 183-205. Cottim, A. A. (2010). Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism and jurisdiction: an analysis of Article 22 of the COE Convention on Cybercrime. The Future of Law & Technology in the Information Society, 2.
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Essay on Terrorism in India for Students and Children
500 Words Essay on Terrorism in India
Terrorism in India has a long history. It is a cowardly act by the terrorist groups who wish to disturb the peace of the country. It aims to create a state of panic amongst the people. They want to keep the people in a constant state of fear to stop the country from prospering.
Time to time, they carry out terrorist acts to remind people of the fear they want them to live in. Consequently, there are roughly 100 terrorist cells that are operating in India. They have to an extent successfully created an atmosphere of tension amongst the citizens. Terrorism impacts the country gravely and has dangerous repercussions.
Impact of Terrorism in India
As discussed earlier, terrorism has a major impact on any country. When we look at a developing country like India, it is all the more harmful. Firstly, it creates a state of panic amongst the citizens. The bomb blasts or firing impacts the mental health of people. This causes the untimely death of various citizens or leaves them handicapped. The anxiety and fear one has to live in restrict their way of living to a great extent.
Moreover, terrorism has a major impact on the tourism industry. As tourists avoid visiting places that are vulnerable to terrorist attacks, the tourism industry faces a blow. India is a country that earns a lot of its revenue from tourism. When these attacks happen, they cause fear amongst the tourists as well. The ones planning to visit cancel their trips. Similarly, the ones staying presently shorten their trip and leave.
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Furthermore, terrorist attacks create a sense of doubt in the foreign investors of India. After all, who would want to invest in a country prone to terrorism? They avoid the risk and instead opt for safer alternatives. This causes a huge blow to the business of India depending on them.
Thus, it damages the economy. As terrorist attacks cause loss of life and property, the replenishment takes up a lot of capital. It also results in people leaving the country to settle abroad for a safer environment. This makes India lose a lot of potential doctors, engineers, artists and more.
Major Terror Attacks in India
India has faced a number of terror attacks over time. The worst of them is definitely the 26/11 terror attack which took place in Mumbai. The terrorists captured renowned places like Nariman House, Hotel Oberoi Trident and Hotel Taj. They killed almost 170 people and injured around 300 people. All these victims were police officers, security personnel, or tourists.
The Mumbai Train Blasts were also very deadly. They took place in the local trains of Mumbai and happened at seven railway stations. It claimed 210 lives and injured 715 people.
The Indian Parliament Attack was also very surprising. As the parliament is one of the safest buildings. The terrorist managed to kill three parliament staff members and six police officers. It remains shocking as one wonders how such a safe place could come under attack. In short, terrorism in India needs to be eradicated to safeguard the country and help it prosper.
FAQs on Terrorism in India
Q.1 How does terrorism impact India?
A.1 Terrorism in India has a deep impact on the people and economy of the country. It causes panic amongst people and affects the tourism industry. Furthermore, it also has adverse effects on the economy of the country and its foreign investments.
Q.2 Name some of the most deadly terrorist attacks in India.
A.2 India has had some of the most dangerous terrorist attacks. The major ones include the one on Hotel Taj known as the 26/11 attack. The Mumbai serial bomb blasts were also very deadly where more than 1,000 people were injured. Moreover, the Indian Parliament attack was also quite dangerous.
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Terrorism in India Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words
Essay on terrorism in india -.
Terrorism refers to acts of violence committed by individuals or groups with the intention of creating fear and alarm in a population, and often involves the targeting of innocent civilians. These acts are meant to influence and manipulate governments or other organisations and can take many forms, including bombing, hijacking, kidnapping, and assassination. Terrorism is considered a threat to global peace and security, and is widely condemned by the international community .
100 Words Essay On Terrorism in India
Terrorism in India has been a significant concern for the country for several decades. The problem has its roots in political, social and economic issues and is often fueled by religious and ethnic tensions.
Over the years, the Indian government has taken a number of measures to combat terrorism, including strengthening security forces and intelligence agencies and implementing laws and regulations to curb terrorist activities. Despite these efforts, terrorist attacks continue to occur in various parts of the country.
While the Indian government has taken steps to combat terrorism, the problem remains a significant concern for the country. Addressing the underlying issues that fuel terrorism and implementing a unified and comprehensive strategy, along with the support of the international community, is crucial in effectively tackling the problem.
200 Words Essay On Terrorism in India
Terrorism is a global threat that has affected many countries, including India. The problem of terrorism in India has its roots in the country's complex history and ongoing political conflicts. India has faced terrorism in various forms for decades.
A challenge in the fight against terrorism in India is the lack of a unified and comprehensive strategy to address the problem. Different states in the country have their own approach to dealing with terrorism, which often results in a lack of coordination and cooperation among the various agencies involved.
The government of India has taken effective measures to combat terrorism, including increasing security and surveillance, strengthening border control, and launching military operations against terrorist groups.
India has also been actively participating in global efforts to combat terrorism and promote peace and stability in the region.
India has been a strong advocate of the Zero tolerance policy against terrorism.
India has also been vocal in raising its concern in various international forums against state sponsorship of terrorism and cross-border terrorism.
Terrorism is a severe problem in India that has caused much suffering and loss of life. While the Indian government has taken steps to combat terrorism, it remains a major concern. India continues to work towards peace and stability in the region and advocates for a zero-tolerance policy towards terrorism globally.
500 Words Essay On Terrorism in India
Terrorism is a major problem that affects not only India but also the world as a whole. It refers to the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political or ideological goals. The problem of terrorism in India is complex and multifaceted, and it has a significant impact on the security and stability of the country
Origin of Terrorism in India
Terrorism in India has its roots in a variety of factors, including political and ideological differences, religious extremism, and ethnic and separatist movements. The problem has been exacerbated by the presence of various terrorist groups that operate within the country.
Current Situation of Terrorism in India
Terrorism continues to be a significant problem in India, with a number of incidents occurring on a regular basis. These incidents range from small-scale attacks on individuals to large-scale attacks on civilians and government buildings.
Major Incidents of Terrorism in India
Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008 | The Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008, also known as 26/11, were a series of terrorist attacks that occurred in the Indian city of Mumbai. The attacks were carried out by a group of terrorists and resulted in the deaths of 164 people and the injury of over 300 others.
2001 Indian Parliament attack | The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a terrorist attack that occurred on December 13, 2001, when a group of heavily armed terrorists entered the Parliament of India in New Delhi. The attack resulted in the deaths of 14 people and the injury of 18 others.
1993 Bombay Bombings | The 1993 Bombay Bombings were a series of bombings that occurred on March 12, 1993, in the Indian city of Bombay (now Mumbai). The bombings resulted in the deaths of 257 people and the injury of over 700 others.
Steps to Fight Terrorism in India
Strengthening security and intelligence agencies | India has several security and intelligence agencies that play a crucial role in fighting terrorism. These agencies need to be strengthened and given the necessary resources to effectively carry out their duties.
Enhancing border security | India's borders are vast and porous, making it easy for terrorists to infiltrate the country. Measures such as strengthening border security, deploying more troops, and increasing the use of technology such as surveillance cameras can help to prevent terrorist infiltration.
Addressing the root causes of terrorism | It is important to address the underlying issues that lead to terrorism, such as poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. By addressing these issues, it will be possible to reduce the appeal of terrorist groups and prevent the emergence of new ones.
International cooperation | Terrorism is a global problem and requires a global response. India needs to work closely with other countries to share intelligence and coordinate efforts to fight terrorism.
Terrorism is a major problem that affects India and the world as a whole. For the fight against the cause of terrorism to be successful, it is imperative that security and intelligence agencies be strengthened, border security enhanced, issues of communalism addressed, and international collaboration is increased. Our country can be safer for everyone if we work together.
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A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.
Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.
Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood. Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.
An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it.
Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems.
A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability.
Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues.
Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials.
Orthotist and Prosthetist
Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.
A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.
A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.
Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth.
People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.
A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.
An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.
When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications.
Also Read: Career as Nurse
For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs.
Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.
A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.
Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.
Video Game Designer
Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.
The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.
If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.
Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production.
A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications.
Visual Communication Designer
Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.
In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook.
Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.
For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.
In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.
Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.
Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.
Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning).
Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian .
Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers.
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A QA Lead is incharge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that they meet the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans.
A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.
A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying.
Quality Systems Manager
A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party.
Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner.
The procurement Manager is also known as Purchasing Manager . The role of Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. Procurement Managers are involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies and as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness.
ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks.
Information Security Manager
Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack
Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.
Computer System Analyst
Individuals in the computer systems analyst career path study the hardware and applications that are part of an organization's computer systems, as well as how they are used. They collaborate closely with managers and end-users to identify system specifications and business priorities, as well as to assess the efficiency of computer systems and create techniques to boost IT efficiency. Individuals who opt for a career as a computer system analyst support the implementation, modification, and debugging of new systems after they have been installed.
A Test Manager is a professional responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling test activities. He or she develops test processes and strategies to analyse and determine test methods and tools for test activities. The test manager jobs involve documenting tests that have been carried out, analysing and evaluating software quality to determine further recommended procedures.
An IS Analyst is responsible for monitoring computer networks for security issues. He or she investigates security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents. The role of IS Analyst involves installing security measures and operating software to protect systems and information infrastructure.
A site administrator is a person who provides administrative support to other employees in a team. Career as Site Administrator requires help in implementing office procedures. His or her role involves regularly filing and maintaining documentation. In addition to being able to provide administrative support, a site administrator also has to ensure that the work environment is in compliance with company policies and regulations.
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