Book cover

Nontraditional Security Concerns in India pp 53–73 Cite as

Cyber Terrorism: A Growing Threat to India’s Cyber Security

  • Shalini Prasad 3 &
  • Abhay Kumar 4  
  • First Online: 02 April 2022

162 Accesses

1 Citations

The chapter draws attention to cyber threats, which endanger the safety of modern states, organisations and international relations. It explains the concept of cyber terrorism and what are the various dangers and challenges posed by cyber terrorism specifically for India’s national security? It further examines the various initiatives commenced by the Indian government to counter cyber terrorism both at the state and global level? The first part of the research aims to understand the concepts and meaning of cyber terrorism and delineate it from other terms like cybercrime, cyber-attacks, etc. Further, it will identify the people involved in these types of activities and what are the motives and intentions to carry out cyber terrorist’s attacks. The study also investigates the adverse impact of cyber terrorism on the national security of India. It describes various types of threats and challenges that India’s cybersecurity has been facing or is likely to be in the future. It tried to dig out the options about how cyber terrorism might become a bigger menace in the future which could threaten India’s security. And in the last part, it will evaluate several measures, initiatives adopted by the Indian government to counter cyber terrorism at national and as well as at the international level. It will underline the evolution of the cybersecurity policy in India. The study proceeds by critically analysing various policies that the Indian government has devised over the years as a response to counter these threats and challenges. At the national level, what are the several policies and acts that have been initiated and to what extent these initiatives have been able to counter cyber terrorism? It will identify its inadequacies as well as its prospects. At the international level, India is actively cooperating with other states like the United States, and international organisation like United Nations to tackle cyber terrorism. Lastly, the research will try to identify cyber threats and assess various policies, initiatives and international cooperation.

  • Cyber terrorism
  • Cyber crime
  • Cyber Security
  • Information technology

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution .

Buying options

  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Cert-In founded on in 2004 based on the US Computer Emergency Readiness Team publishes an annual report on cybersecurity incidents.

Gulshan Rai former head of the Cert at the DeitY became the first Coordinator.

Anand, Rasita (2015), “Cyber Security Policy in India Examining the Issues, Challenges and Framework”, [Online: web], Accessed 5 February 2018. .

Babić, V. (2015), “Cyber Terrorism” Lecture Delivered on 23- April 2015 at 4th International Scientific and Professional Conference, Zagreb: Croatia.

Google Scholar  

Beggs, Christopher and Matthew Butler (2004), “Developing New Strategies to Combat Terrorism”, in Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (eds.) Innovations Through Information Technology . Idea Group Publishing: USA.

Bogdanosk, Marjan (2017), “Contemporary Forms of Terrorism”, Contemporary Macedonian Defense , 17 (32): 61–72.

Brenner, W. Susan (2007), “At Light Speed: Attribution and Response to Cybercrime/Terrorism/Warfare”, The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology , 97 (2): 379–475.

Brenner, W. Susan and Marc D. Goodman (2002), “In Defense of Cyberterrorism: An Argument for Anticipating Cyber-Attacks”, Journal of Law, Technology & Policy , 1–43.

Brunst, Phillips (2008), “Use of the Internet by Terrorists—A Threat Analysis”, in Centre of Excellence Defence Against Terrorism, (ed.) Responses to the Cyber Terrorism, Netherlands: IOS Press.

Captain Chhabra S. (2016), “India’s National Cyber Security Policy (NCSP) and Organization—A Critical Assessment”, Naval War College Journal , 55–70.

Choudhury, K. (2016), “Cyber Security: Israel Wants Joint Ecosystem with India”, Business Standard , New Delhi, 6 January 2016.

Colarik, Andrew Michael (2006), Cyber Terrorism: Political Cyber-Terrorism in a Post Stuxnet World, and Economic Implications . Idea Group Publishing: London.

Col. Raghav S.S. (2015), “Cyber Security in India’s Counter Terrorism Strategy”, [Online: Web], Accessed on 7 November 2017. .

Curran, Kevin, Kevin, C. and Sean McKeever (2008), “Cyber Terrorism Attacks”, in Lech J. Janczewski and Andrew M. Colarik (eds). Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism. Information Science Reference: USA.

Dalal, Praveen (2008), “Cyber Terrorism and Its Solutions: An Indian Perspective”, [Online: web], Accessed on 5 February 2018. .

Datta, S. (2015), “The Deadly New Age War”, The Hindu , New Delhi, 23 June 2015.

Datta, S. (2016), “Cyber Security, Internet Governance and India’s Foreign Policy: Historical Antecedents”, [Online: Web], Accessed on 3 September 2017. .

Dayson, J. D. (2002), “The Myth of_Cyber-Terrorism”, [Online Web], Accessed on 12 September 2017. .

Duic, I. V. Cvrtila and T. Ivanjko (2017), “International Cyber Security Challenges” MIPRO/ISS, 1525–1529.

Ebert, Hannes (2018), “Building Resilience India Cyber Security 2000–16”, in Sumit Ganguly, Nicolas Blarel and Majeet Pardesi (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of India’s National Security. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

Ebert, H. and T. Maurer (2013), “CyberSpace and Rising Powers”, Third World Quarterly , 34 (5): 1054–1074.

Hansen, Lene and Helen Nissenbaum Digital Disaster (2009), “Cyber Security, and the Copenhagen School”, International Studies Quarterly , 53 (4): 1155–1175.

Jain, Shaily and Shrishti Soumya (2017), “Study of Acts of Terrorism Through Cyberspace in India: Prevention and Remedies Dealing with Cyber and Technology Related Crimes”, Law Journal on Crime and Criminology , 1 (3): 1–16.

Janczewski, Lech J and Andrew M. Colarik (2007), Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism , IGI Global Publisher: UK.

Kenney, Michael (2015), “Cyber-Terrorism in a Post-Stuxnet World”, Orbis , 59 (1): 111128.

Kshetri, N. (2015), “India’s Cyber Security Landscape: The Roles of the Private Sector and Public Private Partnership”, IEEE Security Privacy , 13 (3): 16–23.

Koops, Bert-Jaap (2016), “Megatrends and Grand Challenges of Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism Policy and Research”, in Babak Akhgar and Ben Brewster (eds.) Combatting Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism Challenges, Trends and Priorities . Springer: Switzerland.

Knop, von Katharina (2008), “Institutionalization of a Web-Focused, Multinational Counter-Terrorism Campaign—Building a Collective Open Source Intelligent System”, in Centre of Excellence Defence Against Terrorism (ed.) Responses to the Cyber Terrorism. IOS Press: Netherlands.

Kumar, Devendra (2017), “India’s Cyber Security: Architecture and Imperatives”, [Online: Web], Accessed on 5 February 2018, .

Mavropalias, Kostas (2011), “Cybercrime & Cyberterrorism: Inducing Anxiety & Fear on Individuals”, [Online Web], Accessed on 8 October 2017. .

Mcardle, Jennifer and Michael Cheetham (2014), “Indo-US Cyber Security Cooperation”, [Online Web], Accessed on 4 September 2017. .

Mukerji, Kumar Asoke (2017), “Prospects for Effective International Cooperation on Cyber Security”, [Online Web], Accessed on 10 October 2017. .

Ogun, M. N. (2015), Terrorist Use of Cyberspace and Cyber Terrorism: New Challenges and Responses . Io Press: Amsterdam.

Pierre, Thomas and D. Ian Hopper (2000), “Canadian Juvenile Charged in Connection with February “Denial of Service” Attacks”, [Online: Web], Accessed on 10 September 2016. .

Reddy, G. Nikhita and G. J. Ugander Reddy (2014), A Study of Cyber Security Challenges and Its Emerging Trends on Latest Technologies. International Journal of Engineering and Technology , 4 (1): 1–5.

Reich, P. (2012), “Case Study: India- Terrorism and Terrorist Use of the Internet/Technology in Law, Policy and Technology”, in P. Reich and E. Gelbstein (eds.) Cyberterrorism, Information Warfare and Internet Immobilisation . Hershley.

Samuel, Cherian (2011), “Prospects for India–US Cyber Security Cooperation”, Strategic Analysis, 35 (5): 770–780.

Sidhu, Balraj K (2017), “Governing the Internet Need for Effective Cybersecurity Policy, Law, and Institutional Framework”, Economic & Political Weekly , 1 (48).

Singh, Swaran and Jayanna Krupakar (2014), “Indo–US Cooperation in Countering Cyber Terrorism: Challenges and Limitations”, Strategic Analysis , 38 (5): 703–716

Sirohi, Dr M. N. (2015), Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare . Delhi Alpha Editions.

Srikanth, Divya (2014), “Non-traditional Security Threats in the 21st Century”, A Review International Journal of Development and Conflict , 460–68.

Sukhmani, Dhaliwal (2016), “The Future of Cyber-Terrorism: Where the Physical and Virtual Worlds Converge”, International Journal of Scientific Research and Management , 4 (9): 4621–4629.

Sukumar, A. and R. K. Sharma (2016), “The cyber command: Upgrading India’s National Security Architecture”, ORF Special Report 9, Observer Research Foundation: New Delhi.

Thoma, S. M. et al. (2014), Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment, and Response . Springer: London.

Uzair Iqbal, Syed Mohd (2013), “Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism in India”, [Online: web], Accessed on 5 February 2018. .

Valeriano Brandon and Ryan C. Maness (2014), “The Dynamics of Cyber Conflict Between Rival Antagonists 2001–11”, Journal of Peace Research , 51(3): 347–360.

Verma, A. and A. Sharma (2014), “Cyber Security Issues and Recommendations”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering , 4 (4): 629–634.

Vilić, Vida M. (2017), “Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Warfare: Dark Side of the Cyberspace Balkan”, Social Science Review , 10: 7–25.

Westby, Jody R. (2007), “Countering Terrorism with Cyber Security”. Jurimetrics , 47 (3): 297–313.

Weimann, G. (2004), “Cyber Terrorism—How Real Is the Threat? Special Report 119”, [Online Web], Accessed on 15 September 2017.

Wilske, S. and T. Schiller (1997), “International Jurisdiction in Cyberspace: Which States May Regulate the Internet”, Federal Communications Law Journal , 50 (1): 117–178.

Yardley, J. (2012), “India Asks Pakistan to Investigate Panic Tied to Assam”, New York Times , New York, 19 August 2012

Download references

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Department of Political Science, TR Girls Degree College, Aligarh, India

Shalini Prasad

Department of Political Science, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Abhay Kumar

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Editor information

Editors and affiliations.

Department of Political Science, Central University of Haryana, Mahendergarh, Haryana, India

Dr. Shantesh Kumar Singh

Department of Political Science, University of Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi, India

Prof. Dr. Shri Prakash Singh

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter.

Prasad, S., Kumar, A. (2022). Cyber Terrorism: A Growing Threat to India’s Cyber Security. In: Singh, S.K., Singh, S.P. (eds) Nontraditional Security Concerns in India. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore.

Download citation


Published : 02 April 2022

Publisher Name : Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore

Print ISBN : 978-981-16-3734-6

Online ISBN : 978-981-16-3735-3

eBook Packages : Political Science and International Studies Political Science and International Studies (R0)

Share this chapter

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Find a journal
  • Publish with us

essay on cyber terrorism in india

Call us @ 08069405205

essay on cyber terrorism in india

Search Here

essay on cyber terrorism in india

  • An Introduction to the CSE Exam
  • Personality Test
  • Annual Calendar by UPSC-2024
  • Common Myths about the Exam
  • About Insights IAS
  • Our Mission, Vision & Values
  • Director's Desk
  • Meet Our Team
  • Our Branches
  • Careers at Insights IAS
  • Daily Current Affairs+PIB Summary
  • Insights into Editorials
  • Insta Revision Modules for Prelims
  • Current Affairs Quiz
  • Static Quiz
  • Current Affairs RTM
  • Insta-DART(CSAT)
  • Insta 75 Days Revision Tests for Prelims 2023
  • Secure (Mains Answer writing)
  • Secure Synopsis
  • Ethics Case Studies
  • Insta Ethics
  • Weekly Essay Challenge
  • Insta Revision Modules-Mains
  • Insta 75 Days Revision Tests for Mains
  • Secure (Archive)
  • Anthropology
  • Law Optional
  • Kannada Literature
  • Public Administration
  • English Literature
  • Medical Science
  • Mathematics
  • Commerce & Accountancy
  • Monthly Magazine: CURRENT AFFAIRS 30
  • Content for Mains Enrichment (CME)
  • InstaMaps: Important Places in News
  • Weekly CA Magazine
  • The PRIME Magazine
  • Insta Revision Modules-Prelims
  • Insta-DART(CSAT) Quiz
  • Insta 75 days Revision Tests for Prelims 2022
  • Insights SECURE(Mains Answer Writing)
  • Interview Transcripts
  • Previous Years' Question Papers-Prelims
  • Answer Keys for Prelims PYQs
  • Solve Prelims PYQs
  • Previous Years' Question Papers-Mains
  • UPSC CSE Syllabus
  • Toppers from Insights IAS
  • Testimonials
  • Felicitation
  • UPSC Results
  • Indian Heritage & Culture
  • Ancient Indian History
  • Medieval Indian History
  • Modern Indian History
  • World History
  • World Geography
  • Indian Geography
  • Indian Society
  • Social Justice
  • International Relations
  • Agriculture
  • Environment & Ecology
  • Disaster Management
  • Science & Technology
  • Security Issues
  • Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude


  • Indian Heritage & Culture
  • Enivornment & Ecology
  • How to Study Art & Culture?
  • What is Art and Culture? What is the difference between the two?
  • Indus Civilization
  • Evolution of rock-cut architecture in India
  • Important rock-cut caves
  • The contribution of Pallavas to Rock-cut architecture
  • Comparision of art form found at Ellora and Mahabalipuram
  • Buddhist Architecture
  • Early Temples in India
  • Basic form of Hindu temple
  • Dravida style of temple architecture
  • Nagara Style or North India Temple style
  • Vesara style of temple architecture
  • Characteristic features of Indo-Islamic form of architecture
  • Styles of Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent
  • Types of buildings in Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent
  • Evolution of this form of architecture during the medieval period
  • Modern Architecture
  • Post-Independence architecture
  • Indus Civilization Sculpture
  • Bharhut Sculptures
  • Sanchi Sculptures
  • Gandhara School of Sculpture
  • Mathura School of Sculpture
  • Amaravati School of Sculpture
  • Gupta Sculpture
  • Medieval School of Sculpture
  • Modern Indian Sculpture
  • Pre Historic Painting
  • Mural Paintings & Cave Paintings
  • Pala School
  • Mughal Paintings
  • Bundi School of Painting
  • Malwa School
  • Mewar School
  • Basohli School
  • Kangra School
  • Decanni School of Painting
  • Madhubani Paintings or Mithila paintings
  • Pattachitra
  • Kalighat Painting
  • Modern Indian Paintings
  • Personalities Associated to Paintings
  • Christianity
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Six Schools of Philosophy
  • Lokayata / Charvaka
  • Hindustani Music
  • Carnatic Music
  • Folk Music Tradition
  • Modern Music
  • Personalities associated with Music
  • Bharatanatyam
  • Mohiniattam
  • Folk Dances
  • Modern Dance in India
  • Sanskrit Theatre
  • Folk Theatre
  • Modern Theatre
  • Personalities associated with Theatre
  • History of Puppetry
  • String Puppetry
  • Shadow Puppetry
  • Rod Puppetry
  • Glove Puppetry
  • Indian Cinema and Circus
  • Shankaracharya
  • Ramanujacharya (1017-1137AD)
  • Madhvacharya
  • Vallabhacharya
  • Kabir (1440-1510 AD)
  • Guru Nanak (1469-1538 AD)
  • Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
  • Shankar Dev
  • Purandaradasa
  • Samard Ramdas
  • Classical Languages
  • Scheduled Languages
  • Literature in Ancient India
  • Buddhist and Jain Literature
  • Tamil (Sangam) Literature
  • Malayalam Literature
  • Telugu Literature
  • Medieval Literature
  • Modern Literature
  • Important characteristics of Fairs and Festivals of India
  • Some of the major festivals that are celebrated in India
  • Art & Crafts
  • Ancient Science & Technology
  • Medieval Science & Technology
  • Famous Personalities in Science & Technology
  • Tangible Cultural Heritage
  • Intangible Cultural Heritage
  • Cultural Heritage Sites
  • Natural Heritage Sites
  • Important Institutions
  • Important programmes related to promotion and preservation of Indian heritage
  • Ochre Colored Pottery (OCP)
  • Black and Red Ware (BRW)
  • Painted Grey-Ware (PGW)
  • Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW)
  • Origin of Martial arts in India
  • Various forms of Martial arts in India
  • National Security Act (NSA), 1980
  • Major shortcomings in India’s national security architecture
  • National Security Strategy
  • National Security Doctrine
  • Meaning of Internal Security
  • Review of Internal Security Threats and Vulnerabilities
  • Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security
  • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act
  • Insurgency in North East India (NEI)
  • Left-wing Extremism
  • Maoist insurgent more than just ideological problem
  • Women cadres in left-wing extremism
  • Illegal immigration in India’s northern and eastern borders
  • Reasons that sustain insurgency in north east India
  • Recent Developments
  • Correlation between development and extremism
  • Impact of US withdrawal from Afghanistan
  • AFSPA Meaning
  • Disturbed Area
  • Powers of armed forces under AFSPA
  • Origin of AFSPA
  • AFSPA in Nagaland
  • Constitutionality of AFSPA & Role of Judiciary
  • AFSPA, a draconian Act?
  • Experts Recommendation on AFSPA
  • But, why have AFSPA?
  • Terrorism and role of External State and Non-State Actors
  • Reasons for rise of Terrorism
  • Terror Funding
  • Terrorism Measures- Institutional and Legal Framework
  • Militancy in Jammu and Kashmir
  • Issues of Money Laundering
  • Working of Money Laundering
  • Evolving threats of Money laundering
  • Impacts of globalization on money laundering
  • Way forward
  • Cryptocurrency and Money Laundering
  • Statutory framework
  • Institutional framework
  • THE VIENNA CONVENTION on Money Laundering
  • Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering (APG)
  • Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG)
  • Efforts to Tackle Black Money
  • Meaning, Need and Importance of Cyber Security
  • Cyber Security Framework in India
  • Present Status of Cyber Security
  • Cyber Security Index 2020
  • Meaning and Types of Cybersecurity Threats
  • What’s the Difference Between Malware, Trojan, Virus, and Worm?
  • Recent Cyberattacks
  • Cyber warfare
  • “Supply chain” cyber-attack

Cyber Terrorism

  • Growing threat of Cyber Security
  • Pegasus Spyware
  • Incidences of Cyberattacks in India
  • Cybercrime Against Women
  • Disinformation
  • Cognitive hacking
  • Way Forward
  • Challenges to Cyber Security
  • Steps taken by the Government to spread awareness about Cybercrimes
  • Cybercrime volunteer programme
  • National Cyber Security Strategy 2020
  • National Security Directive on Telecom Sector
  • National Cyber Security Policy, 2013
  • Concerns / Challenges and Wayforward
  • Critical Infrastructure and Critical Information Infrastructure (CII)
  • Issues and Measures with respect to Media
  • Rise of Social Media in recent decade
  • Positive Impact of Social Media
  • Negative impact of Social Media
  • Campaigns by Social Media Platforms
  • Role of Social Media during Pandemic
  • Challenges of Social Media in Democracy
  • Spread of Fake News
  • Threats to Internal Security by Social Media
  • Social media in the lives of women
  • Countering Deepfakes
  • Checking Online Abuse
  • Regulations on Social Media
  • Social Media- New Rules and Implications
  • Information Technology Act, 2000

Home » Security Issues » Cyber Security » Various Cyber Threats » Cyber Terrorism

  • Cyberterrorism is any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information systems, programs and data that results in violence.
  • Cyber-terrorism can also be understood as “ the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (such as energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population.”

essay on cyber terrorism in india

  • Our Mission, Vision & Values
  • Director’s Desk
  • Commerce & Accountancy
  • Previous Years’ Question Papers-Prelims
  • Previous Years’ Question Papers-Mains
  • Environment & Ecology
  • Science & Technology

Legal Bites

Cyber Terrorism: An emerging threat to India By Muthyala Soujanya Priya

Just as there are two sides to every coin so does the technology, thus introducing the concept of cyber terrorism. the greater dependency over technology and the internet had generated perils to the security of the country as well as individuals. most of the cyber terrorism dangers approach in disguised ways which makes it necessary to spread awareness… read more ».

Cyber Terrorism: An emerging threat to India By Muthyala Soujanya Priya

Just as there are two sides to every coin so does the technology, thus introducing the concept of cyber terrorism. The greater dependency over technology and the internet had generated perils to the security of the country as well as individuals. Most of the cyber terrorism dangers approach in disguised ways which makes it necessary to spread awareness about it. Cyberspace is being used to intimidate the citizens of the country. With the growing population, there has also been an increase in the crime rate. To sustain the nation against these crimes there has to be the development of new strategies.

The main aim of this essay is to discover the new threat posed to the country in the form of cyber terrorism. This paper attempts to define the term in a clear and simpler way. A study has been made of the challenges of fighting this terrorism. India’s existing counter-terrorism strategies had been examined carefully and countermeasures were described. This paper leads to the elucidation of the cybersecurity in a simpler way using illustrative examples. Many research papers, books, and prominent websites were referred for this study. It provides the reader with an insight into the depth of the danger.


According to a report by NCRB, India recorded 21,796 cyber-crimes in 2017 with an increase of 77% from 2016. With the advancement of technology around the world, new methods have emerged which pose a great threat of destruction and loss to the country. These new methods that are adopted by terrorists are more dangerous than the old form of terrorism.

Technology which can be used for various advantageous things, on the other hand, can also be used destructively. Almost in every sector including Government institutions, railways, Judiciary, Aviation, Defence, Banks, etc. are using technology to the maximum extent for storing information, communicating, controlling, etc.

All these sectors are striving to be fully computerized. Online payments have become common and it is used widely from small retailers to large companies and even in few government organizations. With the world developing at a faster rate there is an increase in the competition among the countries that leads to a stronger feeling of nationalism which is also one of the reasons for terrorism. In this modern world, we are confronting a new mode of terrorism known as “Cyber Terrorism”. There is a lot of confusion and misconception among people about cyber terrorism.

What is Cyber Terrorism?

There is no proper delineation of cyber terrorism which is globally abided.

Dorothy E. Denning defines cyberterrorism as, “Cyber-dependent crime perpetrated for political objectives to provoke fear, intimidate and/or coerce a target government or population, and cause or threaten to cause harm. Examples of this narrow conception of Cyberterrorism include attacks that lead to death or bodily injury, explosions, plane crashes, water contamination, or severe economic loss. Serious attacks against critical infrastructures could be acts of Cyberterrorism, depending on their impact”.

According to, The IT Act,2000 as amended by the Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008, a crime of Cyber Terrorism under Section 66-F :

“Whoever, with intent to threaten the unity, integrity, security or sovereignty of India or to strike terror in the people or any Section of the people by – denying or cause the denial of access to any person authorised to access computer resource; or attempting to penetrate or access a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorised access; or introducing or causing to introduce any computer contaminant and by means of such conduct causes or is likely to cause death or injuries to persons or damage to or destruction of property or disrupts or knowing that it is likely to cause damage or knowingly, intentionally penetrates or accesses a computer resource without authorisation or exceeding authorised access, and by means of such conduct obtains access to information, data, computer database that is restricted for reasons of the security of the state or foreign relations; or any restricted information, data or computer database, with reasons to believe that such information, data or computer database so obtained may be used to cause or likely to cause injury to the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, Friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, group of individuals or otherwise, commits the offence of cyber terrorism”.

By the above-quoted definitions, it is evident that there is a distinction between cyber terrorism and cybercrimes. Cybercrimes are usually committed by individuals for their own personal benefits without causing harm to national security. But cyber terrorism includes group activities that are politically motivated to damage the integrity and security of a country.

Techniques used by Cyber Terrorists

  • Hacking : Unauthorised access to a computer system or network is hacking. This technique has become famous because of its free availability of tools like Ping of Death, Hacker Evolution, Netstat live, Advanced Port Scanner, etc.

For example, recently Indian scholars, activists, and journalists were targeted by the hackers using spyware, known as Pegasus which was secretly installed into their phones using a vulnerability in the WhatsApp app that provided access to their text messages and location.

  • Trojan horse : A Trojan is software that seems lawful but is actually harmful that damages computers. It usually deceives the computer user. There are various types of trojans like Backdoor Trojan, DDoS, Downloader Trojan, Fake AV Trojan, etc.
  • Spreading Viruses and Worms: Viruses and worms are usually spread through email attachments from one computer to another computer and put the operating system at risk. They spread at a faster rate.
  • Crimes through emails: Though many Cyber-crimes can be committed through emails, email bombing results in more serious problems. Email bombing means sending numerous emails to the victim by which the victim’s computer crashes or loses network connectivity. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks can also be carried out through emails.
  • Encryption: Most of the terrorist groups today use encryption as a tool to hide and escape from detection. They use encryption codes designed by others. Mujahedeen Secrets is one of the famous encryption tools used by Al-Qaeda. In this Digital age, terrorists are well versed with all the encryption techniques.

Challenges of Fighting Cyber Terrorism

Information and communications technology (ICT) : The dependence on ICTs results in attacks against critical infrastructure. It also causes financial damages to businesses. ICT is one of the major risks for the military as well as civil communications. Both developed and developing countries greatly depend on ICT.

For example, terrorists in the 26/11 Mumbai attack used the latest technology to communicate and assist in the bombings like Google Earth and VoIP calls to get away from phone-tapping.

  • Internet growth : Globally the number of internet users increased from only “413 million” in 2000 to over 3.4 billion in 2016. With this rapid growth of the internet, it is strenuous for the police force to identify the offenders as illegal activities increases.
  • The Easy Availability of Devices and Access : Cyber terrorism is cheap and accessible as the offenders can download software tools and use them for committing crimes. They don’t need to use the latest technology for crimes as they only need a piece of equipment for carrying out illegal activities. Another important piece of equipment is internet access. Terrorists use Public Internet terminals, Open (wireless) networks, hacked networks, and Prepaid services without registration requirements for easy access to the internet without being identified which is called “wardriving” .
  • Lack of Control : Due to poor control over internet communications the criminal investigations are delayed.
  • International Support: Cybercrimes can be committed without any presence at the crime site. Offenders from other countries committing a crime in our country must be investigated which is impossible without international cooperation. This leads to delay in investigations as all countries would not be willing to cooperate.
  • Google Dorking : With the easy availability of internet users can attain any information. There are many web pages and blogs through which the offenders can acquire information about how to build a bomb or learn hacking techniques. “Google Dorking” or “Google hacking” is an information-gathering tool used by offenders to find security holes.
  • Botnets: It is a malware that is used to collect data about targets. Botnets are a group of compromised computers running programs under external control. It is used to carry out illegal activities. It is a threat to the police force as it is difficult to trace offenders using botnets. The original offender can easily hide.
  • Anonymous communications: On one side anonymous emails are boon to users as they can express themselves over politics and government without revealing their identity, on the other side these emails can also be misused by the offenders. Many emails can be created without actual verification and public internet terminals could also be used which makes them difficult to identify.

India’s Counter-Terrorism Strategies

  • Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (Cert-In) : It is an organization of Government of India which aims to secure India’s cyberspace by responding to cyber-attacks. It also functions to spread awareness among citizens regarding security practices, reports and forecasts cyber incidents. Cert-In collects and examines the information about cyber incidents.
  • Cyber Swachhta Kendra : It is a centre for botnet cleaning and malware analysis under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), Government of India. This center is a unit under Cert-In which enhances cybersecurity in the country by providing information and raising awareness about the malware and botnets.
  • Cyber Security Policy : Following the leaks by NSA whistle-blower Edward Snowden about the spying of US government agencies on Indian users, the Government of India presented Cyber Security Policy in 2013 with an objective to safeguard the country from cyber-attacks. It aims to protect the privacy of citizens. A pan-India dedicated cybersecurity grid is envisaged that would maintain the entire national Internet user base on a dedicated platform for monitoring service mechanisms (Indians).
  • National Investigation Agency (NIA) Amendment Bill : Restating ‘zero tolerance’ policy by the government against terrorism, Lok Sabha passed NIA Bill on July 8, 2019, which amends the NIA Act,2008 to give more power to anti-terror agency. This Bill enables the agency to investigate and probe cases of Scheduled Offences, including those committed outside India. The setting up of Special Courts for the trial of scheduled offenses is also a key change in the Bill. The main purpose of this Bill is to speed up the investigations.
  • India-US Cyber Security Forum 2001 : This conference was held bilaterally after the visit of former Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee to the U.S to counter-terrorism in both the countries. Some of the key features include Interaction of security forces of both the countries by identifying and safeguarding common concerns in cybersecurity, Establishment of India “Information Sharing and Analysis Centre” (ISAC) and India Anti Bot Alliance to raise awareness regarding anti-hacking measures, Expansion to new areas by the collaboration between US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and India’s Standardization Testing and Quality Certification (STQC).
  • INTERPOL: International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) is an inter-governmental organization with 194 countries as its members. It has three main crime programs: Counter-Terrorism, Organised and Emerging Crime, Cybercrime. A part of these programs includes training police officials, assisting member countries in identifying and analyzing cybercriminals. They connect police officials of all the countries providing them access to databases.
  • IMPACT : International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats (IMPACT) is a non-profit global organization designed to assist member countries in tackling cybercrimes. It has four main activities: Global Resource Centre (GRC), Training and Skills Development, Security Assurance & Research, Centre for Policy and International Co-operation. It works with INTERPOL, Council of Europe, OECD, etc. to enhance cybersecurity globally. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) declared IMPACT as its physical home for cybersecurity measures. It has 191 countries as members including India.
  • FIDO Alliance : The report released by World Economic Forum with the collaboration of FIDO Alliance, has suggested five top passwords fewer authentication technologies, ready for implementation by global companies. They are biometrics, behavioral analytics, zero-knowledge proofs, QR codes, and security keys. This report shows that primary dependence over passwords is not secure and better authentication practices should be incorporated.

Despite these strategies of India to combat cyber terrorism, there is still growth of cybercrimes in the country. According to NCRB, countrywide 1.7 Cybercrimes were committed per one lakh population in 2017. This report manifests the failure of India’s strategies. Hence the security measures have to be more strengthened to safeguard the nation.

With the expansion of new modes of terrorist attacks, the old ways to defend terrorism are proving to be incompetent. New strategies have to be framed in order to protect critical infrastructures. The offenders are well versed with all the existing practices which give them opportunities to escape easily and step forward with the use of the latest technologies. Legislators need to take cyber threats seriously.

There are many loopholes in the existing laws and policies which need modifications. Negotiating with terrorist groups can be a utilitarian way to decrease violence. It can be difficult to approach any settlements with the terrorists but in this way, the long-lasting disputes could be solved.

Law enforcement departments and other Judicial offices need to facilitate themselves with the latest technology. Training and awareness are other important aspects while dealing with cybersecurity. Audit systems and check logs to help in detecting and tracing an intruder. Passwords should be difficult and uncommon. Not responding to unknown emails and links is a way to prevent any cyber-attack.

The latest anti-virus software must be installed on computers. Avoid using open wireless networks as they are more prone to dangers. If something unusual is detected in the computer then it must be immediately verified with the network provider. However, these are a few measures to combat terrorism. Re-examination of existing beliefs and re-educating legislators regarding the perils of cyber terrorism. It is the responsibility of every individual to shield national security in their own capabilities.

-By Muthyala Soujanya Priya, GITAM School of Law, Visakhapatnam

[1] Sumant Sen, NCRB data: Cybercrimes reached a new high in 2017, THE HINDU (Feb. 04, 2020, 16:50 PM), .

[2] Syed Mohd Uzair Iqbal, 2013, Cyber Crime & Cyber Terrorism in India, Ph.D. thesis, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (Feb. 25, 2020, 15:30 PM),

[3] UNODC, Cybercrime Module 14 Key Issues, UNODC ORGANIZATION (Feb. 04, 2020, 18:30 PM),


[5] BBC News, Pegasus breach: India denies WhatsApp hack amid outrage (Jan. 30, 2020, 10:00 AM),

[6] Mathiha Nehla Hani & Aswathy Rajan, A Critical Study on Cyber Terrorism with Reference with 26/11 Mumbai Attack, 119 IJPAMS 17, 1617-1636 (2018).

[7] Jeremy Kahn, Mumbai Terrorists Relied on New Technology for Attacks, N.Y. TIMES (Feb. 11, 2020, 17:00 PM),

[8] Max Roser, Hannah Ritchie & Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Internet, OUR WORLD IN DATA (Feb. 06, 2020, 19:30 PM),

[9] Gabi Sobliye, Search Smarter by Dorking, THE KIT (Feb. 12, 2020, 23:36 PM),

[10] Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, Roles and Functions, CERT-IN (Feb. 07, 2020, 14:30 PM),

[11] Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, About Us, CYBER SWACCHTA KENDRA (Feb. 07,2020,18:40 PM),

[12] Aksheev Thakur, Pan-India cybersecurity grid needed , DC, Jan 12, 2020, p.9.

[13] Business Today, Lok Sabha passes NIA Amendment Bill to give more power to anti-terror agency; here’s all you need to know, BUSINESS TODAY (Jan. 30, 2020, 15:30 PM),

[14] Ibid .

[15] Ministry of External Affairs, India-US Cyber Security Forum – Fact Sheet, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA (Feb. 08, 2020, 13:20 PM) ,

[16] IMPACT, International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber-Terrorism, INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION, (Feb. 12, 2020, 17:45 PM),

[18] Davos, Passwordless safety pitched at Davos , DC, Jan 23, 2020, p.11.

[20] Sen, supra note 1.

[21] Sarah Gordon & Richard Ford, Cyberterrorism, 21 COSE, 636-647 (2002), 10.1016/S0167-4048(02)01116-1.

  • A Roadmap to India’s Food Security in the 21st Century by Drishti Verma

Admin Legal Bites

Admin Legal Bites

Legal Bites Study Materials correspond to what is taught in law schools and what is tested in competitive exams. It pledges to offer a competitive advantage, prepare for tests, and save a lot of money.

Related News

essay on cyber terrorism in india no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism in India

by Editor IJSR

From cars to kitchen appliances, computers and the Internet continue to pervade human life in everything. With the discovery of machines, the Internet has amplified human enslavement. Although we have achieved many benefits in terms of effectiveness and management, many detrimental consequences and drawbacks have also been brought to the forefront. Cyberspace may now be used by individuals or organizations to serve foreign governments, or to terrorize a nation's people. By hooking a person "Cracking" on a government or military-maintained website, the crime of "cracks" will accelerate into terrorism. Cyber-terrorism could be a hospital hack. As a retaliatory act, dose. Informatics is a double-edged sword that can be used both for negative and positive work. Therefore, the fate of many businesses depends on the benevolent or vice intentions of the individual working with and through the technology, as the case may be. A malevolent intention communicated in the form of hacking, data theft, virus attack, etc., for example, can only bring negative effects. However, these methods can also be used to search for the authenticity, protection and security of one's technical device, which has been mainly relied on and effective to provide a specific organization with security. The whole thing seems to be intolerable, for example, the train ticketing system, if we currently think of society without the machine. Airline Ticketing and Traffic Control as well. Bill for electricity. The Telephone Bill Office functions etc. Without the machine, it seems to be intolerable. The most important means of communication, information, trade and entertainment has become computers with the aid of the Internet today. The internet is like life being expanded and carrying on in the real world in another medium that cuts space, time, nationality, citizenship, across borders, Competence, gender, sexual orientation, and age. Likewise, each coin has two sides, the internet with all the advantages of obscurity, transparency, and convenience has become an ideal place for criminals involved in making the net for illicit lucrative purposes, either monetary or otherwise.

  • Access 47 million research papers for free
  • Keep up-to-date with the latest research
  • Share your research and grow your audience
  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2023

India has been the Victim of Cyberterrorism


By Colonel B. S. Nagial (Retd.)

Cyberterrorism is a global phenomenon but not much recognised in India. However, India ranks second highest user of the Internet after China. It is estimated that about 20% of the Indian population uses Internet facilities. In contrast, in the US and UK, 90% of people use the Internet. And people who use the Internet facilities are also called ‘Netizens.’ The over-dependence on the Internet increases susceptibilities & weaknesses. Sometimes the feelings of aggression are transformed into anger and revenge, which turns them into criminals.

Most people in India aren’t sensitive to cyber threats posed by the virtual world. Information Technology (IT) has opened a plethora of opportunities for the world to develop its financial infrastructures and other e-commerce facilities. Cyber crimes are increasing daily. The ‘netizens’ are ignorant and in denial that their activities are safe and secure. We usually share our important & sensitive data & information inadvertently on social media.

The momentous growth of the cyber world has further posed the threat of cyberterrorism. Cyber attacks depict lethal and non-lethal psychological problems faced by people. Cyberterrorism is typically considered a tool that only affects the national security system. But in fact, it also affects the psyche of the people. Cyber terrorists have increased the employment of cyber attacks dramatically in the past few years. It has caused mass destruction & damage to various facilities such as health, energy, nuclear, and critical command & control facilities. Cyber professionals are at work to reinforce capacity-building measures to restrain cyber attacks on critical systems in India.

What is Cyberterrorism?

As per the dictionary, cyber-terrorism is ‘the motivated use of computers and information technology to cause extreme interruption or extensive fear in society.’ Dorothy Denning, a professor of computer science, has given the most notable definition of cyberterrorism. He has put forward an admirably unambiguous definition in numerous articles and in her testimony before the US House Armed Services Committee in May 2000 – Cyberterrorism is the conjunction of cyberspace and terrorism. It denotes illicit attacks and threats of attacks against computers, networks and the information stored therein when done to intimidate or coerce a government or its people. Also, to qualify as cyberterrorism, an attack must cause violence against persons or property or inflict sufficient harm to cause fear. Attacks which cause death or bodily injury, explosions, or severe economic loss are a few examples. Grave attacks against critical infrastructures could be acts of cyberterrorism, depending on their impact.

Cyberterrorism is a deliberate attempt, which is a politically, socially or religiously inspired attack against information systems, programs and data. The definition is occasionally expanded to include any cyber attack that intimidates or generates fear in the target population. Attackers often do this by inflicting damage or disruption to critical infrastructure.

Cyberterrorism is also known by terms such as electronic terrorism, electronic jihad, information warfare or cyber warfare. The fact is that cyberterrorism threats can come from so many different sources, and sometimes it would seem impossible actually to defend ourselves from them.

Objectives of Cyberterrorism

The fundamental objective of a cyber-attack is hacking, generally to satisfy the ego of hackers by creating terror. Sometimes it seems too similar or overlapping, like cyber attacks and cyberterrorism.

The objective of cyberterrorism is to instil feelings of terror in the mind of cyber victims. Cyberterrorism also threatens the most vulnerable points covering physical and virtual worlds. It includes the commission of acts of destruction, alteration, acquisition and acts of transmission against the following:

  • Defence forces.
  • Internal security system.
  • Health care system.
  • Financial infrastructure.
  • Other important civilians networks.
  • Destructions of supervisory control and data acquisition system of smart cities.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be used to help the commission of terrorist-related offences. It can be promoted to use, promote, support, facilitate, and engage in acts of terrorism such as spreading propaganda, recruitment, radicalisation, incitement to terrorism, terror financing, training planning and execution of terrorist attacks.

Modus Operandi of Cyberterrorism

Cyberterrorism is gaining far-fetched attention due to extensive reporting by the media and numerous other institutions, both from the public as well as private sectors. They accept that cyberterrorism is capable of rendering catastrophic impacts. Thus, it is imperative to share awareness among the general public to alleviate cyberterrorism threats effectively.

Most cyberterrorism cases have numerous common traits. It is essential to clearly define what a cyberterrorism attack looks like to avoid misunderstandings leading to confusion later on. Usually, the victims of cyberterrorism attacks are specifically targeted by the attacker(s) for predetermined reasons. There have been random cases of cyberattacks carried out in the past, such as releasing harmful viruses and worms through the Internet. However, in reality, the targets were arranged by cyber terrorists. This is because if the attacks are more focused and intended towards an explicit target, there are better chances of inflicting severe damage on the target chosen.

The most common objective of cyberterrorism is to inflict damage or destroy completely a particular target which may be an organisation, industry, sector, or economy, or to impact particular targets. These types of attacks are becoming popular. Thus, specific countermeasures will be required to prevent the targeted entities from falling victim to such attacks. One more common feature of cyber terrorism is the resolve which is to further the terrorist or terrorist groups’ own goals, such as to inflict heavy damages on the former employer due to unsettled disputes or to create chaos among the general public.

Cyber terrorists deploy various types of cyberterrorism attacks. As per the Center for the Study of Terrorism and Irregular Warfare at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, USA, cyber terrorism capabilities can be grouped into three main categories; simple unstructured, advanced-structured and complex-coordinated.


This is the fundamental capability to conduct hacks against individual systems employing tools created by others. This type of organisation possesses little target analysis, command and control skills, and limited learning capability.


This is the advanced competence to conduct more experienced attacks against several systems or networks and possibly to modify or create the most fundamental hacking tools. The organisation possesses an elementary target analysis, command and control skills, and relatively modest learning capability.


Under this category, coordinated attacks are capable of causing mass disruptions against unified and diverse defences. Terrorists can create sophisticated hacking tools. They are also highly proficient in conducting target analysis and command and control. They also possess advanced organisational learning capabilities.

There are five main types of cyberterrorism attacks: incursion, destruction, disinformation, denial of service and defacement of websites. Few such attacks are more severe than others and have diverse objectives. We must recognise the various attack methods to understand how they can be countered effectively.

  • Incursion. These attacks are carried out to gain access or infiltrate computer systems and networks to get or alter information. This method is widespread and widely used, with a high success rate. Many loopholes exist in unprotected computer systems and networks, and terrorists can benefit from attaining and modifying vital information, which can inflict further damage to the organisation or for personal gain.
  • Destruction. Through this method, the attackers intrude into computer systems and networks to inflict severe damage or destroy them. The implications of such an attack can be disastrous, whereby organisations might be forced to be out of operations for the time being, depending on the harshness of the attacks. It can prove very costly for the affected organisations to get their operations up and running again. Therefore, it will affect them financially and also impair their reputation.
  • Disinformation. Generally, this technique is used to blow out rumours which can seriously affect the target chosen. Notwithstanding whether the rumours are true or false, such attacks can irresponsibly create chaos for the target. Such an attack is brutal to curb as it can be done almost suddenly without access to computer networks.
  • Denial of Services. Denial of Service attacks, or DOS attacks as popularly known, are also standard. The effect of such attacks is felt by e-commerce-enabled businesses selling products or services online. Public websites are often also the targets of such attacks by cyber terrorists. The foremost aim of DOS attacks is to disable or disrupt online operations by flooding the targeted servers with a vast number of queries which would eventually lead to the servers being unable to handle routine service requests from legitimate users. The impact of such attacks can be catastrophic from both economic as well as social perspectives, where it can cause organisations to suffer huge losses.
  • Defacement of websites. Such attacks are targeted to disfigure the websites of the targets chosen. Either the websites are changed to post messages from the cyber terrorists for propaganda or re-direct these messages to the users to other websites which may contain similar messages. However, a small number of such cases are still happening.

State of Cyberattacks in India

As per the reports, Indian government websites faced the highest number of cyber-attacks in 2022. India, the US, Indonesia, and China suffered 45% of cyberattacks on government entities worldwide in 2022. The report claims that the number of attacks on government agencies was up 95% yearon-year.4 India was the most besieged in 2022, as attacks on government agencies doubled.

In Dec 2022, India’s top government-managed hospital, All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS), was affected by a cyberattack disrupting online services for more than two weeks. India’s controlling agency of cyber security, Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), found in its investigation that five AIIMS servers were compromised during the attack, and hackers encrypted nearly 1.3 terabytes of data.

In the year 2020, CERT-In handled 1158208 incidents. In the year 2021, Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) handled 1402809 incidents. The type of incidents handled were: Website Intrusion & Malware Propagation, Malicious Code, Phishing, Distributed Denial of Service attacks, Website Defacements, Unauthorised Network Scanning/ Probing activities, Ransomware attacks, Data Breaches and Vulnerable Services. Remedial measures for handling incidents were suggested and implemented in coordination with relevant stakeholders.

CERT-In is an organisation of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, intending to secure Indian cyberspace. CERT-In provides Incident Prevention and Response services and Security Quality Management Services.

Building Cyber Resilience

Cyber resilience is a perception that brings operational continuity, information systems security and organisational resilience into one place. This concept describes the ability to continue delivering intended outcomes despite experiencing threats of cyberattacks or natural disasters. In other words, a measured level of information security proficiency and resilience affects an organisation.

A cyber resilience strategy is dynamic for business sustainability. It could deliver paybacks out there, growing an enterprise’s security stance and plummeting the risk of revelation to its critical infrastructure. Cyber resilience also benefits from reducing financial loss and reputational damage. And if an organisation receives cyber resilience certification, it can instil trust in its clients and customers. Further, a cyber-resilient company can optimise the value it generates for its customers, increasing its competitive advantage through effective and efficient operations.

Cyber resilience is defined as the capability of an organisation or business process to:

Anticipate: Maintain a state of informed preparedness to forestall compromises of mission/ business functions from adversary attacks.

Withstand: Continue essential mission/ business functions despite the successful execution of an attack by an adversary.

Contain: Localise containment of crisis and isolate trusted systems from untrusted systems to continue essential business operations in the event of cyber attacks.

Recover: Restore mission/ business functions to the maximum extent possible after the successful execution of an attack by an adversary.

Evolve: To change missions/ business functions and the supporting cyber capabilities to minimise adverse impacts from actual or predicted adversary attacks.

Cyberspace is an intricate environment comprising communications between people, software and services, reinforced by the worldwide dispersal of information and communication technology (ICT) devices and networks.

Due to various benefits of technological advancements, cyberspace today has become a shared platform utilised by people, businesses, critical information infrastructure, the military and governments. Thus it makes it difficult to demarcate clear-cut limits among entities. Cyberspace is anticipated to be more multifaceted in the conceivable future.

Information Technology (IT) is one of the vulnerable sectors with space in cyberspace. It is the most potent growth catalytic agent for the Indian economy. Besides powering India’s economy, this sector is also positively influencing the lives of its people directly or indirectly. The IT sector has been essential in renovating India’s image worldwide. The government has been a critical driver for the increased adoption of IT-based products and IT-enabled services in Public services, Healthcare, Education, Defence and Financial services, etc. Such inventiveness have enabled increased IT adoption in various sectors.

The fast-increasing dependency of man on cyber network systems has an unrestrained generation of cyberthreat called cyberterrorism. The widely available cyberspace has provided a valuable operational space to terrorist organisations for planning and execution of cyberattacks on critical infrastructures, spreading hate propaganda over the Internet and using this platform for recruitment, planning and execution of subversive activities. Moreover, it has thrived terror arrangements and transformed how terrorists operated earlier. The most urgent requirement is to secure our cyberspace from such arduous cyber threats. Articulating a cybersecurity strategy incorporating international organisations is a prerequisite to challenging ever-increasing cyberterrorism, which poses a severe threat to global security.

  • Cyberterrorism How Real Is the Threat? ‘ sites ‘ default ‘ files. Accessed on 4 Jan 2023.
  • Cyber Terrorism in India: A Physical Reality Orvirtual Myth https:// ‘ file ‘ viewByFileId. Accessed on 4 Jan, 2023.
  • Countering Cyber Terrorism Effectively – GIAC Certifications https:// ‘ paper ‘ gsec ‘ countering-cy. Accesed on 5 Jan 2023.
  • India saw the highest number of cyberattacks on govt … – Mint https:// ‘ technology ‘ tech-news. Accessed on 5Jan 2023.
  • Annual Report (2020) Accessed on 5 Jan 2023.
  • Cyber Crisis Management Plan for Countering … – CERT-In https:// Accessed on 5 Jan 2023.

Leave a Comment Cancel reply

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.


  • Case Summaries
  • Our Achievements
  • My Cyber Crime Story

Technology. Law. Policy. You

For all things cyber, a beginner’s guide to cyber terrorism in india.

Yoshita Phaphat August 19, 2022 Law

A Beginner's Guide to Cyber Terrorism in India

According to the Global Risks Report 2021 , the failure of cyber security will be one of humanity’s most significant concerns in the coming decade. With a sizeable internet population, India has confronted significant cyber terrorism challenges in the last few decades. Cyber terrorism commonly includes coordinated and politically motivated attacks on information systems, programmes, or data. Cyber incidents that are menacing or frightening can be included in the definition of cyber terrorism. Attackers primarily aim to destroy or disrupt a country’s critical infrastructure.

Explanation to Section 70(1) of the Information Technology Act, 2000 defines critical information infrastructure as

“computer resource, the incapacitation or destruction of which, shall have debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety.”

Section 70A of the same act recognises National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre ( NCIIPC ) as the national nodal agency. NCIIPC considers the following sectors as critical infrastructure: power, energy, banking, financial services, insurance, telecom, transport, government, strategic and public enterprises.

Prominent cyber terrorism incidents in India

Investigation of the 26/11 terrorist attack in Mumbai revealed evidence of terrorists using telecommunication technologies to learn about the map, human infrastructure, and location. They actively used Google Earth, a mobile network, and a social media platform to track the activities of Indian forces. Furthermore, they employed technology for converting auditory signals into data, making it impossible for Indian agencies to track down information sources.

In another instance, in June 2011, a security incident led to flight delays at Delhi’s IGI Airport Terminal 3. This incident led to the failure of the Common Use Passengers Processing System (CUPPS). CUPPS handles boarding gates, check-in counters, and information about arrival and departure times for the terminal. The system was down for more than 12 hours, and the airport management termed this a back-end server glitch in their press release. However, CBI registered a case for a virus attack wherein the perpetrator had executed malicious code from a remote location. The 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament also deserves mention. We have discussed this incident in detail here . Other examples of cyber terrorism include a cyber attack on the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant and small drones that dropped explosives at the Jammu Air Base.

In 2020, there was a tense stand-off at the India-China border along the Line of Control (LOC). A New York Times report claimed China was targeting India’s critical infrastructure to coerce India on the border issue. Red Echo, a state-sponsored attacking group backed by China, was considered responsible for this attack, resulting in Mumbai facing an electricity blackout.

Where does the Indian law stand?

The 2008 amendment to the Information Technology Act, 2000 added Section 66F, which deals with cyber terrorism. This provision provides life imprisonment for acts that threaten India’s integrity, unity, security, and sovereignty or to strike terror in the general public. The “acts” here include denying access to computer resources, attempting to penetrate a computer resource without authorisation, and introducing any computer contaminant. These acts are likely to cause death or injuries, destroy property, prevent supplies of services essential to the community, or adversely affect the country’s critical information infrastructure.

In the case of Mehid Masroor Biswas v. State of Karnataka , the accused-petitioner from Bangalore was operating a Twitter account to support the claims of ISIS. The accused successfully masked his identity using VPN and ghost IP addresses. He sent thousands of messages and posted content glorifying the Islamic Caliphate through his Twitter account. He was in regular contact with British Jihadis and even praised them as martyrs if they did. Channel 4 exposed him in December 2014, and the police charged him under various provisions of the Unlawful Action (Prevention) Act, 1967, the Indian Penal Code, 1860, and the Information Technology Act, 2000. While rejecting the accused’s bail petition, the Karnataka High Court opined that the allegations are prima facie true.

There are also examples of cases where Section 66F has been misapplied. For example, the Tamil Nadu Police filed an FIR against a social activist for creating a documentary about manual scavenging. In Amish Devgan v. Union of India & Ors , the police charged Amish Devgan, a news anchor, under Section 66F for allegations of hurting religious sentiments.

As our dependency on the internet increases, the potential damage of cyber terrorism will follow the trend. Attackers continuously evolve their tactics and look for the next target; we cannot sit back and relax. If malicious actors successfully infiltrate critical infrastructure, the impact is likely to be adverse and affect public life at large. In such a situation, the role of agencies like NCIIPC and CERT-in becomes more crucial than ever.

Featured Image Credits: Cyber background vector created by freepik –

Cyber Terrorism And Laws In India

  • To study the Conecpt of Cyber crimes or Cyber Terrorism.
  • Cyber terrorism in India and its punishment in Indian Law.
  • Initiatives taken by World and our country for the Cyber terrorisms.
  • Like, air traffic, military networks, financial and energy systems, telecommunications and others, to cause physical devastation.
  • Cause disruptions sufficient to compromise the industrial and economic operations of a country. A Cyber terror attack thwacks a large part of the world population and causes monetary disorder and loss of data.
  • Cause physical injuries, loss of lives, explosions, crashing of aircraft and other aerial vehicles, theft of technology and privileged information.
  • Move beyond the realms of destruction and send a signal of ferocious disruption and fear to governments.  
  • cyber terrorism constitutes a low-cost asymmetric warfare element for terrorists as it requires fewer resources in comparison to physical terror attacks. The terror groups can inflict more damage to people and society with the same amount of funds. Thus, the benefit�cost ratio for a Cyber terror attack is very high.  
  • Cyberspace provides anonymity, thereby enabling Cyber terrorists to hide their identity. The Indian government had admitted in Rajya Sabha that attackers compromise the computer systems situated in different locations of the globe and use masquerading techniques and hidden servers to hide the identity of the computer system from which the cyber attacks are propelled. It is the anonymous nature of cyberspace that makes it arduous to attribute cyber attacks to any state.  
  • The CIs and other valuable state resources are not fully protected and thus become an obvious target of Cyber terrorists. After designation of the target, the cyber attack can be launched without any unwarranted delay and need for further preparation.  
  • The Internet enables Cyber terrorists to initiate a cyber attack on any distinct part of the world. Unlike physical terror attacks, there are no physical barriers or checkpoints that block Cyber terrorists in the execution of predetermined cyber attacks on designated targets. Likewise, cyber terrorism involves less risk than physical terrorism.  
  • Cyberspace provides broad avenues for disseminating terror organisation propaganda. It provides a larger audience for Cyber terror attacks, whose impact goes beyond cyberspace to diverse systems.
  • Improving domestic capabilities to confront futuristic and present-day cybersecurity challenges.
  • Continuously upgrading and enhancing defence of CIs in the country.
  • Fostering the republic's standing as an international hub for the development of ICTs.
  • Promoting effective coordination and cooperation among the government, academia and private players.

Initiatives Taken In India:

  • unlawful denial of access to any legally authorised person from accessing any online or computer resource or network;
  • unauthorised attempt to intrude or access any computer resource; or
  • introduce or cause to introduce any computer contaminant.  
  • Collect, analyse and disseminate information on cybersecurity incidents;
  • Forecast and issue alerts on cyber �incidents;
  • Emergency measures to handle cybersecurity incidents;
  • Coordinate cyber attack response activities;
  • Issue guidelines, advisories, over cybersecurity measures, etc.
  • Information Technology Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000), Chapter III, Section 66F(2).
  • Ibid., Section 66F(1)(A)(i).
  • Ibid., Section 66F(1)(A)(ii).
  • Ibid., Section 66F(1)(A)(iii).
  • Ibid., Section 66F(1)(B).
  • Ibid., Section 70.
  • Ibid., Section 70(3).
  • Misra, S.N.; Indian Penal Code; Central Law Publicaions;ed-13;p-88
  • Cyber Law and its Applications by Prof. Shilpa S. Dongre
  • http.//

Law Article in India

Please drop your comments, you may like.

Dishonour Of Cheques Given Against Cash/Unaccounted Loans- Complaint U/S 138 Of Negotiable Instruments Act Not Maintainable

Dishonour Of Cheques Given ...

Whether Interpretation sub-rule (3) of Rule 3-A of Order XLI of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 is permissive Rather Than Mandatory?

Whether Interpretation sub-...

Untold Caste Tales: Indian SC Chamar Lives Amid Devta Customs With Special Reference Through Mandi, Kullu, Shimla And Kangra Regions Of Himachal Pradesh

Untold Caste Tales: Indian ...

Insurance Claims Fraud: Legal Frameworks And Prevention Measures

Insurance Claims Fraud: Leg...

Air Pollution And Urban Migration: Is There A Link

Air Pollution And Urban Mig...

Gappling With Menace, Called Noise Pollution

Gappling With Menace, Calle...

Legal question & answers, lawyers in india - search by city.

Copyright Filing

Law Articles

How to file for mutual divorce in delhi.


How To File For Mutual Divorce In Delhi Mutual Consent Divorce is the Simplest Way to Obtain a D...

Increased Age For Girls Marriage


It is hoped that the Prohibition of Child Marriage (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which intends to inc...

Facade of Social Media


One may very easily get absorbed in the lives of others as one scrolls through a Facebook news ...

Section 482 CrPc - Quashing Of FIR: Guid...


The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of t...

The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) in India: A...


The Uniform Civil Code (UCC) is a concept that proposes the unification of personal laws across...

Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Legal...


Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing various sectors of the economy, and the legal i...

Lawyers Registration

File caveat In Supreme Court Instantly

We use cookies to enhance our website for you. Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it.

  • Essay Database >
  • Essay Examples >
  • Essays Topics >
  • Essay on Social Issues

Cyber-Terrorism Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Social Issues , Terrorism , Information , Police , Supreme Court , Victimology , Violence , Crime

Published: 03/08/2020



The society we live now is strongly dependent on information technology. However, despite the many benefits that come along with it, it also makes the society vulnerable to the activities of people who use the technology for wrongful purposes or personal interests. Information technology has bred world-class hackers who are responsible for significant damages and disruptions to information systems. However, hackers are not the only criminals in the information technology sector; there are also terrorist’s organizations that use information systems to plan and facilitate their activities. In definitional terms, cyber-terrorism is an unlawful attack against networks, computers, and where information is stored with the purpose of coercing or intimidating a government or people (Cottim, 2010). The leading form of threat in the information technology sector is, in fact, the cyber-terrorists; who attack technological infrastructure with the purpose to boost their terrorism plans. Cyber-terrorism takes place in a cyberspace- a virtual world of computers and computer networks. The local police have a jurisdiction over the cyber-terrorism. However, they do not have enough knowledge and skills to investigate cyber-terrorism. In most cases, they rely on the expertise from the federal government which is the one that mostly deals with international cyber-crimes (Wall, 2007). The police involvement in cyber-terrorism is subtle because they miss the first response role. Most of the police executives agree that, currently the police are “behind the curve” in their involvement with the crime. The jurisdiction on cyber-terrorism has created a lot of challenges as acknowledged by many security agencies. This is because an act of cyber-terrorism committed by a perpetrator thousand miles away becomes a challenge to local police since police departments work within a given jurisdiction, but cyber-terrorists know no boundaries (Wall, 2007). Therefore, the jurisdiction theory is determined by the place in which the crime was committed. Cyber-terrorism is a crime that can be prosecuted by FBI in a federal court. For example; according to security focus journal, in 2004, the FBI agents arrested a man from Louisiana –Jeansonne - for allegedly tricking a few MSN TV users into installing and running a malicious e-mail attachment, which in turn reprogrammed the user’s set-top boxes to dial the 9-1-1 emergency number. The man was charged under the provision of federal computer crime statute because the attack caused a threat to public health and safety. In that case, the provision of federal computer crime gives the FBI agent a mandate to prosecute cyber-terrorism crime. With the increased cases of cyber-terrorism around the world, many states have put in place laws that govern the crime. In India, an amendment was made on laws under the information technology act, 2000 to define the term “Cyberterrorism” U/Sec. 66F. It was the first time the Indian constitution defined the term and stipulated a punishment for the latter. In America, the Cybersecurity Act of 2012 was the latest attempt by the congress to counter threats on cyber-crimes and attacks. The examples of recent cyber-attacks that were launched as large scale terrorism include Hannaford Bros, a grocery retailer. In 2007, Hannaford Bros suffered a four-month long cyber-attack where over 4.2 million credit and debit cards numbers and other crucial information were accessed by hackers who installed a malware program on the grocery store servers instead and accessed company’s database. The mastermind for the hacking was a man named Albert Gonzales, who created (Cottim, 2010). Another example of a cyber-attack was called ‘operation aurora’ in which Yahoo was the subject. The attack originated from China and was conducted by a group called Elderwood that was based in Beijing, and that had links with the People Liberation Army. The group used advanced threats that were persistent from mid-2009 up to December 2009. The above examples are just few among many other cases (Cottim, 2010). In the case where the cyber-terrorism act is not against the law, the person who performs the crime will not be prosecuted. This is especially the case when the country that the hacker resides in does not have any laws against hacking. For example, in the year 2000, millions of computers were affected by a virus called “Love Bug” that was traced back to Philippines by the United States law enforcers. The virus had caused a lot of damages, and the United States wanted the extradition of the suspect, but they failed because of lack of laws against hacking in the Philippines (Cottim, 2010). In most cases, local police work hand-in-hand with the FBI to fight against cyber-terrorism. This is however not deep into the task because police jurisdiction is very limited. Local police, usually, hands over cyber-terrorism cases to the FBI if the particular case under investigation is beyond their jurisdiction; or if it involves millions of dollars and finally if it is a case that has international components.

Jurisdiction limitation seems to be the biggest factor or issue hindering progress in the fight against cyber-terrorism. The fact that cyber-attacks can be carried out from anywhere in the world makes the investigation and taking the offenders to court a very difficult task that can only be achieved through international cooperation (Cottim, 2010). In addition to that, there is a need to train the local police and the same time equipped them with skills and resources needed to investigate and bring offenders to justice.

Wall, D. S. (2007). Policing cybercrimes: Situating the public police in networks of security within cyberspace. Police Practice and Research, 8(2), 183-205. Cottim, A. A. (2010). Cybercrime, Cyberterrorism and jurisdiction: an analysis of Article 22 of the COE Convention on Cybercrime. The Future of Law & Technology in the Information Society, 2.


Cite this page

Share with friends using:

Removal Request

Removal Request

Finished papers: 1193

This paper is created by writer with

ID 274700732

If you want your paper to be:

Well-researched, fact-checked, and accurate

Original, fresh, based on current data

Eloquently written and immaculately formatted

275 words = 1 page double-spaced

submit your paper

Get your papers done by pros!

Other Pages

Wholesome college essays, italian culture critical thinking sample, example of ethics questions research paper, free research paper on information management information technology analysis, expertly crafted research paper on professionalism in health care facility, good research proposal on the relationship between equity prices and banking industry performance in the united kingdom, gender issues in a dolls house example essay by an expert writer to follow, reasons for the development of anti colonialism essays examples, nippon essays, epicenter essays, the rape of the lock essays, estragon essays.

Password recovery email has been sent to [email protected]

Use your new password to log in

You are not register!

By clicking Register, you agree to our Terms of Service and that you have read our Privacy Policy .

Now you can download documents directly to your device!

Check your email! An email with your password has already been sent to you! Now you can download documents directly to your device.

or Use the QR code to Save this Paper to Your Phone

The sample is NOT original!

Short on a deadline?

Don't waste time. Get help with 11% off using code - GETWOWED

No, thanks! I'm fine with missing my deadline

Essay on Terrorism in India for Students and Children


500 Words Essay on Terrorism in India

Terrorism in India has a long history. It is a cowardly act by the terrorist groups who wish to disturb the peace of the country. It aims to create a state of panic amongst the people. They want to keep the people in a constant state of fear to stop the country from prospering.

Essay on Terrorism in India

Time to time, they carry out terrorist acts to remind people of the fear they want them to live in. Consequently, there are roughly 100 terrorist cells that are operating in India. They have to an extent successfully created an atmosphere of tension amongst the citizens. Terrorism impacts the country gravely and has dangerous repercussions.

Impact of Terrorism in India

As discussed earlier, terrorism has a major impact on any country. When we look at a developing country like India, it is all the more harmful. Firstly, it creates a state of panic amongst the citizens. The bomb blasts or firing impacts the mental health of people. This causes the untimely death of various citizens or leaves them handicapped. The anxiety and fear one has to live in restrict their way of living to a great extent.

Moreover, terrorism has a major impact on the tourism industry. As tourists avoid visiting places that are vulnerable to terrorist attacks, the tourism industry faces a blow. India is a country that earns a lot of its revenue from tourism. When these attacks happen, they cause fear amongst the tourists as well. The ones planning to visit cancel their trips. Similarly, the ones staying presently shorten their trip and leave.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Furthermore, terrorist attacks create a sense of doubt in the foreign investors of India. After all, who would want to invest in a country prone to terrorism? They avoid the risk and instead opt for safer alternatives. This causes a huge blow to the business of India depending on them.

Thus, it damages the economy. As terrorist attacks cause loss of life and property, the replenishment takes up a lot of capital. It also results in people leaving the country to settle abroad for a safer environment. This makes India lose a lot of potential doctors, engineers, artists and more.

Major Terror Attacks in India

India has faced a number of terror attacks over time. The worst of them is definitely the 26/11 terror attack which took place in Mumbai. The terrorists captured renowned places like Nariman House, Hotel Oberoi Trident and Hotel Taj. They killed almost 170 people and injured around 300 people. All these victims were police officers, security personnel, or tourists.

The Mumbai Train Blasts were also very deadly. They took place in the local trains of Mumbai and happened at seven railway stations. It claimed 210 lives and injured 715 people.

The Indian Parliament Attack was also very surprising. As the parliament is one of the safest buildings. The terrorist managed to kill three parliament staff members and six police officers. It remains shocking as one wonders how such a safe place could come under attack. In short, terrorism in India needs to be eradicated to safeguard the country and help it prosper.

FAQs on Terrorism in India

Q.1 How does terrorism impact India?

A.1 Terrorism in India has a deep impact on the people and economy of the country. It causes panic amongst people and affects the tourism industry. Furthermore, it also has adverse effects on the economy of the country and its foreign investments.

Q.2 Name some of the most deadly terrorist attacks in India.

A.2 India has had some of the most dangerous terrorist attacks. The major ones include the one on Hotel Taj known as the 26/11 attack. The Mumbai serial bomb blasts were also very deadly where more than 1,000 people were injured. Moreover, the Indian Parliament attack was also quite dangerous.


  • Travelling Essay
  • Picnic Essay
  • Our Country Essay
  • My Parents Essay
  • Essay on Favourite Personality
  • Essay on Memorable Day of My Life
  • Essay on Knowledge is Power
  • Essay on Gurpurab
  • Essay on My Favourite Season
  • Essay on Types of Sports

Which class are you in?


Download the App

Google Play

  • View All Management Exams

Colleges & Courses

  • MBA College Admissions
  • MBA Colleges in India
  • Top MBA Colleges in India
  • Top Online MBA Colleges in India
  • CAT Registration 2023
  • BBA Colleges in India
  • CAT Percentile Predictor 2023
  • CAT 2023 College Predictor
  • XAT College Predictor 2024
  • CMAT College Predictor 2024
  • SNAP College Predictor 2023
  • MAT College Predictor 2023
  • NMAT College Predictor
  • CAT 2023 Admit Card
  • CAT 2023 Syllabus
  • CAT Previous Year Question Papers
  • Download Helpful Ebooks
  • List of Popular Branches
  • QnA - Get answers to your doubts
  • IIM Shortlist
  • IIM Fees Structure
  • JEE Main 2024
  • JEE Advanced 2024
  • BITSAT 2024
  • View All Engineering Exams
  • Colleges Accepting B.Tech Applications
  • Top Engineering Colleges in India
  • Engineering Colleges in India
  • Engineering Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • Engineering Colleges Accepting JEE Main
  • Top Engineering Colleges in Hyderabad
  • Top Engineering Colleges in Bangalore
  • Top Engineering Colleges in Maharashtra
  • JEE Main College Predictor
  • JEE Main Rank Predictor
  • MHT CET College Predictor
  • AP EAMCET College Predictor
  • TS EAMCET College Predictor
  • KCET College Predictor
  • JEE Advanced College Predictor
  • View All College Predictors
  • JEE Main Question Paper
  • JEE Main Mock Test
  • GATE Mock Test
  • JEE Main Syllabus
  • Download E-Books and Sample Papers
  • Compare Colleges
  • B.Tech College Applications
  • BITSAT Question Paper
  • AIIMS Nursing
  • Top Medical Colleges in India
  • Top Medical Colleges in India accepting NEET Score
  • Medical Colleges accepting NEET
  • List of Medical Colleges in India
  • Medical Colleges In Karnataka
  • Medical Colleges in Maharashtra
  • Medical Colleges in India Accepting NEET PG
  • NEET College Predictor
  • NEET PG College Predictor
  • NEET MDS College Predictor
  • DNB CET College Predictor
  • DNB PDCET College Predictor
  • NEET Counselling
  • NEET Result
  • NEET Cut off
  • NEET Online Preparation
  • Download Helpful E-books
  • LSAT India 2024
  • Colleges Accepting Admissions
  • Top Law Colleges in India
  • Law College Accepting CLAT Score
  • List of Law Colleges in India
  • Top Law Colleges in Delhi
  • Top Law Collages in Indore
  • Top Law Colleges in Chandigarh
  • Top Law Collages in Lucknow

Predictors & E-Books

  • CLAT College Predictor
  • MHCET Law ( 5 Year L.L.B) College Predictor
  • AILET College Predictor
  • Sample Papers
  • Compare Law Collages
  • Careers360 Youtube Channel
  • CLAT Admit Card 2023
  • AILET Admit Card 2023
  • SLAT Application Form 2023
  • CLAT 2023 Exam Live
  • NID DAT 2024
  • UPES DAT 2023

Animation Courses

  • Animation Courses in India
  • Animation Courses in Bangalore
  • Animation Courses in Mumbai
  • Animation Courses in Pune
  • Animation Courses in Chennai
  • Animation Courses in Hyderabad
  • Design Colleges in India
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Bangalore
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Mumbai
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Pune
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Delhi
  • Fashion Design Colleges in Hyderabad
  • Fashion Design Colleges in India
  • Top Design Colleges in India
  • Free Sample Papers
  • Free Design E-books
  • List of Branches
  • Careers360 Youtube channel
  • NIFT College Predictor
  • JMI Mass Communication Entrance Exam
  • IIMC Entrance Exam
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Delhi
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Bangalore
  • Media & Journalism colleges in Mumbai
  • List of Media & Journalism Colleges in India
  • Free Ebooks
  • CA Intermediate
  • CA Foundation
  • CS Executive
  • CS Professional
  • Difference between CA and CS
  • Difference between CA and CMA
  • CA Full form
  • CMA Full form
  • CS Full form
  • CA Salary In India

Top Courses & Careers

  • Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com)
  • Master of Commerce (M.Com)
  • Company Secretary
  • Cost Accountant
  • Charted Accountant
  • Credit Manager
  • Financial Advisor
  • Top Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top Government Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top Private Commerce Colleges in India
  • Top M.Com Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top B.Com Colleges in India
  • IT Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • IT Colleges in Uttar Pradesh
  • MCA Colleges in India
  • BCA Colleges in India

Quick Links

  • Information Technology Courses
  • Programming Courses
  • Web Development Courses
  • Data Analytics Courses
  • Big Data Analytics Courses
  • RUHS Pharmacy Admission Test
  • Top Pharmacy Colleges in India
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Pune
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Mumbai
  • Colleges Accepting GPAT Score
  • Pharmacy Colleges in Lucknow
  • List of Pharmacy Colleges in Nagpur
  • GPAT Result
  • GPAT 2024 Admit Card
  • GPAT Question Papers
  • NCHMCT JEE 2024
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Delhi
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Hyderabad
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Mumbai
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Tamil Nadu
  • Top Hotel Management Colleges in Maharashtra
  • B.Sc Hotel Management
  • Hotel Management
  • Diploma in Hotel Management and Catering Technology

Diploma Colleges

  • Top Diploma Colleges in Maharashtra
  • UPSC IAS 2024
  • SSC CGL 2023
  • IBPS RRB 2023
  • Previous Year Sample Papers
  • Free Competition E-books
  • Sarkari Result
  • QnA- Get your doubts answered
  • UPSC Previous Year Sample Papers
  • CTET Previous Year Sample Papers
  • SBI Clerk Previous Year Sample Papers
  • NDA Previous Year Sample Papers

Upcoming Events

  • NDA Application Form 2024
  • UPSC IAS Application Form 2024
  • CDS Application Form 2024
  • SSC MTS Result 2023
  • IBPS PO Result 2023
  • SSC Stenographer Result 2023
  • UPTET Notification 2023
  • SSC JE Result 2023

Other Exams

  • SSC CHSL 2023
  • UP PCS 2023
  • UGC NET 2023
  • RRB NTPC 2023
  • IBPS PO 2023
  • IBPS Clerk 2023
  • IBPS SO 2023
  • CBSE Class 10th
  • CBSE Class 12th
  • UP Board 10th
  • UP Board 12th
  • Bihar Board 10th
  • Bihar Board 12th
  • Top Schools in India
  • Top Schools in Delhi
  • Top Schools in Mumbai
  • Top Schools in Chennai
  • Top Schools in Hyderabad
  • Top Schools in Kolkata
  • Government Schools in India
  • CBSE Schools in India

Products & Resources

  • JEE Main Knockout April
  • NCERT Notes
  • NCERT Syllabus
  • NCERT Books
  • RD Sharma Solutions
  • Navodaya Vidyalaya Admission 2024-25
  • NCERT Solutions
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 12
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 11
  • NCERT solutions for Class 10
  • NCERT solutions for Class 9
  • NCERT solutions for Class 8
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 7
  • Top University in USA
  • Top University in Canada
  • Top University in Ireland
  • Top Universities in UK
  • Top Universities in Australia
  • Best MBA Colleges in Abroad
  • Business Management Studies Colleges

Top Countries

  • Study in USA
  • Study in UK
  • Study in Canada
  • Study in Australia
  • Study in Ireland
  • Study in Germany
  • Study in Singapore
  • Study in Europe

Student Visas

  • Student Visa Canada
  • Student Visa UK
  • Student Visa USA
  • Student Visa Australia
  • Student Visa Germany
  • Student Visa New Zealand
  • Student Visa Ireland
  • CUET PG 2024
  • IGNOU Admission 2024
  • DU Admission
  • UP B.Ed JEE
  • DDU Entrance Exam
  • IIT JAM 2024
  • Universities in India 2023
  • Top Universities in India 2023
  • Top Colleges in India
  • Top Universities in Uttar Pradesh 2023
  • Top Universities in Bihar 2023
  • Top Universities in Madhya Pradesh 2023
  • Top Universities in Tamil Nadu 2023
  • Central Universities in India
  • IGNOU Date Sheet
  • CUET Mock Test 2024
  • CUET Application Form 2024
  • CUET PG Application Form 2024
  • CUET Participating Universities 2024
  • CUET Previous Year Question Paper
  • E-Books and Sample Papers
  • CUET Exam Pattern 2024
  • CUET Exam Date 2024
  • CUET Syllabus 2024
  • IGNOU Exam Form 2023
  • IGNOU Result 2023
  • CUET PG Courses 2024

Engineering Preparation

  • Knockout JEE Main 2024
  • Test Series JEE Main 2024
  • JEE Main 2024 Rank Booster

Medical Preparation

  • Knockout NEET 2024
  • Test Series NEET 2024
  • Rank Booster NEET 2024

Online Courses

  • JEE Main One Month Course
  • NEET One Month Course
  • IBSAT Free Mock Tests
  • IIT JEE Foundation Course
  • Knockout BITSAT 2024
  • Career Guidance Tool

Top Streams

  • IT & Software Certification Courses
  • Engineering and Architecture Certification Courses
  • Programming And Development Certification Courses
  • Business and Management Certification Courses
  • Marketing Certification Courses
  • Health and Fitness Certification Courses
  • Design Certification Courses


  • Digital Marketing Certification Courses
  • Cyber Security Certification Courses
  • Artificial Intelligence Certification Courses
  • Business Analytics Certification Courses
  • Data Science Certification Courses
  • Cloud Computing Certification Courses
  • Machine Learning Certification Courses
  • View All Certification Courses
  • UG Degree Courses
  • PG Degree Courses
  • Short Term Courses
  • Free Courses
  • Online Degrees and Diplomas
  • Compare Courses

Top Providers

  • Coursera Courses
  • Udemy Courses
  • Edx Courses
  • Swayam Courses
  • upGrad Courses
  • Simplilearn Courses
  • Great Learning Courses

Popular Searches

Access premium articles, webinars, resources to make the best decisions for career, course, exams, scholarships, study abroad and much more with

Plan, Prepare & Make the Best Career Choices

Terrorism in India Essay - 100, 200, 500 Words

Essay on terrorism in india -.

Terrorism refers to acts of violence committed by individuals or groups with the intention of creating fear and alarm in a population, and often involves the targeting of innocent civilians. These acts are meant to influence and manipulate governments or other organisations and can take many forms, including bombing, hijacking, kidnapping, and assassination. Terrorism is considered a threat to global peace and security, and is widely condemned by the international community .

100 Words Essay On Terrorism in India

Terrorism in India has been a significant concern for the country for several decades. The problem has its roots in political, social and economic issues and is often fueled by religious and ethnic tensions.

Over the years, the Indian government has taken a number of measures to combat terrorism, including strengthening security forces and intelligence agencies and implementing laws and regulations to curb terrorist activities. Despite these efforts, terrorist attacks continue to occur in various parts of the country.

While the Indian government has taken steps to combat terrorism, the problem remains a significant concern for the country. Addressing the underlying issues that fuel terrorism and implementing a unified and comprehensive strategy, along with the support of the international community, is crucial in effectively tackling the problem.

200 Words Essay On Terrorism in India

Terrorism is a global threat that has affected many countries, including India. The problem of terrorism in India has its roots in the country's complex history and ongoing political conflicts. India has faced terrorism in various forms for decades.

A challenge in the fight against terrorism in India is the lack of a unified and comprehensive strategy to address the problem. Different states in the country have their own approach to dealing with terrorism, which often results in a lack of coordination and cooperation among the various agencies involved.

Measures Taken

The government of India has taken effective measures to combat terrorism, including increasing security and surveillance, strengthening border control, and launching military operations against terrorist groups.

India has also been actively participating in global efforts to combat terrorism and promote peace and stability in the region.

India has been a strong advocate of the Zero tolerance policy against terrorism.

India has also been vocal in raising its concern in various international forums against state sponsorship of terrorism and cross-border terrorism.

Terrorism is a severe problem in India that has caused much suffering and loss of life. While the Indian government has taken steps to combat terrorism, it remains a major concern. India continues to work towards peace and stability in the region and advocates for a zero-tolerance policy towards terrorism globally.

500 Words Essay On Terrorism in India

Terrorism is a major problem that affects not only India but also the world as a whole. It refers to the use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political or ideological goals. The problem of terrorism in India is complex and multifaceted, and it has a significant impact on the security and stability of the country

Origin of Terrorism in India

Terrorism in India has its roots in a variety of factors, including political and ideological differences, religious extremism, and ethnic and separatist movements. The problem has been exacerbated by the presence of various terrorist groups that operate within the country.

Current Situation of Terrorism in India

Terrorism continues to be a significant problem in India, with a number of incidents occurring on a regular basis. These incidents range from small-scale attacks on individuals to large-scale attacks on civilians and government buildings.

Major Incidents of Terrorism in India

Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008 | The Mumbai terrorist attacks of 2008, also known as 26/11, were a series of terrorist attacks that occurred in the Indian city of Mumbai. The attacks were carried out by a group of terrorists and resulted in the deaths of 164 people and the injury of over 300 others.

2001 Indian Parliament attack | The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a terrorist attack that occurred on December 13, 2001, when a group of heavily armed terrorists entered the Parliament of India in New Delhi. The attack resulted in the deaths of 14 people and the injury of 18 others.

1993 Bombay Bombings | The 1993 Bombay Bombings were a series of bombings that occurred on March 12, 1993, in the Indian city of Bombay (now Mumbai). The bombings resulted in the deaths of 257 people and the injury of over 700 others.

Steps to Fight Terrorism in India

Strengthening security and intelligence agencies | India has several security and intelligence agencies that play a crucial role in fighting terrorism. These agencies need to be strengthened and given the necessary resources to effectively carry out their duties.

Enhancing border security | India's borders are vast and porous, making it easy for terrorists to infiltrate the country. Measures such as strengthening border security, deploying more troops, and increasing the use of technology such as surveillance cameras can help to prevent terrorist infiltration.

Addressing the root causes of terrorism | It is important to address the underlying issues that lead to terrorism, such as poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. By addressing these issues, it will be possible to reduce the appeal of terrorist groups and prevent the emergence of new ones.

International cooperation | Terrorism is a global problem and requires a global response. India needs to work closely with other countries to share intelligence and coordinate efforts to fight terrorism.

Terrorism is a major problem that affects India and the world as a whole. For the fight against the cause of terrorism to be successful, it is imperative that security and intelligence agencies be strengthened, border security enhanced, issues of communalism addressed, and international collaboration is increased. Our country can be safer for everyone if we work together.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Manufacturing
  • Information Technology

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO),  what is probationary officer  or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it. 

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

Radiation Therapist

People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.

Recreational Worker

A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

Surgical Technologist

When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

Also Read: Career as Nurse

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Visual Communication Designer

Individuals who want to opt for a career as a Visual Communication Designer will work in the graphic design and arts industry. Every sector in the modern age is using visuals to connect with people, clients, or customers. This career involves art and technology and candidates who want to pursue their career as visual communication designer has a great scope of career opportunity.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Content Writer

Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

Resource Links for Online MBA 

Online MBA Colleges

Online MBA Syllabus

Online MBA Admission

A QA Lead is incharge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that they meet the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans. 

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.


A career as a merchandiser requires one to promote specific products and services of one or different brands, to increase the in-house sales of the store. Merchandising job focuses on enticing the customers to enter the store and hence increasing their chances of buying a product. Although the buyer is the one who selects the lines, it all depends on the merchandiser on how much money a buyer will spend, how many lines will be purchased, and what will be the quantity of those lines. In a career as merchandiser, one is required to closely work with the display staff in order to decide in what way a product would be displayed so that sales can be maximised. In small brands or local retail stores, a merchandiser is responsible for both merchandising and buying. 

Quality Systems Manager

A Quality Systems Manager is a professional responsible for developing strategies, processes, policies, standards and systems concerning the company as well as operations of its supply chain. It includes auditing to ensure compliance. It could also be carried out by a third party. 

Production Planner

Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager . The role of Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. Procurement Managers are involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies and as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness.

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

Computer System Analyst

Individuals in the computer systems analyst career path study the hardware and applications that are part of an organization's computer systems, as well as how they are used. They collaborate closely with managers and end-users to identify system specifications and business priorities, as well as to assess the efficiency of computer systems and create techniques to boost IT efficiency. Individuals who opt for a career as a computer system analyst support the implementation, modification, and debugging of new systems after they have been installed.

Test Manager

A Test Manager is a professional responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling test activities. He or she develops test processes and strategies to analyse and determine test methods and tools for test activities. The test manager jobs involve documenting tests that have been carried out, analysing and evaluating software quality to determine further recommended procedures. 

An IS Analyst is responsible for monitoring computer networks for security issues. He or she investigates security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents. The role of IS Analyst involves installing security measures and operating software to protect systems and information infrastructure.

Site Administrator

A site administrator is a person who provides administrative support to other employees in a team. Career as Site Administrator requires help in   implementing office procedures. His or her role involves regularly filing and maintaining documentation. In addition to being able to provide administrative support, a site administrator also has to ensure that the work environment is in compliance with company policies and regulations.

Applications for Admissions are open.

NEET 2024 Most scoring concepts

NEET 2024 Most scoring concepts

Just Study 32% of the NEET syllabus and Score upto 100% marks



Thinking of Studying Abroad? Think the TOEFL® test & make your dreams come true

JEE Main high scoring chapters and topics

JEE Main high scoring chapters and topics

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Study 40% syllabus and score upto 100% marks in JEE

NEET previous year papers with solutions

NEET previous year papers with solutions

Solve NEET previous years question papers & check your preparedness

JEE Main Important Mathematics Formulas

JEE Main Important Mathematics Formulas

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Maths formulas, equations, & theorems of class 11 & 12th chapters

JEE Main Important Physics formulas

JEE Main Important Physics formulas

As per latest 2024 syllabus. Physics formulas, equations, & laws of class 11 & 12th chapters

Everything about Education

Latest updates, Exclusive Content, Webinars and more.

Download Careers360 App's

Regular exam updates, QnA, Predictors, College Applications & E-books now on your Mobile




We Appeared in

Economic Times


  1. terrorism in india by Luke Sook

    essay on cyber terrorism in india

  2. A Glance At India’s Cyber Security Laws

    essay on cyber terrorism in india

  3. Cyber Terrorism And National Security: Buy Cyber Terrorism And National

    essay on cyber terrorism in india

  4. Cyber Terrorists from Pakistan Shift Target to Eastern India- The New

    essay on cyber terrorism in india

  5. Terrorism in india essay pdf in telugu

    essay on cyber terrorism in india

  6. Chart: Sharp Increase of Cyber Crime in India During Last Decade

    essay on cyber terrorism in india


  1. Essay on Cyber Crime

  2. Growing Threat of Terrorism- Essay Writing II Essay on Terrorism II #essays

  3. Cyber Terrorism

  4. Cyber Crime Awareness Workshop Held Part- 1

  5. Nuclear Terrorism : Pakistan vs India #UPSC #IAS #CSE #IPS

  6. V-21 Cyber Terrorism || साइबर आतंकवाद


  1. Cyber terrorism : a rising threat to India

    Cyber terrorism in India. India has begun its development and reliance on technology depicting its steady growth and shifting to a modern form of governance. Sectors like income tax, passports and visas have taken the driver seat to e-governance with police and judiciary culminating its way upward. This growth has both positive as well as ...

  2. Cyber Terrorism: A Growing Threat to India's Cyber Security

    The emergence of cyber terrorism has posed serious threats to India's cybersecurity and to the larger extent India's national security (Col. Raghav 2015 ). Therefore, there is a need to study the problem and investigate threats and challenges of cyber terrorism in the Indian perspectives.

  3. PDF Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism in India

    In terrorist acts, cyber terrorism is the action of internet terrorism. Which implies the deliberate use of computers, networks and the public internet to cause disruption and damage to a person for their own purposes. These terrorists may have a political or ideological motive, which can then be seen as a form of terrorism.

  4. Cyber Terrorism: A Growing Threat to India's Cyber Security

    The essay also investigates the danger sources, implications, and mitigation options for cyber-attacks on nuclear facilities. ... In India, cyber-terrorism, theft of business secrets, cyber-fraud ...

  5. PDF Biggest Threat to India

    Definition of cyber terrorism and cyber crime 2. Method of attacks 3. Tools of attacks 4. How Indian national security is affected by cyber terrorism and cyber attacks 5. Existing cyber security initiative 6. Our concerns 7. Some recommendations 8. Conclusions 1. Definition of cyber terrorism and cyber crime

  6. Full article: Too Close for Comfort: Cyber Terrorism and Information

    Cyber terrorism is an elusive concept. Most definitions make a distinction between on the one hand politically motivated violent acts, or the threat thereof, using the internet, and on the other hand all the preparatory and supporting activities for terrorism done on or via the internet, such as recruitment, communication and financing.

  7. Cybersecurity and Threats: Cyberterrorism and the Order Today

    The author is a final year law student at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi.

  8. Cyber Terrorism

    Cyberterrorism is any premeditated, politically motivated attack against information systems, programs and data that results in violence. Cyber-terrorism can also be understood as "the use of computer network tools to shut down critical national infrastructures (such as energy, transportation, government operations) or to coerce or intimidate a government or civilian population."

  9. PDF Cyber Terrorism in India: A Physical Reality Orvirtual Myth

    the threats of Cyber terrorism. The Cyber attacks pISSN: 2454-7107, eISSN: 2455-4189 How to cite this article: Shiv Raman, Nidhi Sharma. Cyber Terrorism in India: A Physical Reality Orvirtual Myth. Indian J Law Hum Behav. 2019;5(2): 133-140.

  10. Emerging Cyber Security Threats India's Concerns and Options

    To combat the threat of cyber-terrorism, the Government of India amended the IT Act of 2000 in 2008. Section 66F, which defines and characterizes cyber terrorism, was explicitly

  11. Cyber Terrorism: An emerging threat to India By Muthyala Soujanya Priya

    Introduction. According to a report by NCRB, India recorded 21,796 cyber-crimes in 2017 with an increase of 77% from 2016. With the advancement of technology around the world, new methods have emerged which pose a great threat of destruction and loss to the country. These new methods that are adopted by terrorists are more dangerous than the ...

  12. (PDF) Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism in India

    International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 SJIF (2019): 7.583 Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism in India Sarita Singh Abstract: From cars to kitchen appliances, computers and the Internet continue to pervade human life in everything. With the discovery of machines, the Internet has amplified human enslavement.

  13. PDF Cybercrime and Cybersecurity in India: Causes, Consequences and

    Cybercrime is rising rapidly in India. Developing economies such as India face unique cybercrime risks. This paper examines cybercrime and cybersecurity in India. The literature on which this paper draws is diverse, encompassing the work of economists, criminologists, institutionalists and international relations theorists.

  14. India has been the Victim of Cyberterrorism

    By Colonel B. S. Nagial (Retd.) Cyberterrorism is a global phenomenon but not much recognised in India. However, India ranks second highest user of the Internet after China. It is estimated that about 20% of the Indian population uses Internet facilities. In contrast, in the US and UK, 90% of people use the Internet.

  15. A Beginner's Guide to Cyber Terrorism in India

    According to the Global Risks Report 2021, the failure of cyber security will be one of humanity's most significant concerns in the coming decade.With a sizeable internet population, India has confronted significant cyber terrorism challenges in the last few decades. Cyber terrorism commonly includes coordinated and politically motivated attacks on information systems, programmes, or data.

  16. PDF Cyber Terrorism: a Potential Threat to National Security in India

    1. To unearth the cyber terrorism unleashed against India by cyber terrorists. 2. To elicit the preventive measures taken by both Centre and States in India to combat the menace of cyber terrorism. 3. To understand the lacuna, if any, and suggest some corrective measures to combat cyber terrorism. 4.

  17. Cyber Terrorism And Laws In India

    There is the use of Secondary resources like books, research papers, digital resources, various sites, etc. for data and information collection. ... including acts of cyber terrorism. India, however, has been rather vulnerable to cyberthreats.Currently, with major economic activities transpiring through digital platforms during the COVID-19 ...

  18. Countering Cyber Terrorism In India Criminology Essay

    1. Cyber terrorism is planned use of disruptive activities, or the threat of the same, against computers /networks, with the purpose of causing harm or further social, religious, political or comparab

  19. Essay On Cyber-Terrorism

    In India, an amendment was made on laws under the information technology act, 2000 to define the term "Cyberterrorism" U/Sec. 66F. It was the first time the Indian constitution defined the term and stipulated a punishment for the latter. ... "Cyber-Terrorism Essay," Free Essay Examples -, 08-Mar-2020. [Online]. Available ...

  20. Essay on Terrorism in India for Students and Children

    500 Words Essay on Terrorism in India. Terrorism in India has a long history. It is a cowardly act by the terrorist groups who wish to disturb the peace of the country. It aims to create a state of panic amongst the people. They want to keep the people in a constant state of fear to stop the country from prospering.

  21. Cyber Terrorism Essay

    9:30am-10:45am October 4, 2016 Cyber Security & Terrorism In the 21st century, humans continue to advance technology at an incredibly fast rate, which also indicates we become more dependent of the technology. Keep in mind, with more technology being available, new threats emerge constantly in the cyber-world.

  22. Terrorism in India Essay

    2001 Indian Parliament attack | The 2001 Indian Parliament attack was a terrorist attack that occurred on December 13, 2001, when a group of heavily armed terrorists entered the Parliament of India in New Delhi. The attack resulted in the deaths of 14 people and the injury of 18 others. 1993 Bombay Bombings | The 1993 Bombay Bombings were a ...

  23. Cyber Terrorism Essays

    1061 Words | 3 Pages. Cyber terrorism is the attack of a person computer, personal information, and the attack of websites. Cyber terrorism is on the rise. Hackers has the skills and technology to plan an attack. Furthermore, there are a significant amount of information on the internet to help one plan for an attack.