How poor communication exacerbates health inequities – and what to do about it

Subscribe to the economic studies bulletin, stuart m. butler and stuart m. butler senior fellow - economic studies @stuartmbutler nehath sheriff nehath sheriff public health consultant - health management associates, former senior research analyst & project coordinator - economic studies @nehaths.

February 22, 2021

  • 14 min read

In the United States, we know that long-standing systemic health and social inequities increase the likelihood of poor outcomes or death for members of racial and ethnic minority groups. For example, Black babies are more likely to die before their first birthday , and Black women are more likely to die from childbirth-related causes than their white counterparts. The COVID-19 pandemic has also underscored the fact that economic and social circumstances , social determinants of health (SDOH), and maldistribution of resources contribute significantly to health inequity.

Many of the more tangible and measurable factors driving inequity could be addressed through a heightened national political commitment to achieving a better balance in health-related budgetary and organizational reforms . But some of the factors are less easy to see and measure – yet are perhaps just as challenging. Distrust and poor communication related to racial and cultural differences pervade the health system and frustrate many efforts to reach the goal of good and equitable care for all in America. All too often, Black patients and other minorities are spoken to rather than talked with; the result is less-effective interactions, less empathy and acknowledgment of concerns, and ultimately, worse outcomes.

Poor communication is a failing of the health system, not of patients. A good health system engages fairly and respectfully with everyone who seeks care, and it recognizes that its patients and plan enrollees come with a range of previous experiences with the health care system, as well as different literacy levels, language fluency, and cultural norms. It is the responsibility of system managers, and front-line providers, to ensure that everything from examination room interactions to provider training is guided by good communication techniques. But while health managers will usually say they recognize the importance of good communication, there remain profound barriers to introducing and implementing the techniques needed to achieve better outcomes and equity.

These barriers have deep roots.

Distrust of the medical system

The medical system has lost the trust of communities of color – and suspicion of this system is widespread in minority communities . A Kaiser Family Foundation survey conducted in the Fall of 2020, for instance, found that far fewer Black adults trust doctors and hospitals to do the right thing most of the time than is the case for white people.

There are grim historical reasons for this distrust , emanating from such episodes as the 1932-1972 Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the forcible sterilization of Native American women throughout the 1970s. Cases like these are widely known throughout and across communities of color and diminish their confidence in the health system.

This history contributes in many communities to a lack of trust in the recommendations and actions of health care providers they view as holding racial and cultural biases. It is reinforced by perceptions by some groups that they are routinely treated unfairly when they interact with the health system, with a much higher proportion of Blacks than whites , for instance, expressing the feeling that it is hard to find a doctor who treats them with dignity and respect. This combination of history and ongoing disrespect leads to many population groups being less likely to follow physician instructions, less likely to access available medical care, and less inclined to heed public health recommendations. In September 2020, a study on race and health conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation, for instance, found that half of the surveyed Black adults were not planning to take a coronavirus vaccine, even if it is free and deemed safe by scientists.

Poor communication

Even when there is trust, simple difficulties in communication can pose a significant barrier to good outcomes, disproportionately affecting some population groups. Defining and measuring “good communication” is not easy. The success or value of the same pattern of interaction between a provider and patient can be perceived quite differently by different pairs of individuals. Nevertheless, in medicine, there are several common reasons for poor communications that can affect health outcomes.

Using a professional interpreter, for instance, can still lead to subtle but important information being lost during interactions between immigrant patients and health providers, and can also make it more difficult to establish the close relationship and empathy that aids good treatment and outcomes.

But good communication goes beyond just language. Being sensitive to cultural differences is important even in interactions with a common language – from understanding conventions regarding eye contact to physicians appreciating ways in which lifestyle and culture can influence the relative effectiveness of alternative treatment plans. For success, some experts argue the approach of health providers should be that of cultural “humility” rather than cultural “competence.” However it is viewed, the degree of cultural connection can have profound implications in health care.

For example, a recent study in Oakland , California, found that when Black men were randomly assigned to either Black or white physicians for a checkup, Black physicians were more than 50 percent more effective than non-Black physicians in encouraging Black men to agree to preventative tests and vaccinations. Although they did not offer policy or practice recommendations, the authors concluded that generally achieving that level of “increased screening could lead to a 19% reduction in the Black-white male cardiovascular mortality gap and an 8% decline in the Black-white male life expectancy gap.”

Perhaps not surprisingly, a 2017 review of multiple studies found that “Black patients consistently experienced poorer communication quality, information-giving, patient participation, and participatory decision-making than white patients.”

Medical training

Medical schools and hospitals have been criticized for not focusing enough on communications training, thereby contributing to distrust and poor communication being a common characteristic of medical services. In addition, medical schools have been faulted for doing too little to debunk health stereotypes about different races and cultures, such as pain tolerance and race-related risk measurements in assessing patient conditions – even perpetuating them. One study of medical students found on average that these students endorsed over ten percent of a series of false differences between Black and white patients regarding pain, including differences in skin thickness and sensitivity to pain. Added to this are widespread unconscious racial biases among both providers and patients.

Medical schools and nursing programs have also generally done an inadequate job in training future medical personnel to appreciate and inquire about non-clinical factors in health, such as housing conditions, stress, nutrition, and other SDOH. The health of all patients is affected to some degree by social determinants, but they are disproportionately important for some patients and in some under-resourced communities. While medical students generally learn about social determinants as content areas, too little weight is given to how they should be understood and factored into strategies to assess and address a patient’s needs. For example, among chronically homeless patients, just  finding a safe place  for the patient to stay is often crucial to both improving health and decreasing costly hospital admissions. Yet there is rarely training offered to physicians on how they can help facilitate steps to address such issues.

In practice, most SDOH education is acquired on the job through informal experiential learning in hospitals and clinics. Medical personnel rarely learn effective non-clinical procedures for dealing with social factors affecting the health of their patients.

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Addressing Communication and Cultural Competency in Healthcare

If we are to achieve a more equitable and efficient healthcare system, it will be important to address these communication barriers that impact the operation of this health system. Fortunately, there are strategies available and some progress being made in utilizing them.

1. Enhance medical training

Better training of medical personnel is essential for improving communication between providers and patients. Medical schools have been taking some important steps. One is to amend course material that may inaccurately suggest racial differences in data related to diagnoses and patient reactions to treatment and procedures. At the University of Washington, for instance, medical students successfully questioned race as a coefficient in measuring kidney function . Some schools, such as the University of California San Francisco , are introducing courses for clinicians on how to avoid unconscious racial stereotyping and provides cautions for researchers on how to avoid unintentional bias. In 2016, a University of Minnesota team undertook a lengthy and detailed set of conversations with a diverse group of community members to help reshape medical training to reflect racial factors.

Medical schools have also sought to increase diversity in medical school admissions so that minority patients can more easily find physicians that may connect better with their background and life experience. Diversity requirements were put into place in 2009 by the Liaison Commission on Medical Education and the results indicate some modest improvement . Between 2002 and 2017, for instance, the percentage of Black enrolled students rose from 6.8 percent to 7.3 percent; the proportion of Hispanic students rose from 5.4 percent to 8.9 percent. Much more still needs to be done. But some institutions show what is possible. For instance, 73 percent of the University of Houston College of Medicine inaugural class come from underrepresented minorities in medicine.

Another important step is to educate medical students more extensively on ways in which social factors can influence health conditions. In one example of trying to address this educational need, a group of clinicians and health educators at the University of Pittsburgh developed an SDOH “Fast Facts ” teaching tool: brief, evidence-based summaries of key SDOH topics commonly encountered by clinicians. Combining medical training with a Master’s in Public Health (MPH) that covers social determinants is another way of equipping physicians with valuable skills to address social health factors, but that does require a longer period in training.

Hospitals and health systems also play an important role in the later stages of physician training and continuing medical education. Indeed, given the classroom focus of medical schools, there is generally more opportunity for gaining experience and training in communication during residency. Fortunately, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education now requires residency programs to address factors that lead to health disparities. Johns Hopkins responded in 2011 with a program that, among other things, requires every resident to develop partnerships with neighborhood religious and community groups.

2. Reach out to people and local institutions

Well-trained medical interpreters are important in overcoming the most obvious communications obstacles when medical providers are working with limited-English patients, but that is only one step for some patients and there are several reasons why interpreters are often underutilized or not used effectively. Health systems that are looking seriously at communications barriers also know they must go much further, combining better and culturally sensitive translation services with improved ways to connect more broadly with patients. The nation’s experience with combatting HIV in marginalized communities underscored the importance of working closely with respected local institutions to build trust and a network of support. Learning from such efforts and recognizing its troubled history with the non-white community in Baltimore, Johns Hopkins hospital has organized teams to go into communities and build trust with residents and their leaders, working with senior centers, churches, mosques, and other neighborhood settings. Since 2013 the Mayo Clinic has developed a similar partnership with Black churches in Minnesota, focused on cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. North Carolina and the Washington, D.C. area are among the places where community clinics are working closely with Black churches to build greater acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. Trust-building approaches like these are urgently needed to increase the vaccination rate in non-white communities.

Community clinics have advantages over large hospital systems in tackling communications and trust issues because as primary health centers and neighborhood institutions, they are a more integral part of the neighborhood culture and community. Siloam Health in Nashville, Tennessee, has built on this inherent strength by training teams of community health workers to work closely with dozens of immigrant communities, enabling providers to work with patients in culturally sensitive ways. Meanwhile, Mary’s Center , a clinic system in the Washington, D.C. area, has formed over one hundred partnerships with service and cultural organizations to help address social determinants as well as language and cultural barriers faced by its mainly immigrant patients. A critical component of Mary’s Center’s service delivery model is building strong relationships with patients and key community stakeholders. 1

Such efforts to communicate directly to communities and individuals who may be distrustful or skeptical appears to be paying off in areas like COVID-19 vaccination. Thus, while the September Kaiser Family Foundation poll on race and health found that half of the surveyed Black adults were not planning to take a coronavirus vaccine. After concerted efforts using trusted spokespersons and Black medical personnel 62 percent of Black Americans said that will likely get vaccinated by December of 2020 (though still below the white percentage).

3. Use intermediaries

Respected and trained intermediaries can be crucial to building the relationships needed to assure trust, good communication, and often the connections to other social service needs. The frontline community health workers used by clinics and other parts of the health system are critical to this task. As an example, in Spanish-speaking communities, the promotores de salud model creates a link between members of the community and health care resources. While their primary role is linking vulnerable populations to the health care system, they also handle some aspects of case management, as well as language assistance and cultural competence support, advocacy, informal counseling, and building community capacity. The community health worker needs to operate as a member of the whole health team, with all team members sharing their insights and skills. But the cultural knowledge and shared experiences of these intermediaries allow them to deliver messages about available services in a way that community members can understand and trust and are more likely to follow.

Key establishments within communities, such as religious institutions, grocery stores, and even barbershops are effective ways to create trust and relationships to improve health and convey key public health messages. For instance, Health Advocates In-reach and Research (HAIR) partners with Black barbershops and beauty salons in Prince George’s County, Maryland. The shops and salons in effect credential health professionals with their clientele so that providers’ advice is more likely to be followed. Meanwhile, HAIR also trains barbers and stylists to be “Lay Health Advocates” to promote screening and help deliver public health and medical services to the Black community. Similarly, St. Louis University has for many years undertaken a “ Barbershop Tour ” program, in conjunction with the local chapter of 100 Black Men of America, a civic organization and service club, in which nursing and public health students screen barbershop patrons for blood pressure, smoking, nutrition, stress and other factors related to hypertension, and provide guidance on how to reduce health risks. Again, the role of the trusted, credentialing intermediary is critical to the program’s effectiveness.

Lay workers are critical intermediaries that improve communication between patients and the health system, which helps reduce the challenges and frustrations for both patient and provider. Harlem-based City Health Works , for example, imported a model from Africa and India to create a team of lay workers, known as “health coaches,” who go into the homes of patients. They help patients manage chronic conditions, such as diabetes, address social determinants (from housing problems to nutrition and transportation), and act as the patient’s agent with health providers. “They come from the community, with a different perspective,” says a senior local hospital official.  “They speak the language. And they can look in the refrigerator.”

Hospitals, physicians’ offices, and health plans should make greater use of such intermediaries. While an individual physician or hospital may lack the skills and resources to address issues that require trusted relationships, they can partner with organizations that do. Health Leads is a pathbreaking example of such a linking organization. For instance, a discharging hospital physician can write “prescriptions” for a patient’s social service as well as medical follow-up needs, and Health Leads can connect the patient with service programs and mobilize its networks of community-based organizations. Health plans and hospitals are also making more use of partnerships with trusted local community clinics. And COVID-19 vaccination efforts are also turning more to community clinics to address income and racial differences in take-up rates, thanks to their authoritative reputation close relationships with minority communities. Indeed, if we are to achieve an equitable health system, there will need to be strategic federal investments in community clinics and other community-based health services.


Achieving an equitable health care system requires action on several fronts. Much of the systemic inequity we see in the U.S. healthcare system today is the result of conscious decisions on the allocation of health resources. Those decisions need to be reassessed. In recent years we have become more conscious of “upstream” factors in health, such as housing, education, and other social determinants of health – and we have begun to consider steps to address these factors. It is important to recognize that person-to-person communication is also a critical component of equitable health; it is time for us to address that, too.

  • Stuart Butler is an unpaid board member of Mary’s Center.

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“Poor Communication” Is Often a Symptom of a Different Problem

  • Art Markman

essay on poor communication

It’s a common organizational scapegoat.

Do employees complain that your company suffers from a lack of communication? That the left hand doesn’t know what the right hand is doing? Maybe the one doing the complaining is you. Or perhaps, as many companies do, you conducted an employee engagement survey and “lack of communication” emerged as a top gripe.

  • Art Markman , PhD, is the Annabel Irion Worsham Centennial Professor of Psychology and Marketing at the University of Texas at Austin and founding director of the program in the  Human Dimensions of Organizations . He has written over 150 scholarly papers on topics including reasoning, decision-making, and motivation. His most recent book is Bring Your Brain to Work: Using Cognitive Science to Get a Job, Do it Well, and Advance Your Career (HBR Press).

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The causes & effects of poor communication in the workplace


Workplace communication is the exchange of information and ideas within an organization. Effective workplace communication is essential for companies to work effectively and productively.

With great internal communication between employees and employers comes increased morale, productivity, and commitment, especially with employers who spend the time and energy to create open communication lines.

These types of managers quickly build trust among employees , resulting in increased productivity and performance. Employees who effectively communicate with their colleagues and bosses continue to be valuable assets to the company.

Why is communication so important in the workplace?

  • It avoids confusion
  • It provides purpose
  • It fosters a transparent company culture
  • It creates accountability
  • It builds productivity and growth

Effective communication in the workplace is central to reaching all business goals, as it defines organizational goals and helps coworkers better collaborate with one another. However, not all communication in a business environment is created equal. Some companies suffer from poor communication, resulting in friction, frustration, and confusion.

Poor communication often creates a tense environment where people are not motivated to be productive and not inspired to collaborate. This lack of motivation then affects how employees relate to clients and potential customers, negatively affecting the bottom line. So what is poor communication, exactly, and what are some of the causes and effects of poor communication?

What is poor communication in the workplace?

Poor workplace communication might mean that lines of communication are entirely broken, but this is relatively rare. More often, communication issues occur when there is a discrepancy between what is said and what is heard, whether between colleagues or between an employee and a manager. More specifically, the understanding between two people is not mutual when the person being communicated with misunderstands what you’re trying to communicate.

Here’s an example. An employer sets a deadline for turning in data on Friday, and an employee readily agrees to get the data in on Friday. On the surface, this may seem like good communication. However, the employee might think they have until 5 p.m. to deliver the data when it is actually due on Friday at 10 a.m. This mismatch of deadlines stemmed from poor communication — the information communicated between the employer and employee was incomplete.

What are the causes of poor communication in the workplace?

Poor leadership.

Employees look to business owners and their managers for direction in the workplace. Good communication that starts from the top down motivates staff members to be more productive and innovative. These good leaders clearly communicate objectives, goals, and future visions.

Poor leaders, on the other hand, are often indecisive and unable to inspire their teams. They may be impatient in their communication style, conveying that impatience through their tone of voice, facial expressions, or other means of nonverbal communication.

Poor communication and bad leadership may also stem from managers who lack information themselves. These managers are unable to answer questions or clarify points, so their employees are left even more confused and frustrated than when they started.

Unclear Objectives

Goals and objectives are powerful in business, as they focus attention on achieving desirable outcomes, such as profitability. Profitability does not just happen magically. It requires attentive employees who know what management expects them to accomplish and transparent objectives provide that direction.

If organizations lack clear strategic goals, or if managers are not informed of the tactical objectives their teams are expected to meet, employees will not receive the direction they need. This leads to confusion and frustration. Employees may end up underperforming even when trying their best.

Limited Feedback

Feedback is information that flows to a person who performed an action, informing that person of the results of that action. It is one of the most important forms of communication because it’s where real learning happens.

Effective employee feedback , both positive and negative, provides valuable information for making important decisions and improvements in the future. Top-performing companies recognize feedback as a key step in their continuous improvement cycles.

Without clear testing steps for each iteration and action, feedback will be limited. For example, does a new website form represent a significant improvement over the old one? Is a new product feature significantly easier to use? Without good feedback, employees will not have clear direction for improvement.

Demoralized Employees

When an employee loses interest in their work, they often become disengaged, creating communication problems for the company. Employees who feel demoralized often feel unvalued, unappreciated, and even disrespected despite their capacities and talents. This will often lead to the employee becoming unproductive and irritable, disregarding open lines of communication.

Restoring employee morale may involve reevaluating workplace culture to create an environment in which employees are personally invested enough to work—and communicate—with a good attitude.

Learn 5 Ways to Motivate Disengaged Employees

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace

Diverse work environments have been proven to help companies grow, as they bring in new ideas for greater creativity and innovation. However, one challenge of increasing diversity in the workplace is the potential for poor communication. Different people from different backgrounds relay messages in different ways, with varied nonverbal cues, and the way messages are interpreted will often be different.

For example, forming a circle with your thumb and index finger means “OK” in the United States. In Japan, however, this same gesture means “money.” To combat these types of communication mismatches, companies should invest in DEI efforts, such as diversity classes that focus on communication to educate employees.

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What are the effects of poor communication in the workplace?

Unpredictable work environment.

Poor communication causes a lack of predictability and stability within the workplace, leading to an uneasy environment for employees to work in. Employees might not clearly understand their objectives for the week or might misunderstand the process for a project, leading to poor productivity and ineffectiveness at their job. Employees and employers have a responsibility to facilitate an active dialogue in order to create a stable work environment in which employees can do their best work.

Less Effective Collaboration

Collaboration and communication go hand in hand. If employees are unable to communicate effectively, collaboration is very likely to suffer as well. Collaboration in the workplace is important in many ways, from promoting self-analysis to efficient problem-solving. Without collaboration, teams end up working in isolated silos, unaware of the progress and learning that has been achieved in other areas.

Workplace Conflict

The effects of poor communication may cause tensions to rise, resulting in potential conflicts between employees. Although they might not be immediately obvious, these tensions can cause two-way communication to break down even more.

An unwillingness to communicate may cause employees to make the wrong assumptions, resulting in work that has to be repeated—sometimes over and over. Good communication prevents workplace tensions from arising in the first place.

With poor communication, employees may have a harder time meeting expectations and deadlines, resulting in them falling behind. This could leave them with a sense of guilt, embarrassment, or even low self-esteem. This, in turn, can lead to significant drops in job satisfaction and a significant rise in attrition.

Lack of communication between management and employees

Although the lack of effective communication between management and employees can lead to significant frustration, poor communication is rarely intentional. In most cases, breakdowns in communication can be traced back to poor communication skills or simply not having the right communication tools.

Tips for more effective communication in the workplace

Effective workplace communication starts with strong workplace communication skills. The following communication strategies and effective communication practices can significantly improve communication between coworkers.

Active Listening

Ineffective communication often begins when the desire to communicate information is so strong that it overpowers the impulse to listen. Effective teams employ strong two-way communication to ensure that messages are communicated well in both directions.

When a manager conveys information, for example, employees may raise concerns about what they are being asked to do. Managers need to listen actively to those concerns, repeating them to ensure understanding and addressing them directly. 

Constructive Feedback

Constructive feedback is the art of conveying feedback that is clear, actionable, and positive. For example, a creative director might say something like this: “I love how you’ve incorporated our brand elements into this design. Let’s make this section here larger to really draw the eye to the focal point. Nice work.”

The first statement is positive, making sure the listener feels appreciated. The next statement provides clear, actionable direction that the artist can easily follow. It will improve the design while also conveying information the artist can learn from. The final statement returns to the overarching message of appreciation, recognizing the effort that the artist has put into the work.

Eye Contact

In oral communication, maintaining eye contact while listening will reassure the speaker that they are being heard. It is important, however, that facial expressions remain calm and open. Eye contact can be perceived as aggressive or derogatory when accompanied by negative emotional cues.

Nonverbal Communication

Eye contact is just one example of the nonverbal communication that makes up a huge portion of the information we take in during face-to-face communication. Effective workplace communication skills involve profound self-awareness of body language and facial expressions. The speaker must be aware not just of the words they’re choosing but of the way in which those words are delivered.

One common misconception is the idea that strong communication is delivered with a sense of force. In fact, remaining calm, even under pressure, conveys inner strength and is a far more effective communication method. A team leader who listens openly and addresses concerns with empathy is much more likely to foster active team collaboration and achieve operational results.

Frequent Communication

To combat poor communication, good team leaders write project descriptions clearly, assign individual tasks fairly, check in regularly to ask how things are, and set aside time each week to address workplace concerns. They also maintain an open-door policy to make sure grievances are addressed quickly and efficiently.

For these leaders, informal conversations, casual interactions, and honest communication often play key roles in their effective communication skills.

How to address poor communication in the workplace

To open communication channels, break down communication barriers, and build more effective teams, conveying key communication skills may not be enough. Company goals and company policies need to be conveyed consistently, across multiple communication channels. Senior management depends on middle management to bridge the gap between strategy and tactics, fostering collaboration and strong communication across every human interaction.

This requires more than good communication skills—effective communication also requires the right communication tools. At the managerial level, this might include project management tools to keep everyone on the same page or video conferencing tools to include remote teams in face-to-face interactions. Effective teams need many types of workplace internal communication tools to foster and maintain employee satisfaction.

For enterprise organizations, company communications present an even bigger problem. Maintaining a strong, vibrant company culture across remote teams in different cities and even around the world requires communication tools that are designed to address these unique needs.

Improving company communications—how to solve poor communication in the workplace

From demoralized employees to workplace conflicts, poor communication detrimentally affects an organization’s productivity and overall workplace culture. Improving communications can prove valuable for any business, leading to increased productivity, higher morale, and a positive benefit to the bottom line.

Enterprise businesses in particular need to prioritize investment in communication for a strong, vibrant corporate culture —including new technologies that can promote and maintain open lines of communication across a widely distributed workforce.

Here at Simpplr, we devote our time to simplifying employee communication , making it easier to connect and align with your employees. Our modern intranet solution opens multiple lines of communication with your employees so you can reach them where they are—in the ways they want to communicate—fostering an open culture of growth and transparent communication.

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Essays About Communication: Top 5 Examples and Prompts

Are you writing essays about communication? Check out our top essay examples and writing prompts to help you get started.

Communication is power and is critical to building a well-connected society. Communicating well is vital in working with people and shedding light on problems and solutions. Practical communication skills can help build relationships. 

If you’re writing an essay on communication and are having a hard time choosing a topic to focus on, here is our round-up of the best essay examples to get you started:  

1. The Benefits of Communication and Teamwork by Karenina Loayza

2. it’s time to tune in: why listening is the real key to communication by kate murphy, 3. a love language spoken with hands by ross showalter, 4. the role of body language in communication by ashley tulio, 5. the power of storytelling in marketing by dylan jacob, 1. how-to develop communication skills, 2. how-to write an inspiring speech, 3. should all leaders be good communicators, 4. theories of mass communication, 5. how are schools developing children’s communication skills, 6. communicating face-to-face vs. online , 7. marketing communications: what are they, 8. is communicating on social media effective, 9. is it possible to communicate effectively on virtual workplace platforms, 10. how-to communicate in the workplace.

“In one task, we were blindfolded and had to describe a set of irregular pieces. With varying degrees of English and different experiences of the world, it was like explaining an elephant to an alien.” 

Loayza narrates an exercise in class where they have to describe surrounding objects as accurately as possible to keep others from stumbling on them. The writer said the exercise demonstrated effectively the need for good communication skills for teams to succeed.

“Schools and universities have courses in debate, rhetoric and elocution, but rarely classes that teach listening. You can get a doctorate in speech communication and join Toastmasters International to perfect your speaking skills, but who strives for excellence in listening?”

Murphy muses on a world that glorifies the speakers but leaves no room for the listeners like her. She points out how social media has created a generation that prefers interacting behind the screen and filtering out opinions that do not resonate with theirs. Instead, Murphy emphasizes listening as a foundation for better human relations and offers solutions for how others can develop their listening for successful communication. 

“Will showed me that not everyone makes promises they don’t intend to fulfil. I don’t have to invest in someone who promises an action they’ll never do. Relationships only move forward once the work of communication begins.”

Showalter, a deaf man, laments how non-deaf ex-lovers have promised to learn sign language to better communicate with him – only to see these promises broken. Then, one morning, a remarkable man in his life sends a video message reviving hopes for Showalter and redefines his standard in relationships for the better. 

“Non-verbal communication can affect our words as it can reiterate our message, contradict our words, reinforce our statement, substitute the meaning of what we are trying to say, and complement what we are trying to say. Body language is something that is usually natural and is often done instinctively rather than consciously.”

Tulio, a communications specialist, stresses the importance of using body language for expression. She provides tips on maximizing gestures and body movement to convey emotions in person and through videoconferencing. 

“In marketing, storytelling provides an avenue to connect to consumers unlike any other. Brands are empowered to share and sell their values and personality in a form that feels less like advertising and more like a concerted effort to strengthen relationships with customers.

The author cites the viewpoints of a business school professor who explains how storytelling can shape the world’s perception of a brand. Finally, the author outlines the vital elements that make an exciting story capable of connecting with an audience and effecting action among consumers.

10 Writing Prompts On essays about communication

To further expand your horizon on the subject, you can work around our list of prompts that are interesting and relevant to date:

essays about communication: How-to develop communication skills

You can narrow down this essay to target employees, students, aspiring leaders, or those who want to improve their conversation skills. First, list down recommendations such as expanding their vocabulary and listening. Then, explain how they can incorporate this into their daily routine. 

Writing a speech that strikes a chord requires extra work in developing empathy and understanding the audience. Next, you can focus on providing recommendations for your essay, such as putting in a personal touch and linking this story to the broader subject. Make sure you also offer simple writing tips such as using the active voice as much as possible, keeping sentences short, and keeping the tone conversational. 

Cite research studies that detail why effective communication is a critical skill that makes a leader. Then, write about the organizational pitfalls of poor communication. Later, leaders who can speak engagingly and listen attentively to their team members can address these pitfalls. 

Communication theory is the study of processes in sending and receiving information. Discuss the four main theories of mass communication: the Authoritarian Theory, the Libertarian Theory, the Soviet-Communist Theory, and the Social-Responsibility Theory. Explain each one. Explain how each remains relevant in understanding modern communication processes. 

Interview schools within your community and learn about their language curriculum and other efforts to empower children to communicate well. You can also interview child development experts. Find out the biggest challenges in helping children improve how they express their thoughts and ideas. Then, find out what schools and parents are doing to address them. 

While you’d hear many people expressing a preference for face-to-face meetings, there are undoubtedly benefits to online meetings, which some usually dismiss. Weigh in on the pros and cons of in-person and online meetings, especially in the current scenario of an ongoing pandemic. 

What are the new marketing channels marketers are leveraging to reach their audience? Several surveys and studies show where most marketing campaigns allocate their budgets. One example is video content. 

An interesting angle would also involve looking at epic brand fails. Cite two or more cases, find a communication mishap common between them and provide what lessons can today’s brands learn from these epic fails. 

From interacting with loved ones and finding someone to date and love, social media has dramatically changed our ways of communication. It might be great to interview the elders who have experienced communicating through snail mail. Dive into their nostalgia and discover how they compare the experience of letter writing against instant chatting through mobile apps. 

Several apps today aim to transform workplaces to be more connected for interaction and communication. First, list down the top apps most used in the corporate world and discuss why these communication forms are preferred over email. Then, delve into the drawbacks and aspects of the apps that need improvements according to what business users say. 

Recent studies show that employees quit their jobs when they feel unable to talk about their needs in the workplace. Research the communication culture in the top companies in a specific field. How are they engaging with their employees? How are they driving conversations toward critical concerns?

TIP: You don’t have to write an extended essay. Here is a guide to writing a concise and organized five-paragraph essay.

For more help with writing, check out our best essay writing tips for a stress-free writing process. 

essay on poor communication

Yna Lim is a communications specialist currently focused on policy advocacy. In her eight years of writing, she has been exposed to a variety of topics, including cryptocurrency, web hosting, agriculture, marketing, intellectual property, data privacy and international trade. A former journalist in one of the top business papers in the Philippines, Yna is currently pursuing her master's degree in economics and business.

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Bumb M, Keefe J, Miller L, Overcash J. Breaking bad news: an evidence-based review of communication models for oncology nurses. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2017; 21:(5)573-580

Caldwell L, Grobbel CC. The importance of reflective practice in nursing. International Journal of Caring Sciences. 2013; 6:(3)319-326

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Evans N. Knowledge is power when it comes to coping with a devastating diagnosis. Cancer Nursing Practice. 2017; 16:(10)8-9

Gibbs G. Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods.Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic; 1988

Gillett A, Hammond A, Martala M. Successful academic writing.Harlow: Pearson Education Limited; 2009

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Hemming L. Breaking bad news: a case study on communication in health care. Gastrointestinal Nursing. 2017; 15:(1)43-50

Macmillan Cancer Support. Cancer clinical nurse specialists (Impact Briefs series). 2014. (accessed 27 June 2019)

Healthcare professionals: acknowledging emotional reactions in newly-diagnosed patients. 2012. (accessed 27 June 2019)

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Reflecting on the communication process in health care. Part 1: clinical practice—breaking bad news

Beverley Anderson

Macmillan Uro-oncology Clinical Nurse Specialist, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust

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This is the first of a two-part article on the communication process in health care. The interactive process of effective communication is crucial to enabling healthcare organisations to deliver compassionate, high-quality nursing care to patients, in facilitating interactions between the organisation and its employees and between team members. Poor communication can generate negativity; for instance, misperception and misinterpretation of the messages relayed can result in poor understanding, patient dissatisfaction and lead to complaints. Reflection is a highly beneficial tool. In nursing, it enables nurses to examine their practice, identify problems or concerns, and take appropriate action to initiate improvements. This two-part article examines the role of a uro-oncology clinical nurse specialist (UCNS). Ongoing observations and reflections on the UCNS's practice had identified some pertinent issues in the communication process, specifically those relating to clinical practice and the management of practice-related issues and complaints. Part 1 examines the inherent problems in the communication process, with explanation of their pertinence to delivering optimal health care to patients, as demonstrated in four case studies related to breaking bad news to patients and one scenario related to communicating in teams. Part 2 will focus on the management of complaints.

In health care, effective communication is crucial to enabling the delivery of compassionate, high-quality nursing care to patients ( Bramhall, 2014 ) and in facilitating effective interactions between an organisation and its employees ( Barber, 2016 ; Ali, 2017 ). Poor communication can have serious consequences for patients ( Pincock, 2004 ; Barber, 2016 ; Ali, 2017 ). Misperception or misinterpretation of the messages relayed can result in misunderstanding, increased anxiety, patient dissatisfaction and lead to complaints ( McClain, 2012 ; Ali, 2017 ; Bumb et al, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ), which, as evidence has shown, necessitates efficient management to ensure positive outcomes for all stakeholders—patients, health professionals and the healthcare organisation ( Barber, 2016 ; Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). Complaints and their management will be discussed in Part 2.

Reflection is a highly beneficial tool ( Oelofsen, 2012 ), one that has played a key role in the author's ongoing examination of her practice. In this context, reflection enables a personal insight into the communication process and highlights the inherent challenges of communication and their pertinence to patient care and clinical practice outcomes ( Bramhall, 2014 ). The author, a uro-oncology clinical nurse specialist (UCNS), is required to ensure that appropriate reassurance and support is given to patients following the receipt of a urological cancer diagnosis ( Macmillan Cancer Support, 2014 ; Hemming, 2017 ). Support consists of effective communication, which is vital to ensuring patients are fully informed and understand their condition, prognosis and treatment and, accordingly, can make the appropriate choices and decisions for their relevant needs ( McClain, 2012 ; Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ).

Reflection is a process of exploring and examining ourselves, our perspectives, attributes, experiences, and actions and interactions, which helps us gain insight and see how to move forward ( Gillett et al, 2009:164 ). Reflection is a cycle ( Figure 1 ; Gibbs, 1988 ), which, in nursing, enables the individual to consciously think about an activity or incident, and consider what was positive or challenging and, if appropriate, plan how a similar activity might be enhanced, improved or done differently in the future ( Royal College of Nursing (RCN), 2019 ).

essay on poor communication

Reflective practice

Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions and experiences so as to engage in a process of continuous learning ( Oelofsen, 2012 ), while enhancing clinical knowledge and expertise ( Caldwell and Grobbel, 2013 ). A key rationale for reflective practice is that experience alone does not necessarily lead to learning—as depicted by Gibbs' reflective cycle (1988) . Deliberate reflection on experience, emotions, actions and responses is essential to informing the individual's existing knowledge base and in ensuring a higher level of understanding ( Paterson and Chapman, 2013 ). Reflection on practice is a key skill for nurses—it enables them to identify problems and concerns in work situations and in so doing, to make sense of them and to make contextually appropriate changes if they are required ( Oelofsen, 2012 ).

Throughout her nursing career, reflection has been an integral part of the author's ongoing examinations of her practice. The process has enabled numerous opportunities to identify the positive and negative aspects of practice and, accordingly, devise strategies to improve both patient and practice outcomes. Reflection has also been a significant part author's professional development, increasing her nursing knowledge, insight and awareness and, as a result, the author is an intuitive practitioner, who is able to deliver optimal care to her patients.


Figure 2 provides a visual image of communication—it is both an expressive, message-sending, and a receptive, message-receiving, process ( Berlo, 1960 ; McClain, 2012 ; Evans, 2017 ). This model was originally designed to improve technical communication, but has been widely applied in different fields ( Berlo, 1960 ). Communication is the sharing of information, thoughts and feelings between people through speaking, writing or body language, via phone, email and social media ( Bramhall, 2014 ; Barber, 2016 ; Doyle, 2019 ). Effective communication extends the concept to require that transmitted content is received and understood by someone in the way it was intended.

essay on poor communication

The process is more than just exchanging information. It is about the components/elements of the communication process, ie understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information—the tone of voice, as well as the actual words spoken, hearing, listening, perception, honesty, and ensuring that the messages relayed are correctly interpreted and understood ( Bramhall, 2014 ; Barber, 2016 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). It is about considering emotions, such as shock, anger, fear, anxiety and distress ( Bumb et al, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ). Language and conceptual barriers may also negatively impact on the efficacy of the communication being relayed.

Challenges of effective communication

The following sections explain the challenges involved in communication—namely, conveying a cancer diagnosis or related bad news.

Tone of voice and words spoken

According to Barber (2016) , when interacting with patients, especially communicating ‘bad news’ to them, both the tone of voice and the actual words spoken are important. The evidence has shown that an empathetic and sensitive tone is conducive to providing appropriate reassurance and in aiding understanding ( McClain, 2012 ; Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ). However, an apathetic and insensitive tone will likely evoke fear, anxiety and distress ( Pincock, 2004 ; Ali, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). In terms of the words used, the use of jargon, or highly technical language and words that imply sarcasm and disrespect, can negatively impact on feelings and self-confidence ( Doyle, 2019 ).

Hearing what is being conveyed is an important aspect of effective communication. When interacting with patients it is vital to consider potential barriers such as language (ie, is the subject highly technical or is English not the patient's first language) and emotions (ie shock, anger, fear, anxiety, distress) ( Bumb et al, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ). A patient may fail to hear crucial information because he or she is distressed during an interaction, or may be unable to fully understand the information being relayed ( Bumb et al, 2017 ). Good communication involves ascertaining what has been heard and understood by the patient, allowing them to express their feelings and concerns, and ensuring these are validated ( Evans, 2017 ).

Listening to the patient

Listening is a deliberate act that requires a conscious commitment from the listener ( Shipley, 2010 ). The key attributes of listening include empathy, silence, attention to both verbal and non-verbal communication, and the ability to be non-judgemental and accepting ( Shipley, 2010 ). Listening is an essential component of effective communication and a crucial element of nursing care ( Shipley, 2010 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). In health care, an inability to fully listen to and appreciate what the patient is saying could result in them feeling that their concerns are not being taken seriously. As observed by the author in practice, effective listening is essential to understanding the patient's concerns.

Perception, interpretation, understanding

Relevant and well-prepared information is key to the patient's perception and interpretation of the messages relayed ( McClain, 2012 ). It is vital to aiding their understanding and to informing their personal choices and decisions. If a patient were to misinterpret the information received, this could likely result in a misunderstanding of the messages being relayed and, consequently, lead to an inability to make clear, informed decisions about their life choices ( McClain, 2012 ; Bramhall, 2014 ).

Fully informing the patient and treating them with honesty, respect and dignity

In making decisions about their life/care, a patient is entitled to all information relevant to their individual situation and needs (including those about the actual and potential risks of treatment and their likely disease trajectory) ( McClain, 2012 ). Information equals empowerment—making a decision based on full information about a prognosis, for example, gives people choices and enables them to put their affairs in order ( Evans, 2017 ). Being honest with a patient not only shows respect for them, their feelings and concerns, it also contributes to preserving the individual's dignity ( Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). However, as observed in practice, a reluctance on the health professional's part to be totally open and honest with a patient can result in confusion and unnecessary emotional distress.

When reflecting on the efficacy of the communication being relayed, it is important for health professionals to acknowledge the challenges and consider how they may actually or potentially impact on the messages being relayed ( McClain, 2012 ; Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ).

Communication and the uro-oncology clinical nurse specialist

It is devastating for a patient to receive the news that they have cancer ( Bumb et al, 2017 ). Providing a patient with a cancer diagnosis—the ‘breaking of bad news’, defined as any information that adversely and seriously affects an individual's view of his or her future ( Schildmann et al 2005 )—is equally devastating for the professional ( Bumb et al, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ). It is thus imperative to ensure the appropriate support is forthcoming following receipt of bad news ( Evans, 2017 ).

Integral to the delivery of bad news is the cancer CNS, in this context, the UCNS, who is acknowledged to be in the ideal position to observe the delivery of bad news (usually by a senior doctor in the urology clinic), and its receipt by patients ( Macmillan Cancer Support, 2014 ; Hemming, 2017 ), and to offer appropriate support afterwards ( Evans, 2017 ). Support includes allocating appropriate time with the patient, and their family, after the clinic appointment to ensure they have understood the discussion regarding the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options ( Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ). In this instance, effective communication, as well as the time required, is usually tailored to each individual patient, allowing trust to be built ( Bumb et al, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ).

In the performance of her role, the UCNS is fully aware of the importance placed on delivering bad news well. She has seen first hand how bad news given in a less than optimal manner can impact on the patient's emotions and their subsequent ability to deal with the results. Hence, her role in ensuring that the appropriate support is forthcoming following the delivery of bad news is imperative. It is important to understand that the delivery of bad news is a delicate task—one that necessitates sensitivity and an appreciation of the subsequent impact of the news on the individual concerned. It should also be acknowledged that while the receipt of bad news is, understandably, difficult for the patient, its delivery is also extremely challenging for the health professional ( Bumb et al, 2017 ).

Communicating bad news

The primary functions of effective communication in this instance are to enhance the patient's experience and to motivate them to take control of their situation ( McClain, 2012 ; Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ).

Telling a patient that they have a life-threatening illness such as cancer, or that their prognosis is poor and no further treatment is available to them, is a difficult and uncomfortable task for the health professional ( Bumb et al, 2017 ). It is a task that must be done well nonetheless ( Schildmann, 2005 ). Doing it well is reliant on a number of factors:

  • Ensuring communicated information is sensitively delivered ( Hanratty et al 2012 ) to counter the ensuing shock following the patient's receipt of the bad news ( McClain, 2012 )
  • Providing information that is clear, concise and tailored to meeting the individual's needs ( Hemming, 2017 )
  • Acknowledging and respecting the patient's feelings, concerns and wishes ( Evans 2017 ).

This approach to care is important to empower patients to make the right choices and decisions regarding their life/care, and gives them the chance to ‘put their affairs in order’ ( McClain, 2012 ; Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ).

Choices and decision-making

Case studies 1 and 2 show the importance of honesty, respect, listening and affording dignity to patients by health professionals, in this case senior doctors and the UCNS. The issue of choice and decision-making is highlighted. It is important to note that, while emphasis is placed on patients receiving all the pertinent information regarding their individual diagnosis and needs ( McClain 2012 ), despite receipt of this information, a patient may still be unable to make a definite decision regarding their care. A patient may even elect not to have any proposed treatment, a decision that some health professionals find difficult to accept, but one that must be respected nevertheless ( Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ).

Case study 1. Giving a poor prognosis and accepting the patient's decision

Jane Green, aged 48, received a devastating cancer diagnosis, with an extremely poor prognosis. It was evident that the news was not what she expected. She had been convinced that she had irritable bowel syndrome and, hence, a cancer diagnosis was quite a shock. Nevertheless, she had, surprisingly, raised a smile with the witty retort: ‘Cancer, you bastard—how dare you get me.’ Mrs Green had been married to her second husband for 3 years. Sadly, her first husband, with whom she had two daughters, aged 17 and 21, had died from a heart attack at the age of 52. His sudden death was hugely upsetting for his daughters; consequently, Mrs Green's relationship with her girls (as she lovingly referred to them) was extremely close. The legacy of having two parents who had died young was not one Mrs Green wished to pass on to her daughters. Her main concern, therefore, was to minimise the inevitable distress that would ensue, following her own imminent death.

In the relatively short time that Mrs Green had to digest the enormity and implications of her diagnosis, she had been adamant that she did not wish to have any life-prolonging interventions, particularly if they could not guarantee a reasonable extension of her life, and whose effects would impact on the time she had left. This decision was driven by previously having observed her mother-in-law's experience of cancer: its management with chemotherapy and the resultant effect on her body and her eventual, painful demise. Mrs Green's memory of this experience was still vivid, and had heightened her fears and anxieties, and reinforced her wish not to undergo similar treatment.

Mrs Green requested a full and honest discussion and explanation from the consultant urologist and the UCNS regarding the diagnosis and its implications. This included the estimated prognosis, treatment interventions and the relevant risks and benefits—specifically, their likely impact on her quality of life. In providing Mrs Green with this information, the consultant and the UCNS had ensured information was clear and concise, empathetic and sensitive to her needs ( Shipley, 2010 ; Hanratty, et al, 2012 ; Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ) and, importantly, that her request for honesty was respected. Not disclosing the entire truth can ‘inadvertently create a false sense of hope for a cure and perceptions of a longer life expectancy’ ( Bumb et al, 2017:574 ). Being honest had empowered Mrs Green to come to terms with both the diagnosis and prognosis, to consider the options as well as the risks and benefits. She had a choice between quantity of life and quality of life. Mrs Green elected for quality of life and, accordingly, made decisions that she felt were in her own, and her family's, best interests.

Despite receiving pertinent information and sound advice on why a patient should agree to treatment intervention, they may still elect not to have any treatment ( Ali, 2017 ; Evans, 2017 ; Hemming, 2017 ). This decision, as observed by the UCNS in practice, is difficult for some health professionals to accept. In Mrs Green's case, accepting her decision not to have any treatment was extremely difficult for both the consultant and the UCNS. In an attempt to try to change Mrs Green's mind, the consultant asked the UCNS to speak to her. The UCNS was aware that the consultant's difficulty to accept the decision was compounded by Mrs Green's age (48) and a desire to give her more time. However, the UCNS had listened closely to Mrs Green's wishes and, in view of her disclosure regarding the experience of her mother-in-law's death, her first husband's untimely death, her fear of upsetting her daughters and her evident determination to keep control of her situation, the UCNS felt compelled to respect her decision.

Following the consultant's request, the UCNS spoke to Mrs Green but, on hearing what she had to say regarding her decision not to have more treatment, concluded that she had to respect Mrs Green's decision. She also clarified whether Mrs Green were willing to continue communication with her GP and ensured that the GP was fully updated regarding current events. Mrs Green had thanked the staff for all their support, but did not wish to continue follow-up with the service. The GP assured the UCNS that she would keep a close eye on Mrs Green and her family.

Case study 2. Giving an honest account of disease progression

The following case study explains how a reluctance by health professionals to be totally honest with a patient had inadvertently hampered the individual's ability to make informed decisions regarding his life choices.

Mr Brown, aged 87, had been previously diagnosed and treated for cancer. On his referral to the urology clinic, his disease had progressed to the metastatic stage, which had limited his management options to palliative care.

Since we have established that delivering bad news to a patient is a difficult task ( Bumb et al, 2017 ), it is not surprising that some health professionals fail to be totally honest with the patient for fear of upsetting them. During the consultation, it transpired that Mr Brown had other serious illnesses and was being managed by other clinicians. Seemingly, previous communications with these clinicians had left Mr Brown and his family unenlightened about his prognosis and his future prospects. In hindsight, the family would have appreciated total honesty sooner, since this would have allowed them to make realistic decisions.

After fully assessing Mr Brown's case (and in light of this disclosure) the doctor decided to be totally honest with Mr Brown and his family regarding his current situation and the choices available to him. Explanations were empathetic and sensitive to Mr Brown's and his family's feelings ( Hanratty et al, 2012 ; Evans, 2017 ). While the news was not entirely unexpected, Mr Brown and his family appreciated the consultant's candour. In this instance, the consultant had respected Mr Brown's entitlement to total honesty. By receiving all the facts, and the appropriate reassurance and support from the UCNS, Mr Brown could now consider his options and, with his family's support, proceed to put his affairs in order.

Management and treatment of cancer

The management and treatment of cancer is determined by several factors. These include: the grade and stage of the individual's disease—whether the disease is low-grade/low-risk, intermediate-grade/intermediate-risk, or high-grade/high-risk. For some low-grade/low-risk disease, the recommended treatment of choice is surgery alone. However, in certain cases, further review of the staging and histology might reveal features of cancer within the sample that are at a high-risk of local recurrence, necessitating additional treatment intervention, ie chemotherapy or radiotherapy, to minimise this threat.

Following the primary treatment intervention (ie surgery), for low-risk/low-grade disease, the risk of local recurrence is usually low, as is the need for additional treatment intervention (chemotherapy or radiotherapy). Nonetheless, local recurrence is still a possibility. A failure to make the patient aware of this possibility creates a lack of trust and a false sense of hope ( Bumb et al, 2017 ), and evokes unnecessary emotional distress for the patient, their families and carers ( McClain, 2012 ).

As previously explained, the term ‘fully informed’ relates to a patient's entitlement to all information relevant to their situation and needs (including those about the actual and potential risks) ( McClain 2012 ). Informed knowledge is power, thus honesty is imperative ( Evans, 2017 ). The following case studies highlight the consequence of failing to fully inform patients about risks and diagnosis.

Case study 3. Consequences of not being fully informed

Mr White, aged 36, had been diagnosed with a low-grade/low-risk cancer. After the initial diagnosis was explained, Mr White was explicitly told by the doctor that after surgery he would not require any additional treatment. However, a subsequent review of his staging and histology revealed features of cancer within the sample that were at a high risk of local recurrence. Therefore the decision was made to offer Mr White additional treatment with radiotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence down the line. Understandably, this news and the ensuing emotional impact—fear, anxiety and distress—was significant for Mr White. The author contends that, to avoid inciting these emotions, Mr White should have been fully informed, at the initial diagnosis, of the potential risks that further treatment might be necessary, no matter how unlikely these risks were perceived to be. Having observed the emotional impact on Mr White, and other similar cases in local practice, the author proposed that, when delivering a cancer diagnosis, consideration must be given not only to the physical, but also the emotional/psychological impact of the diagnosis on the individuals concerned and all risks, even those deemed small, discussed.

The following case study illustrates how a lack of honesty can lead to misinterpretation and misunderstanding of the messages relayed ( McClain, 2012 ; Bramhall, 2014 ) and, accordingly, raises questions regarding the patient's care.

Case study 4. Consequences of ‘sugar-coating’ a diagnosis

Mrs Black, aged 78, had been diagnosed with a low-grade/low-risk bladder cancer, for which the recommended treatment is a course of six doses of intravesical chemotherapy (mitomycin). In providing Mrs Black with the diagnosis, the doctor had failed to clarify that the term ‘bladder polyp/wort’ in fact meant cancer. It is evident to the UCNS that the doctor's intention was to reduce the impact of the news for Mrs Black. However, if a cancer diagnosis is not clearly explained at the outset ( Evans, 2017 ), then, as the UCNS's personal observations in practice have shown, the offer of subsequent cancer treatments will raise questions. In a follow-up meeting with the UCNS, Mrs Black queried why she was having a cancer treatment, when a cancer diagnosis had not been clearly given ( Bumb et al, 2017 ). In this instance, Mrs Black's query placed the UCNS in an uncomfortable position, but one in which she ultimately had to be honest in her response.

Despite the physician's good intentions, a lack of honesty or in this case ‘sugar-coating’ the truth was an infringement of Mrs Black's right to receive full and honest information regarding her diagnosis and treatments and impacted her ability to make clear decisions regarding her care ( McClain, 2012 ; Ali, 2017 ; Bumb et al, 2017 ).

Scenario: communicating in teams

In the UCNS's experience, effective communication is crucial when communicating in teams. The UCNS's observations in practice evoked reflection on past experiences of poor communication and its ensuing impact on her feelings, including hurt and, to some extent, a degree of anger.

Seemingly, poor communication is ingrained in all areas of practice and is highly evident in teams ( Doyle, 2019 ). The ability to communicate effectively is essential to team cohesiveness. One of the chief requirement is to facilitate an environment in which individuals can grow and excel, thus good/effective communication is vital. As previously stated, the tone of voice and actual words spoken are important ( Bramhall, 2014 ; Evans, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). A tone that is respectful and conducive to elevating the individual's self-esteem and morale, ultimately increases self-worth and confidence. Conversely, a patronising attitude—a tone of voice and words spoken that imply sarcasm and disrespect—can, and often does, result in hurt feelings and a significant loss of confidence ( Doyle, 2019 ). Some senior professionals clearly believe in a hierarchy of entitlement to respect in the way that individuals communicate with other team members. A patronising tone of voice and words that imply sarcasm and disrespect impact significantly on individual team members' morale, self-esteem, self-worth, confidence and professional standing. This can lead to disharmony within the clinical environment. This could be communication between a consultant and a junior doctor, or a junior doctor and senior nurse, for example.

As health professionals, admittedly, we could all attest to poor communication at some point in our careers. Nevertheless, we have a responsibility to work and communicate effectively with other team members ( Ali, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). The objective here is in facilitating a happy and functional team, one that demonstrates professionalism and competency in providing the care necessary to improving patients' experiences and outcomes ( Ali, 2017 ; Doyle, 2019 ). Securing improvements necessitates the health professional reflecting on their communication skills, acknowledging their limitations and initiating steps to address these ( Barber, 2016 ).

These case studies and scenario provide an insight into the UCNS's observations and reflections on her area of clinical practice and highlight the importance of effective communication. Acknowledgement of the inherent challenges within the communication process are clearly explained, with consideration given to the actual and potential impact in terms of patient, health professionals and clinical practice outcomes ( Oelofsen, 2012 ; RCN, 2019 ).

Communicating effectively is a key interpersonal skill that is fundamental to success in many aspects of life, but seemingly few people, including health professionals, have mastered the skill of truly effective communication. There are evident pitfalls that could lead to patient care being compromised as a result of poor communication between health professionals. The UCNS's role in delivering bad news and supporting patients involves ensuring that patients are adequately informed to enable them to take control of their individual situation and, accordingly, that they are able to make the appropriate choices and decisions for their respective needs. Poor communication within teams can affect patient care and staff morale, and learning how to communicate more effectively is beneficial in terms of improving staff interactions with each other. Essentially, communicating effectively is everyone's responsibility; hence, all health professionals should look at the way they interact and communicate with each other and take the necessary steps to improve this extremely important activity.

  • The cancer clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role is pivotal when patients receive bad news. It is crucial not only to the individual's understanding of the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options, but also to the provision of appropriate support following the bad news and countering the ensuing impact of the news on the patient
  • Reflection is a powerful tool, one that enables nurses to examine their practice, identifying salient issues and initiate change/improvements
  • Communicating effectively is a key interpersonal skill that is fundamental to success in many aspects of life—few people (in this context health professionals) have mastered the skill of truly effective communication
  • Poor communication has implications for the patient, health professional and the health organisation

CPD reflective questions

  • Reflection on practice is a key skill for nurses that enables them to identify salient issues and initiate actions to address these. How well do you think you reflect in practice, and does this provide the insight you seek?
  • Effective communication is an important interpersonal skill. How well do you communicate with patients and colleagues in your area of practice? Reflect on any situations that you find difficult
  • The issue of poor communication within teams and its impact on team members has been highlighted in this article. Have you observed poor communication within your team or within your area of practice? If so, how could this be improved?

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Poor communication by health care professionals may lead to life-threatening complications: examples from two case reports

Abhishek tiwary.

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal

Ajwani Rimal

Buddhi paudyal, keshav raj sigdel, buddha basnyat.

2 Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal

Associated Data

All data underlying the results are available as part of the article and no additional source data are required.

Peer Review Summary

We report two cases which highlight the fact how poor communication leads to dangerously poor health outcome. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis from Southern Nepal presented to Patan hospital with multiple episodes of vomiting and oral ulcers following the intake of methotrexate every day for 11 days, who was managed in the intensive care unit. Similarly, we present a 40-year-old man with ileo-caecal tuberculosis who was prescribed with anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) and prednisolone, who failed to take ATT due to poor communication and presented to Patan Hospital with features of disseminated tuberculosis following intake of 2 weeks of prednisolone alone. These were events that could have been easily prevented with proper communication skills. Improvement of communication between doctors and patients is paramount so that life-threatening events like these could be avoided.


Communication refers to exchanging information with the help of different mediums, such as speaking, writing or body language 1 . It is of great importance in the field of medicine. Effective physician-patient communication is vital as it is related with favourable health outcomes such as increased patients satisfaction, compliance and overall health status 2 . A study in 2008 by Bartlett G et al. concluded that communication problems with patients lead to increased preventable adverse effects which were mostly drug-related 3 . It has been estimated that 27% of medical malpractice is the result of the communication failures. Better communication can reduce medical errors and patient injury 4 . Poor communication can result in various negative outcomes, such as decreased adherence to treatment, patients dissatisfaction and inefficient use of resources 5 . The cases discussed here highlight the importance of proper communication, how such unfortunate events could have been prevented with good communication skills. The traditional medical education curriculum in South Asia usually focuses more on technical expertise than teaching communication skills. This fact has hindered the capacity of technically expert health professionals to effectively communicate with their patients regarding the disease and treatment approach 6 , 7 . Thus, a concerted effort needs to be made to improve the communication skills of health professionals in South Asia.

Case reports

A 50-year-old woman diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 3 weeks previously presented to Emergency Department of Patan Hospital in June of 2018 with complaints of multiple episodes of vomiting and oral ulcers for 5 days. She had a history of multiple joint pain for a year, for which she sought medical attention in New Delhi, India as her son used to work there. She visited New Delhi with her neighbour, and there was diagnosed with RA. As per the standard treatment of RA, her treating rheumatologist prescribed her 15 mg methotrexate once weekly and 5 mg folic acid twice weekly without emphasizing that methotrexate is to be taken weekly and not daily. The pharmacist also failed to stress the weekly dose schedule. Unfortunately, she consumed methotrexate 15 mg daily for 11 days. At 11th day, she presented with those above complaints to the National Medical College and Teaching Hospital near her home in Birgunj, in the southern plains of Nepal. There she was managed conservatively with folic acid and fluids for 2 days, then referred to our centre for further management. She had ongoing vomiting and her examination of the oral cavity revealed multiple erythematous and ulcerative lesions. Her total white blood cell count (WBC) was 2400/µl (normal range, 4000–11000/µl), with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 1200/µl (normal range, 1500–8000/µl), haemoglobin of 9 g/dl (12–15 g/dl) and platelets of 84000/µl (150,000–450,000/µl). She was immediately admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for methotrexate toxicity (myelosuppression and mucositis). Her methotrexate was stopped and she was managed with leucovorin (15 mg once daily), GM-CSF (300 µg once daily) and nasogastric feeding as she was unable to eat anything because of the oral ulcers.

After 3 days in the ICU, she was transferred to the ward, where treatment with leucovorin and GM-CSF was continued at the same dose. She was discharged after a total of 11 days of hospital stay when her blood counts came back to within the normal range (WBC, 12300/µl; ANC, 6888/µl). Her haemoglobin increased to 13 g/dl and her platelet reached 340,000/µl. Her oral lesions subsided, and she was able to feed orally. She was started back on the correct dosage of methotrexate (15 mg once weekly) and counselled about the disease, medications (dosage and adverse effects) and was advised to follow up in rheumatology clinic. She has been followed-up every 3 months since then, is in remission and is taking medications properly.

A 40-year-old man from hills of Nepal presented to the emergency department of Patan Hospital in August 2018 with complaints of weakness in the right half of the body, deviation of the left side of the face and slurring of speech for 4 days. At 3 weeks prior to this, he had visited another tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu for pain in the lower abdomen and fever, where he was diagnosed as having ileo-cecal tuberculosis based on colonoscopy and biopsy with positive Ziehl-Neelson staining. He was then prescribed with antitubercular therapy (ATT) that included 3 tablets of Fixed dose combination consisting of isoniazid 75 mg, rifampicin 150 mg, pyrazinamide 400 mg and ethambutol 275 mg once daily and prednisolone 40 mg once daily. He was advised to take ATT from a health centre near his residence, whereas prednisolone was dispensed from the hospital pharmacy. Unfortunately, he just took prednisolone, but no ATT. As a result, he ended up in emergency with the aforementioned complaints. On evaluation, his chest x-ray showed features of pulmonary tuberculosis. Cerebral spinal Fluid (CSF) analysis was done which showed red blood cells (RBC) 200/µl (normal value, 0/µl), WBC 64/µl (normal range, 0–5/ µl), neutrophil 24%, lymphocytes 64%, protein 294 mg/dl (normal range, 15–45 mg/dl) and sugar 49 mg/dl (normal range, 50–80 mg/dl). Cerebrospinal fluid GeneXpert testing was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis . He was then diagnosed as disseminated tuberculosis with meningeal involvement and was admitted to Patan Hospital with ATT (3 tablets of fixed-dose combination consisting of Isoniazid 75mg, Rifampicin 150 mg, Pyrazinamide 400 mg and Ethambutol 275mg once daily) and dexamethasone (6 mg three times a day) for 3 days. He was then discharged with ATT (same dose as above) and prednisolone (40 mg once daily) after proper counselling about the nature of the disease and site of availability of anti-tubercular drugs. He came in for follow-up after 2 weeks with improvement in the symptoms and has been taking all medications properly.

In the discussed cases, the treating physicians had used the standard treatment protocol to best serve their patients. They used their medical knowledge in an appropriate manner to treat the disease condition, but proper communication with clear-cut emphasis on how and when to take the therapy, which is of utmost importance in achieving an overall positive health impact, was lacking. Had the doctors properly counselled and educated the patients regarding the disease, treatment options and the correct way of taking medications, these mishaps could have been prevented. Another major part of the communication involves the judgment of the doctor in figuring out how much the patient understood. As our patients were not literate, they could have explained about the disease and especially the weekly dosing of methotrexate and the availability and importance of ATT very clearly to the patient family. In South Asian countries like Nepal, the patient seldom is alone and therefore making things clear to the patient’s family is obviously a very important option that needs to be utilized to improve communication against the background of rampant illiteracy. In Nepal, only 48.6% of the population is literate; hence this fact needs to be kept in mind when explaining about diseases and prescribing drugs, especially regarding medicines that have dangerous side-effects 8 .

In Nepal, 25.2% population fall below the poverty line and 3.2% population are unemployed 9 . The young working generation have to leave their house for better employment opportunities, meaning they aren’t able to take care of their parents. In one of our cases, the son had to work in India for better employment opportunities and the patient came with her neighbour with whom the treating physician did not spend any time. It is possible that if the son had been there, he may well have been more concerned and asked more questions to the doctor. However, it is the responsibility of the health care professional to try to make sure the patient and their family have understood the matter clearly. There was also no caution mentioned by the pharmacy where the patient bought the medicine explaining the weekly (and not daily) dosing schedule of methotrexate. Hence there was failure of clear communication at various levels that led to this mishap.

Problems in doctor‐patient communication have received little attention as a potential but a remediable cause of health hazards, especially in a setting like this one in South Asia. Communication during the medical interaction among the health practitioner and the patient has a pivotal role in creating a positive health impact that includes drug adherence, future decision making on the interventions and modifying the health behaviours of the patient. We consider the cost and the negative impact on the outcome of the health from poor communication, which includes non-adherence to drugs regimens that will increase the burden of the cost of the total drug therapy, poor health outcomes, and unnecessary treatment and investigations. Different measures need to be considered to improve the communication between doctors and patients which would improve the overall health outcome. The measures include providing communication skills training to health care professionals and regular evaluation of communication skills of these professionals by interviewing the patients after a consultation.

Clear communication is vital in the proper treatment of the patient especially against the background of rampant illiteracy in countries such as Nepal in South Asia. Poor Communication may lead to life-threatening complications, as in our patients. For better communication practice, proper communication training to health care professionals including pharmacists is paramount.

Informed consent for publication of their clinical details, in the form of a fingerprint, was obtained from the patients.

Data availability

[version 1; peer review: 2 approved]

Funding Statement

This study was supported by the Wellcome Trust (106680).

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Reviewer response for version 1

Jill allison.

1 Division of Community Health and Humanities, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada

  • This article provides two cases where a lack of information and clear understanding of prescription medication contributed to morbidity and unnecessary suffering for the patients. The cases are linked to a lack of health professional engagement with the patient and failure to ensure full understanding of medication instructions. The cases and events surrounding are clearly described. The outcomes are also clearly described.
  • The clinical scenario is well described but it would be helpful to know what steps were taken with these two patients to prevent similar circumstances. There is no mention of what was done to educate and inform the patient or their families on discharge. Was there an interdisciplinary team involved to try to ensure the patient got sufficient information and how was their level of comprehension assessed?
  • There is a bit of repetition in the discussion and not many concrete suggestions for improving the skills of physicians in this area. Continuing medical education? Cultural competency teaching?
  • There are a few grammatical errors that could be corrected to improve the paper. 
  • Overall, an important concept for discussion and excellent examples of why the discussion must happen. 

I confirm that I have read this submission and believe that I have an appropriate level of expertise to confirm that it is of an acceptable scientific standard.

Sharad Onta

1 Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal

2 Nepal Public Health Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal


  • This section should focus on contextual facts about the central issue of the manuscript, communication in clinical practice in the present context. It is better to avoid assessment of the contents of the cases and conclusion with recommendation. 
  • The statement “ The cases discussed here highlight the importance of proper communication, how such unfortunate events could have been prevented with good communication skills” indicates to the assessment of upcoming contents of the manuscript. It seems inappropriate in the introduction. (It better fits in the discussion).
  • The last phrase of this section “ Thus, a concerted effort needs to be made to improve the communication skills of health professionals in South Asia” carries a notion of recommendation, which seems premature for this section of the manuscript. (It can be moved to the conclusion).
  • It will be better to highlight the objective and rationale of presenting cases in this section. It provides the space for the authors to justify importance of communication in clinical practice.
  • Adequate exploration of the facts as the evidence of poor communication in health service/clinical practices and highlights of these facts (findings) are necessary in presentation of the cases for justification of explanations narrated in the section of discussion. The cases in the manuscript look weak, as the communication aspects are not adequately elaborated on. Elaboration of communication dimension in the case presentation is desirable and, hence, suggested.
  • As emphasized in the discussion section, and in the conclusion, of the manuscript, socio-economic characteristics of the service seekers are not clearly mentioned in the cases. Therefore, rationalization of importance of communication in the basis of these attributes is not well justifiable.  


Few examples:

  • In case 1 – it should be explored in depth whether the attitude and faith of patients to recover earlier by getting medicine in more (frequently) quantity than prescribed dose could be the reason for this situation.
  • In case 2 – role of poor communication is not established clearly. Other possible reasons for not taking ATT like unavailability of medicines, distance to the health centres, and so on should be excluded to establish the role of communication. If prednisolone was the underlying cause of complication of the case, it should be analyzed, whether dispensing prednisolone alone without AT medicines to the patient was a right practice/protocol and correlate with the communication.


  • In case 1 – name of the referring hospital as National Medical College and Teaching Hospital is mentioned whereas in the case 2 – it is mentioned as another tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu . It is better to maintain the consistency.



  • The conclusion is not well based in facts of cases. The manuscript has justified the importance of communication (in Nepal) in the background of rampant illiteracy . However, literacy and other socio-economic status of the patients in both cases are not known.
  • Language could be improved.
  • Manuscript has addressed very relevant and useful issues. It should be considered for indexing after improvement incorporating all comments. 


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Poor Communication Skills Can Lead to *So* Much Extra Stress—Here's What to Do

A lot of us have pretty sucky communication skills, but that can be fixed!

Elizabeth Scott, PhD is an author, workshop leader, educator, and award-winning blogger on stress management, positive psychology, relationships, and emotional wellbeing.

essay on poor communication

Nuttawan Jayawan / Getty Images

Half Listening, Listening to Respond, Or Not Listening At All

Passive-aggressive communication (ugh, the worst).

  • Aggressive Communication Is Definitely Stress-Inducing"

Healthy relationships can feel so good and even bring us some much-needed stress relief. When communication is open and clear, small problems are dealt with quickly and easily, and the relationship moves on.

Sadly, toxic relationships are totally different. In fact, these relationships can be the biggest creators of stress. Often, toxic relationships (toxic friendships exist too), involve lots of poor communication. When communication is less healthy, stress ensues, small problems can become larger problems and resentment can grow.

At a Glance

Bettering our relationships often starts with working on our communication skills. There are some communication strategies (like tuning each other out) that should be avoided completely and others can make us feel more validated and heard. Implementing healthier communication strategies can improve our relationships and relieve stress.

There are several forms of poor listening, and they all wear away at relationships in one way or another.

A few types of poor listening include:

  • Half listening (aka lazy listening) : This is the listening-but-not-really-listening style of someone who isn’t really paying attention but is politely saying, “Uh-huh…uh-huh.” This is only mildly detrimental, but it can damage a relationship when it's one-sided or chronic, and when one partner realizes that much of what they say isn’t really being heard or remembered. This can make a person feel less valued than they should feel.
  • Listening to respond : More damaging than lazy listening is the type of listening where an important discussion is taking place and one person is merely waiting for their turn to talk rather than really hearing what their partner is saying. This creates a situation where listening isn’t really happening, therefore, understanding cannot take place. This wastes both people’s time and brings them no closer to one another when personal details are being shared, and no closer to a resolution when done in an important discussion.
  • Not listening at all : Perhaps the most damaging form of poor listening is when one person simply refuses to listen or even tries to understand the other side. This happens all too often and creates a standoff situation more often than not.

Why These Types of Poor Listening Styles Stress Us Out

When we aren't listening well (or at all), one partner can easily feel that their time is wasted. Think of how stressful it is when you're venting to your friend but all they can do is keep looking at their phone while you're speaking. That feeling not only sucks, but it's also stressful. Instead of venting, you'll have to spend time asking your friend to put their phone away and listen. Or, you may just give up and not speak about your stress at all. Because what's the use right?

What to Try Instead

We've all been bad listeners at one point or another. But since you're here reading this article, it's clear you're looking to improve—kudos to you!

If you've been called out for half listening or not listening, try to be present, first and foremost, when you communicate.

Use active listening strategies like repeating back what you understand of what the other person has said. Try to validate feelings, and try to be sure you’re truly listening as much as you’d like to be heard. It’s more than worth the effort.

Sometimes, you'll even be stressed and won't have the bandwidth or patience to really listen to someone else. When this happens, it's better if we let the person know of another time we'll be able to chat.

This form of communication can show itself in many ways. One partner can undermine the other by agreeing to do something and then “forgetting,” or seeming to agree, but saying the opposite the next time the subject comes up.

Passive aggressiveness can also show itself through constant disagreement over small issues, particularly in front of others.

This Is Why Passive-Aggressiveness Makes Us So Mad and Stressed

It's been shown that passive-aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) leads to interpersonal stress and dysfunction.

Also, passive-aggressiveness can make us upset because it is hard to address. For instance, it can be easily denied, creating a “gaslighting” situation.

Moreover, when someone is being passive-aggressive with us, it feels as if we're communicating with someone who wants to make us feel bad or doesn't really care about us. Being on the receiving end of this kind of pettiness never ever feels good.

Again, active listening can help here. Assertive communication, where you directly discuss if you have a disagreement or an issue with someone, is also helpful. Using "I statements" (e.g., "I feel frustrated when...") can help others understand how you feel as well.

While this may seem like a conflict at the moment, it actually circumvents long-term conflict by resolving issues as they arise.

If you start to feel like someone is gaslighting you, it may be time to re-evaluate the relationship you have with them.

Hostile and Aggressive Communication Is Definitely Stress-Inducing

Aggressive communication involves overtly hostile communication, including criticism or even name-calling. It devalues the other person overtly, leaving people feeling defensive and leaving no veil over the overt conflict.

This is a form of verbal abuse and is something that no one should ever tolerate in a relationship.

If you or a loved one are a victim of domestic violence, contact the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-7233 for confidential assistance from trained advocates.

For more mental health resources, see our National Helpline Database .

Why Aggressive Communication Can Be So Hurtful and Stressful

 It never feels good to be attacked. Those using aggressive communication tactics are more interested in power and “winning” rather than coming to an understanding. This brings the conflict to a new level and makes mutual understanding elusive. 

If you find yourself on the receiving end of aggressiveness  and can’t get the person to understand your perspective, it may be time to distance yourself and use assertive communication techniques when necessary. Setting boundaries is a must.

If you're communicating with someone and feel as if you're about to say something mean, it's best to walk away and return to the conversation later.

What This Means For You

All of us can benefit from better communication skills and doing so will reduce so much unnecessary stress in our lives.

If you're struggling to communicate in a healthy way, reach out to a mental health professional.

Cohen D, Rollnick S, Smail S, Kinnersley P, Houston H, Edwards K. Communication, stress and distress: evolution of an individual support programme for medical students and doctors .  Med Educ . 2005;39(5):476-481. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02122.x

Laverdière O, Ogrodniczuk JS, Kealy D. Interpersonal Problems Associated With Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder .  J Nerv Ment Dis . 2019;207(10):820-825. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000001044

By Elizabeth Scott, PhD Elizabeth Scott, PhD is an author, workshop leader, educator, and award-winning blogger on stress management, positive psychology, relationships, and emotional wellbeing.

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essay on poor communication

Essay on Masking Poor Communication

The main aims of the assignment are to demonstrate my thoughts on the article “Masking Poor Communication”, and to use real life example to illustrate them better.

The article “Masking Poor Communication” gave me a new understanding of the issue that miscommunication is a part of human life and that the same words and actions can be understood in different ways by two persons. The article proved that each person has the own way to react and understand the world around; so, miscommunication can negatively impact on relationships between people who are close to each other. According to Dotinga (2011), there exists an opinion that people commonly are sure that it is much easier to communicate with close people that with strangers, but this confidence in the same reactions may lead to the fact that people “overestimate how well they communicate, a phenomenon we term the closeness- communication bias.”

In my own life, there was a case of miscommunication with my father. It was several years ago, and it was connected with the fact that we had different views on the same thing. I always considered that the present for birthday should be a surprise; moreover, I was so sure that all people think at the same way that I didn’t ask my father about the present. But, the situation had a bad consequences because my father wanted to receive the one thing and I presented him something quite another, so, he was disappointed by the present. I realized that it is impossible to avoid miscommunication in the future because everything can happen, but I also understood that it is better to ask additional questions and to make the subject of communication more clear than to think that the other person is same to you. Mortensen & Ayres (1997) mentioned that all people have their own life experience and were educated in different conditions, so, different points of views are a part of normal communication, and it is always necessary to remember this fact for the purpose to avoid miscommunication with close people.

Thus, the moral of the article is to show that nobody can read the thoughts of other person, and taking into account the fact that people can change everyday, we should be ready for these changes and to react on them in fast and adequate way.

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The Impact of Poor Communication on Medical Errors Essay

Introduction, in-team communication, patient communication.

Effective communication is an essential part of any job that deals with people; it is vital in healthcare. Although it is a simple act of exchanging information, its poor execution or lack thereof can disrupt the whole work process. Whereas mistakes in other industries typically lead to profit losses, in hospitals, errors may be fatal. Whether written or verbal, in-team or doctor-patient, miscommunication can result in serious medical errors, patient harm, and hospital lawsuits.

In order to effectively provide care, most medical professionals have to participate in tasks executed by more than one staff member. During this process, communication is a key component of completing the job successfully. Despite that, there are many factors that can obstruct functional communication and result in medical errors. For example, physical settings, which as background noise, environment, other staff members, or patients, can accidentally serve as a barrier, blocking the transfer of verbal information (Shitu et al., 2018). The social setting is also important since all parties participating in the exchange must feel comfortable and respected (Shitu et al., 2018). Moreover, work-related stress and relationships also affect teamwork efficiency and communication levels (Branch et al., 2021). In such cases, the role of leadership and well-regulated work-life balance is essential in ensuring the best possible outcomes in medical error prevention and communication.

Apart from day-to-day exchanges between medical workers, many patients also experience a transition of care. Switching or being transferred between healthcare settings may result in other errors and health risks (Branch et al., 2021). According to Branch et al. (2021), half of the discharged patients deal with medication errors related to miscommunication, whether written or verbal. Usually, they suffer from unclear instructions or lack thereof, inadequate timing, conflicting expectations between the care providers, and a lack of standardized procedures (Branch et al., 2021). For example, Branch et al. (2021) discuss a case of a medication overdose, amounting to five times the daily norm, which was the result of miscommunication during the transfer of care. Having more than one specialist on a case increases care complexities, but it is easily avoidable with the improvement of communication and effective engagement of the patient during the transition.

Since the work of a medical professional involves not only teamwork but also direct interaction with a patient, there are also many issues that can result from miscommunication between the two. Apart from physical and social settings that also affect doctor-patient dialogue, there may be a language barrier (Shitu et al., 2018). Working with a diverse population or failing to deliver medical terms and conditions to an inexpert listener may result in such issues as wrong-site surgery and medication errors (Shitu et al., 2018). In written communication, handwriting can also confuse a patient and lead to repeated hospital visits and failure to follow instructions (Shitu et al., 2018). Lastly, some medical workers are distrustful or inattentive to patients’ complaints based on personal prejudices and misconceptions, causing delays in treatment and critical health implications.

Lack of communication or its poor execution can lead to deadly consequences in a medical setting. Verbal and written, in-team and doctor-patient communication can be easily obstructed and result in major medical errors. Work relationships and work-life balance have a significant impact on teamwork, which further influences the effectiveness of inter-staff communication and care provision. Inadequate patient transfer with miscommunication between medical facilities can cause medication errors and patient harm. Physical and social settings, language barriers, and confusing written instructions can end with a patient returning with the issue, medication error, and wrong-site surgery.

Branch, J., Hiner, D., & Jackson., V. (2021). The impact of communication on medication errors . Web.

Shitu, Z., Hassan, I., Aung, M. M. T., Tuan Kamaruzaman, T. H., & Musa, R.M. (2018). Avoiding medication errors through effective communication in healthcare environment. Movement, Health & Exercise, 7 (1), 113-126.

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Free Essay About Masking Poor Communication

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Communication , Understanding , Thinking , Training , Exercise , Audience , Information , Time

Published: 08/09/2021


Communication can be described in so many ways according to different people. However, all these definitions and description can be gathered and combined to give an account on what is communication. Communication is a process of encoding and decoding information. The message sent is the content information and must have a meaning. According to Sole (2011), communication is the process of transforming information, ideas, emotions and skills by use of symbols, words, figures, pictures and graphs with a specific meaning. Communication is an activity that all people should participate.

However, communication is often challenged by obstacles and barring. Barriers to effective communication can be physical, semantic or psychological. Semantic barriers are those that relate to meaning of words or the scientific meaning of words. Different people interpret words differently. Physical barriers include geographical gaps between the communicating parties, network failure, inadequate stress, noise and communication overlook (Sole, 2011). The psychological barriers include ones opinions and emotions during communication. All these factors can either allow effective communication or bar communication. There are many types of communication. They include verbal, non-verbal and written. The choice of communication depends on its effectiveness at that particular time.

During human interaction and day-to-day activities, communication is a vital as it brings about understanding. However, in most cases misunderstanding occurs when some instructions are by-passed. Many people overlook some important information that the sender of information wants them to grab but to the receiver they are not important, therefore, a misunderstanding arises. For effective communication, people must learn to be good listeners. Good listeners will pay attention to all words and ask for clarity in case of misunderstanding. Communication is also influenced by closeness of the communicating parties. For instance, communication between couples is different from communication between a stranger and another.

An anthropologist called Edward Hall discovered that distance differences that occur among people, how they vary and what they mean across the cultures portrays the people communicating. He found that intimate distances occurred from 0-45 centimeters, and this is common for couples, girlfriends and boyfriends. This closeness and reduced distance shows closeness .For general friends, he found that the distance varied from 45 centimeters to 150 centimeters. Misunderstanding occurs mostly to close people such as a couple. For a good and effective relationship, proper communication should be involved (Sole, 2011).

Communication is not about the uttering of words but also understanding. One should understand their partners and try to figure out how their listeners perceive their communication. Learning to stress where emphasize is needed, and repetition can improve communication to prevent forgetfulness. Bias comes in when people are too close due to overestimation of how people communicate. As mention earlier, the concentration on meaning of words can be of great and crucial importance. For instance, in the article “Close Relationships Sometimes Mask Poor Communication” (U.S. News & World Report, 2011, January), people especially the couples, tend to misunderstand each other due to over thinking and overemphasize on unnecessary information.

The fear for offending a partner or misunderstanding them contributes to over thinking thus giving wrong answers to questions. People can be so close that they take each other’s words for granted thus leading to ineffective communication. Due to this is, I would support and agree with Boaz Keysar on bias of communication due to proxemics. However, these can be overcome by other means such as practicing good listening skills and proper channeling of the message. Taking into account the main idea that is being discussed and avoiding unnecessary distracters can help in improving how we do communicate.

Some people cannot be audible while speaking. Training to be a bit loud enough can improve understanding since every important word will be heard clearly without confusion and complication. In times of giving instruction, they should be very clear and simple to understand. They should give proper details of the procedures and steps to be undertaken without leaving the listener with questions to ask them.

Proper communication also involves etiquette. Practicing to know when to take turns .In the case of an argument, it is necessary to quit talking if the other person does not give you time to express one. After they are done, and you have listened to their points then you can counter them but not trying to make your points sound superior to theirs (Sole, 2011). One should not rush at just uttering words since the choice of words is important in communication. Simple natural words, with little vocabulary, are important and more understandable. All people who are good listeners are also good communicators. Effective and efficient communication can be achieved by learning and practicing. In addition to this, proper use of body movements and facial expressions that match the words used at that time is an important element in communication.

Sole, K. (2011). Making connections: Introduction to Human Communication. San Diego: Bridge point Education, Inc.


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Poor Communication in Workplace

Poor Communication in Workplace

This undertaking evaluates the job of communicating in organisations. It is based on my experience in Youth Health Partnership Organization. This organisation works to better wellness substructure in order to heighten wellness results in communities. Communication is cardinal to success of any organisation. It determines whether an organisation volitions win in its mission or non. In malice of a batch of attempt put to better communicating. some factors still affect and hinder effectual communicating.

In Youth Health Partnership Organization. at that place existed differences between the effectivity of employer’s message and what employees interpreted it. The direction usually presume that that the manner they communicate is received and interpreted good by employees. However. this is non ever the instance. RopeASW conducted a study in 2009 ; where they found out that 55 % of directors who responded to the study assume they communicate good with workers. 65 % of employees said that their seniors do non pass on good ( Zaremba. 2010 ) .

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In my survey I found out that deficiency of credibleness increases the communicating spread between employers and employees. Many employees do non believe what they are told by direction. This survey shows that employees with longer term of office are less likely to belief their higher-ups than new employees.

This proposal will concentrate on all causes of communicating job. It will besides give recommendation in order to give good solutions to extinguish this job. It contains a decision at the terminal.

Statement of Problem

Communication is the most of import and basic activity of a company. In organisations. communicating is going more complex because of work activities and multi-cultural environment which is going complex at high rate. Availability of high transmittal media besides contribute to communication dislocation ( Zaremba. 2010 ) .

Companies are required to concentrate more on communicating so that they can efficaciously increase occupation satisfaction in work topographic point. Lack of good communicating leads to actions non completed. Management ends up being out of touch with the staff that it needs to actuate so that the company can run at full potency. Poor communicate affects even the client section doing the company lose gross revenues. It besides makes organisations doing hapless determinations which affect the advancement of the company. The company ends up losing workers and money. Many research workers have researched widely on communicating issues. However. there has been few surveies in this country.

The demand for this undertaking is to research the effects of hapless communicating. causes and solutions to the job. The proposal is of import to companies as it will assist them set in topographic point communicating webs. These webs give different positions of employees. It will besides help companies hike the morale of employees every bit good as increasing occupation satisfaction. These benefits will be derived from this survey.

Management Plan

This subdivision contains my making for transporting out undertaking research. It besides contains cost incurred. I already books and articles on communicating. hence I used most of my clip sifting through information. looking for cardinal consequences. The lone cost I incurred was in printing and copying articles. I obtained all beginnings of literature reappraisal from university library. My experience in Youth Health Partnership Organization helped me to absorb proposed literature reappraisal.

Literature Review

I started the undertaking with the apprehension that communicating is the foundation of any organisation. I discovered it is of import to measure the solutions to communication jobs. I reviewed relevant literature to back up my survey. I used literature related to communicating ; others expressed the consequence of communicating on occupation satisfaction of employees. I other literature showed the perceptual experience of both male and female in the organisation. Finally. I included literature that dealt with ways of bettering communicating. Zaremba ( 2010 ) argues that there exist differences in the manner male and female employees perceive communicating behaviours of their seniors. Harmonizing to Zaremba ( 2010 ) managers’ leading manner. struggle direction accomplishments contribute to effectiveness of communicating.

Research Methodology

In this research. different methods were used to roll up information and information. Primary beginnings used were interviews and conversations. Diaries were used as secondary beginnings.

I used formal communicating. informal communicating and communicating clime as my variables. The three variables were affected by assorted issues.

Communication clime

This is the ambiance that is created by people who use listening accomplishments. verbal and non-verbal communicating accomplishments. It involves how communicating takes topographic point in an organisation. The environment in which communicating is taking topographic point determines if communicating will take topographic point or non. Communication clime is affected by assorted factors and one of them is credibleness ( Klyuknanov. 2013 ) . Credibility involves the making of the beginnings of information. It besides involves the consistence with which cognition is applied and the overall dependability.

Credibility starts from the top degree direction and it trickles down to the in-between degree directors up to operational degree. If workers believe that that their seniors lack credibleness this contribute to hapless and closed communicating clime. The 2nd factor that influences communicating clime is trust. Trust is a steadfast trust on the ability. unity and character of a individual. Whenever employees lack trust in their director. communicating is hindered. This is because deficiency of trust brings intuition ( Zaremba. 2010 ) .

Openness besides affects communicating clime. Openness is said to be a free look of 1s sentiment and true feelings. It besides refers to the ability to have new thoughts. relationships and new experiences. If people are non ready to show their thoughts and sentiments. so effectual communicating does non take topographic point. Information can non be shared where people fear revenge or being betrayed ( Rayundu. 2010 ) . . Another factor the impacts on communicating clime is being of rumours. Poor communicating is caused by overdone rumours and revengeful 1s. At the same clip. when rumours are innocuous. good communicating clime is enhanced. Rule of assertiveness is the last factor. Enforcement of regulations may or may non impact communicating. Strict regulations frustrate high performing artists. They besides contribute to inflexibleness.

Formal communicating

These are agencies of communicating that are controlled by direction. It involves sharing of thoughts that support clear dockets where interaction of employees is structured. Formal communicating can be in written or unwritten signifier. Written signifiers include newssheet. missive of felicitation. memos. and legal advisories. Non written signifiers include telephone calls. meetings. interviews and conferences. Problems arises when one caries communicating outside the constituted channels. My research has revealed that if one tries to work out a job in another person’s country. it leaves people in that countries feeling alienated and taken for granted.

Informal communicating

This is self-generated and insouciant communicating. It involves rumours. insouciant conversations and pipelines. Information is shared in socialising workers through conversation. text messages. telephone calls and electronic mails. Informal communicating does non follow lines of authorization. This can be misused to make an ambiance of fright and intuition ( Rayundu. 2010 ) .


Open communicating clime

The direction should set up supportive environment where workers can go through information to their seniors without fearing and being certain that the direction will accept is the manner it is without whether bad or good. favourable or unfavourable. They should besides set up participative environment. This is an environment where employees feel that whatever they have to state counts. Best thoughts and suggestions that improve productiveness comes from workers in assembly line. Employees in client attention section are acquainted with a batch of information that can spell day of reckoning to selling attempt.

Employees portion information with direction when they feel that they are treated as participants who are legitimate in the company. The direction should concentrate in cut downing complex coverage process. rough regulative policies. bureaucratism. and restraining paper work because they discourage employees from take parting actively. Actions should to be taken to promote subsidiaries to take part actively. Directors. squad leaders and supervisors must larn to listen to grudges. suggestions. complains and respond consequently. Supervisors must be ready to open up to unfavorable judgment that is brought by engagement of employees and be ready to rectify their behaviours and explicate them. Management should guarantee that supervisors and employees collaborate in order to hold an unfastened communicating clime.

Trusting Environment

Parties involved in sharing information must ever state the truth. This improves credibleness of information communicated. Management should do certain they do non give beliing information. For an organisation to hold good communicating clime. it must guarantee that information is true and the beginning can be trusted. This is because the belief in a individual to be able to convey right information is indispensable. Directors. squad leaders and supervisors should take down their defences in order to promote sharing of information in an honorable manner such that truth is promoted. Appropriate action should be taken to follow communicating purposes.

Listening actively

During communicating procedure. participants should offer full attending. One should turn and tilt forward towards the other party. Eye contact should besides be maintained during conversation. To heighten one’s ability. non verbal signals should be incorporated. One should allow his co-worker know he or she is listening by nodding his caput. smile and by doing facial looks. Weaponries should be kept folded and fists unclenched. During formal or informal communicating. feedback should be given by rephrasing the other person’s thoughts.

Having cognition

Communication is ever hindered whenever people of different civilizations are involved in transverse civilization communicating. It requires that one understands the possible job and work on get the better ofing them. Whenever one is non successful. he should do necessary accommodations in order to win in the following period. When different linguistic communications are involved. misconstruing additions due to interlingual rendition. Peoples need to bee cognizant that both verbal and non verbal communicating has different intending to different people. Cross cultural communicating is hindered by verbal and non verbal communications because holding different significance.

One should be forgiving and patient with others when a job arises. A hostile. forceful and aggressive employer leads to hapless communicating. One ought to come on easy instead than rapidly whenever different civilizations are involved without assume that you already know. When one is in a het struggle. he or she should halt and believe before he or she acts. Withdrawing gives a opportunity for one to reflect and believe on the best class of action before moving. Having cognition of transverse cultural communicating will assist one to listen reflectively. One should besides develop good behaviour at the right topographic point because what is considered as a good behaviour may be a bad behaviour in another civilization. One can make up one’s mind whether to stand when speaking. look person in the yes or non. Cultures have different ways of showing emotions during communicating. Sme people yell while others cry while angry. Others do non demo any emotion. Get the better ofing these issues is merely by being cognizant of the job

One should besides give a sum-up of what the other individual is stating. I besides recommend inquiring appropriate and effectual inquiries. This may affect simple things such as inquiring inquiry in order to clear up thoughts or points that are non clear. One should besides stay unfastened minded. Concentrating on 1s ends. inquiries and jobs hinders one from listening. absorbing and understanding the other individual. Breaks should be kept at lower limit and the talker should be given adequate clip to complete whatever he is stating.

Win-win attack

The direction should utilize win-win attack in communicating. When should concentrates on the demands and involvement of talker. One should non take to derive triumph or addition place over other people. In order to make good will among employees. win-win attack should be used because each individual understands the demands of each other in this attack. In order to accomplish this. employees should be encouraged to hold self revelation. They need to be encouraged to open up to their co-workers. They should be taught to appreciate and accept themselves foremost in order to be in a place to portion information with other employees. This provides feedback to his or her co-workers on how their behaviours affect him or her. At the same clip. supervisors should hold empathy. They should seek to understand and experience what others goes through. They should larn to react to what is said. retain distance and objectiveness. understand feelings of others in the message and besides understand the content of the message. This will finally take to win-n state of affairs that encouragement communicating.

The focal point of this proposal is to place a job in the work topographic point and develop a solution to that issue. For this intent. I identified hapless communicating as a major job in workplace. I focused on three dimensions to communicating. Communication clime can hold a positive or negative consequence on communicating. It should be a supportive and participative clime. The 2nd dimension is formal communicating and the last 1 is informal communicating. The recommendations I discussed in this proposal is for companies to keep unfastened communicating clime. hold a win-win attack to communicating. make trustful environment. Participants should larn the accomplishments of listening actively. This will non merely better communicating but besides increase occupation satisfaction.

Klyukanov. I. ( 2013 ) . Digital humanistic disciplines. scholarly communicating and communicating scientific discipline. Modern communicating surveies. 2 ( 1 ) . 43-53.

Rayudu. C. S. ( 2010 ) . Communication ( Rev. erectile dysfunction. ) . Mumbai [ India: Himalaya Pub. House.

Zaremba. A. J. ( 2010 ) . Organizational communicating ( 3rd ed. ) . New York: Oxford University Press.

CarriA?re. J. . & A ; Bourque. C. ( 2009 ) . The effects of organisational communicating on occupation satisfaction and organisational committedness in a land ambulance service and the mediating function of communicating satisfaction. Career Development International. 14 ( 1 ) . 29-49.

Ryabova. I. ( 2013 ) . Communication constituents of direction and organisational civilization of the company. Modern communicating surveies. 2 ( 2 ) . 13-40.

Book. I. ( 2009 ) . Communication. Chicago: World Book. Inc. .

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Sample Essay on Poor Organizational Communication

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Communication is efficient especially if it plays a few key functions like motivating, controlling, decision making and emotional expression , and much more. Poor organization communication is the core cause of many problems that make it hard for many organizations to succeed. Hence, it is wise to understand the effects of poor organizational communication and the most appropriate solutions to embrace. Poor organization communication is all about the affliction that causes a drain in the free flow of ideas, inventions, and staff cooperation and ultimately reduces or affects efficiency in an organization. Due to poor organizational communication, it is always hard for many personnel involved to understand the message. It also leads to non-ambiguous information that leads to confusion. Many times, employees become hesitant to work and this leads to low productivity. Due to ineffective communication, employees argue or reject opinions and inputs presented by their managers. More grievances arise due to poor communication in a company or office. Additionally, employees also no longer take their responsibilities seriously and this affects the productivity of the company. Decreased innovation always leads to less positive contributions by the employees. Indeed, there are many consequences of poor organizational communication. But then again, there are certain changes that an organization can make and overcome many woes. Essentially, there are great ways how to improve organizational communication. Firstly, every organization needs to implore feedback on the existing communication practices.

Secondly, it is wise to provide training to not only employees but also any other person holding a certain position in an organization. Gaining effective communication skills can work miracles. At last, it is wise to establish open communication from the bottom up and from the top down. Poor organizational communication occurs due to a lack of good leadership, unclear duties and goals, lack of proper training, limited feedback, and much more. For these reasons, it is advisable for an organization regardless of its size to come up with great strategies on how to improve poor communication and overcome any obstacles experienced in running an organization.

Poor Organizational Communication

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Plan, Prepare & Make the Best Career Choices

Communication Essay

Communication is sending and receiving information via phone calls, emails, and in-person conversations. When information is conveyed effectively, the receiver may understand it extremely well and there is no room for misunderstandings. Here are a few sample essays on communication.

  • 100 Words Essay On Communication

Every one of us uses a medium to communicate our daily experiences; this might be an expression, a gesture, a speech pattern, etc. These are all many forms of communication. Communication is a way for people to share their opinions with one another. Being a good communicator is useful in many facets of life, whether one in a school/university, in the workplace, or in personal relationships. Miscommunication results from poor communication skills. The widespread use of smartphones has resulted in a whole new culture of communication. Due to the cameras on smartphones, video calls are now more common, and group conference calls are also now an option.

200 Words Essay On Communication

500 words essay on communication.

Communication Essay

The notion of communication has undergone a significant alteration in just a few years since technology's invention. Earlier forms of communication required people to discuss their thoughts, feelings, and emotions while seated next to one another or in a group. Thanks to technology, it is possible to deliver a message to a large group via email. For both commercial and personal communication, this generation of millennials is adjusting to social media sites like Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram.

Flow of Communication

People's attitudes, beliefs, and even methods of thinking can change as a result of communication. In daily life, communication is essential. It is possible to transmit knowledge through conversation. It transfers knowledge from one area, individual, or group to another. Communication serves as a way or means for connecting people and places. It has expanded to relate to diverse perspectives.

Every kind of communication conveys a message. Communication that flows from superiors to subordinates is downward communication like from principal to teachers or from teachers to students. Communication that flows from subordinates to superiors is upward communication like from students to teachers or teachers to principal. Horizontal communica­tion takes place between two equals, that is, between two teachers or between two students.

There are two sides to every conversation. There is a sender and a recipient involved. A message may be sent in the form of facts, instructions, questions, feelings, opinions, ideas, or in any other way. Only when the sender and the recipient have a shared understanding can communication take place. Common elements such as culture, language, and environment are included in the commonness. For persons with comparable cultural origins, words, phrases, idioms, proverbs, gestures, and expressions have tremendous potential for communication.

Importance of Communication

The idea that effective communication is the only thing that will get the work done is still true despite the tremendous advancements in technology. Understanding the components and varieties of communication is necessary before learning how to communicate with people more effectively. The sender generates the message, followed by the message itself, which should be extremely clear and understood, and the recipient’s responsibility is to decode the message. There is a good chance that two distinct persons will have completely different perspectives on the same message. The sender can prevent this issue if they are aware of the communication channel.

Types of Communication

Verbal, non-verbal, written, visual, formal, and informal communication are different forms of communication that exist.

Verbal communication includes both the sender and the recipient using voice and language. Here, words are used to communicate the message.

The body language of the individuals engaged in communication or debate is crucial in nonverbal communication. Since the conversation is not particularly loud, it is probable that the indicators may be overlooked or misunderstood. To be able to decipher the subtleties of non-verbal communication, one must be an astute observer.

The written mode of communication is incredibly important. One must very carefully construct the words in a written form as this can be documented for years to come. Professional documents including circulars, memoranda, letters, and bank statements are examples of written communication.

Information may be communicated visually by using graphical images like pie charts, bar graphs, and statistical statistics. This should all be supported by actual data, not just conjecture.

With teachers and principals, the formal method of communication is observed, where the students convey everything in a formal manner.

Informal communication takes place among groups of peers and friends and can be relaxed with no rules, commitments, or formality.

The effects of poor communication skills might vary in severity for various people. Therefore, one must master the principles and value of effective communication.

How To Be A Good Communicator

The first and most important stage is understanding the audience one is targeting. If there is a younger audience, the language ought to be straightforward and tailored to them. In this situation, it is pointless to demonstrate one's skill using complex language and big words.

Speak confidently.

Nonverbal communication may be used quite successfully like making eye contact when speaking, this can help you gauge how much of what you're saying is being understood by the audience.

Before speaking, preparation is crucial. The significance and goal of the message to be given must be well understood.

If necessary, one must explain the use of photos and drawings since they might provide the audience with a new perspective.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

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Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO),  what is probationary officer  or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it. 

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

Surgical Technologist

When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications. 

Also Read: Career as Nurse

Radiation Therapist

People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.

Recreational Worker

A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Fashion Blogger

Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns. 


Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Content Writer

Content writing is meant to speak directly with a particular audience, such as customers, potential customers, investors, employees, or other stakeholders. The main aim of professional content writers is to speak to their targeted audience and if it is not then it is not doing its job. There are numerous kinds of the content present on the website and each is different based on the service or the product it is used for.

Individuals who opt for a career as a reporter may often be at work on national holidays and festivities. He or she pitches various story ideas and covers news stories in risky situations. Students can pursue a BMC (Bachelor of Mass Communication) , B.M.M. (Bachelor of Mass Media) , or  MAJMC (MA in Journalism and Mass Communication) to become a reporter. While we sit at home reporters travel to locations to collect information that carries a news value.  

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Engineer

A career as Production Engineer is crucial in the manufacturing industry. He or she ensures the functionality of production equipment and machinery to improve productivity and minimize production costs in order to drive revenues and increase profitability. 

Automation Test Engineer

An Automation Test Engineer job involves executing automated test scripts. He or she identifies the project’s problems and troubleshoots them. The role involves documenting the defect using management tools. He or she works with the application team in order to resolve any issues arising during the testing process. 

Product Designer

Individuals who opt for a career as product designers are responsible for designing the components and overall product concerning its shape, size, and material used in manufacturing. They are responsible for the aesthetic appearance of the product. A product designer uses his or her creative skills to give a product its final outlook and ensures the functionality of the design. 

Students can opt for various product design degrees such as B.Des and M.Des to become product designers. Industrial product designer prepares 3D models of designs for approval and discusses them with clients and other colleagues. Individuals who opt for a career as a product designer estimate the total cost involved in designing.

R&D Personnel

A career as R&D Personnel requires researching, planning, and implementing new programs and protocols into their organization and overseeing new products’ development. He or she uses his or her creative abilities to improve the existing products as per the requirements of the target market.

Commercial Manager

A Commercial Manager negotiates, advises and secures information about pricing for commercial contracts. He or she is responsible for developing financial plans in order to maximise the business's profitability.

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Big Data Analytics Engineer

Big Data Analytics Engineer Job Description: A Big Data Analytics Engineer is responsible for collecting data from various sources. He or she has to sort the organised and chaotic data to find out patterns. The role of Big Data Engineer involves converting messy information into useful data that is clean, accurate and actionable. 

Cloud Solution Developer

A Cloud Solutions Developer is basically a Software Engineer with specialisation in cloud computing. He or she possesses a solid understanding of cloud systems including their operations, deployment with security and efficiency with no little downtime. 

CRM Technology Consultant

A Customer Relationship Management Technology Consultant or CRM Technology Consultant is responsible for monitoring and providing strategy for performance improvement with logged calls, performance metrics and revenue metrics. His or her role involves accessing data for team meetings, goal setting analytics as well as reporting to executives.  

Career as IT Manager  requires managing the various aspects of an organization's information technology systems. He or she is responsible for increasing productivity and solving problems related to software and hardware. While this role is typically one of the lower-level positions within an organisation, it comes with responsibilities related to people and ownership of systems.

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  1. ⇉What Are the Effects of Poor Communication in a Project? Essay Example

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  2. Masking poor communication

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  3. The Effects of Poor Communication

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  5. 🏆 Communication essay example. Communication Essay Examples. 2022-10-14

    essay on poor communication


    essay on poor communication


  1. Lack of Communication: How It Affects Us and Ways to Improve It

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  4. Masking Poor Communications

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  11. How to Address Poor Communication in the Workplace

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    The article "Masking Poor Communication" gave me a new understanding of the issue that miscommunication is a part of human life and that the same words and actions can be understood in different ways by two persons. The article proved that each person has the own way to react and understand the world around; so, miscommunication can ...

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  15. Poor Communication In Health Care Essay

    Poor communication can lead to injuries and complications through miscommunications and factors that impacts on the quality of care being delivered. Reduced team cohesion which occurs with poor communication is particularly detrimental to patients with chronic conditions as they are effectively treated with different health care professionals.

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  17. Lack of Communication in a Relationship Essay

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  18. Essays On Masking Poor Communication

    Read Masking Poor Communication Essay and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. We can custom-write anything as well!

  19. ⇉Poor Communication in Workplace Essay Example

    RopeASW conducted a study in 2009 ; where they found out that 55 % of directors who responded to the study assume they communicate good with workers. 65 % of employees said that their seniors do non pass on good ( Zaremba. 2010 ) . This essay could be plagiarized. Get your custom essay

  20. Sample Essay on Poor Organizational Communication

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    But, poor communication can bring down even the best initiatives. Chalk it up to my- my poor communication skills. I bet it was poor communication. Poor communication is often the result of multiple factors. Ad-free experience & advanced Chrome extension.