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Frankenstein: Introduction

Frankenstein: plot summary, frankenstein: detailed summary & analysis, frankenstein: themes, frankenstein: quotes, frankenstein: characters, frankenstein: symbols, frankenstein: literary devices, frankenstein: quizzes, frankenstein: theme wheel, brief biography of mary shelley.

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Historical Context of Frankenstein

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  • Full Title: Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus
  • When Published: 1818
  • Literary Period: Switzerland and London, England: 1816–1817
  • Genre: Gothic novel
  • Setting: Switzerland, France, England, Scotland, and the North Pole in the 18th century
  • Climax: The Monster's murder of Elizabeth Lavenza on her wedding night to Victor
  • Antagonist: The Monster
  • Point of View: Frankenstein is told through a few layers of first person narratives. Walton is the primary narrator, who then recounts Victor's first-person narrative. In addition, Victor's narrative contains the monster's first person story as well as letters from other characters.

Extra Credit for Frankenstein

A ghost story. On a stormy night in June of 1816, Mary Shelley, her husband, and a few other companions, including the Romantic poet Lord Byron, decided to try to write their own ghost stories, but Shelley couldn't come up with any ideas. A few nights later, she had a dream in which she envisioned "the pale student of unhallowed arts" kneeling beside his creation—the monster. She began writing the story that became Frankenstein the next morning.

The Tale of Two Frankensteins. Shelley published the first edition of Frankenstein anonymously, perhaps due to her concern that such a grim and violent tale would not be well received by her audience if they knew her gender. She revised the novel and published it under her real name in 1831. Some key differences exist between the editions, namely that in the first edition, Elizabeth is Alphonse's niece and, therefore, Victor's cousin. (In the 1831 edition, the more popular version and the one used in this Outline, the Frankensteins adopt Elizabeth from another family).

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Table of contents, mary shelley.

Published in 1818, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is a Gothic novel that explores the disaster that ensues after Victor Frankenstein, a natural philosophy student, unlocks creation’s secrets and arrogantly brings to life a monstrous creature. His arrogance leads to his loved ones’ deaths and his own and the monster’s misery. Told from nested first-person perspectives, including Victor’s and the monster’s, the novel explores themes such as human limits, the sublimity of nature, cycles of vengeance, and the nature of prejudice.

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Frankenstein Summary and Analysis

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Frankenstein Summary and Synopsis

Short summary: Frankenstein is a classic in the Western horror genre of literature. The novel follows a young scientist who becomes obsessed with the idea of finding the secret to creating life.

What he finds is that “playing God” is not all he thought it would be. He is overwhelmed by the consequences of meddling with nature and suffers greatly for the rest of his life after the creation of his monster. Common human flaws and downfalls such as grief, pride, unchecked thirst for knowledge, secrecy, and shame are explored as Victor Frankenstein must suffer the consequences of bringing unnatural life into the world.

Once Frankenstein has created life, the livelihood of all he previously held dear is threatened and taken from him in a series of tragic events. Although he attempts to run away from his problems, they always catch up with him. Even when he decides to face things head-on, the consequences of what he has done are too much for any man to bear.  

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Literary Elements of Frankenstein

frankenstein outline

Type of Work: Novel  

Genres: Gothic; science fiction  

Published Date: 1818  

Setting: Geneva; the Swiss Alps; England and Scotland; the frozen North; Ingolstadt. All during the eighteenth century.  

Main Characters: Victor Frankenstein, The Monster  

Protagonist: Victor Frankenstein

Antagonist: The Monster  

Major Thematic Elements: The dangers of knowledge; nature and the power its beauty holds; literature and written word; monstrosity and abominations against nature; secrecy  

Motifs: Passive women; abortion  

Exposition: The narrator, Robert Walton, is captaining a ship bound for the North Pole that becomes trapped in ice. He writes to his sister in England about his encounter with Victor Frankenstein who had been traveling by dogsled across the ice. He is taken aboard the ship to recover from the effects of the bitter cold.  

Conflict: Victor Frankenstein’s fixation with creating life.  

Plot: Told over a series of letters written by Robert Walton.

Major Symbols: Fire; light

Climax: Elizabeth’s murder on the night of her wedding to Victor Frankenstein.  

Literary Significance of Frankenstein

very short summary of frankenstein

Although certainly a member of the horror genre, Frankenstein can also be viewed in a Romantic lens as well. Romanticism was an artistic movement that highlighted the beauty of nature above all else. Certain themes in this novel enforce this idea—the concept that man cannot achieve anything better than nature itself has is critical to exploring Frankenstein . So not only does the novel provide an interesting commentary on a time in history, it also is an unusual and fascinating study of the Romantic movement in literature.

Frankenstein Book Summary, Plot Outline

frankenstein plot analysis

Frankestein begins his tales by recounting a happy childhood in Geneva. His was very close with his cousin, Elizabeth Lavenza and enjoyed her company. When he is older, he studies at the university in Ingolstadt to study chemistry. While in his studies, he becomes obsessed with a desire to uncover the secret to life. After researching this question for many years, he becomes convinced that he has discovered it. He spends many months creating a creature out of various body parts. On a stormy night alone is his apartment, he finally brings his creation to life. However, he is horrified at the sight of his creation once it becomes animated. He spends a fitful night tossing and turning while his new monster looms over him.

Victor feels intense remorse and wanders out into the streets of town. There, he runs into his friend, Henry, who is also studying at the university. He brings Henry back to his apartment, but The Monster is not there. Victor becomes deathly ill and is sickened by what he has done. He makes plans to return home to his family in Geneva to recover and to put his deeds behind him. Just before he is about to leave, he gets a letter from his father informing him that his brother has been murdered. He rushes home immediately, consumed with grief.

As he travels through the woods in which his brother was strangled to death on his way home, Victor sees his monstrous creation and becomes convinced that The Monster killed his brother. When Victor arrives home, he discovers that a kind girl who was taken in by the Frankenstein family has been accused of the murder. She maintains that she is innocent. Guilty and heartbroken, Victor becomes despondent and even more unwell.

One day, Victor seeks solace in the mountains. As he crosses a glacier, he encounters The Monster. The Monster admits to the murder of Victor’s brother but explains that he had meant to kill Victor. He thinks his creator cruel for giving him life and then abandoning and rejecting him. He begs Victor to create a companion for him so that he no longer has to struggle alone. Although Victor is horrified at the thought of creating another monster, he is eventually convinced to do so.

Victor travels to England and brings his friend, Henry, along with him. They gather information for the purpose of creating a female monster—a mate for the original monster. Victor separates with Henry and Scotland and sets to work on his second creation on an island in the Orkneys. As he works one night, he sees his original monster looking inside at what he is doing. He has a frightening grin on his face. Overcome with disgust at what he is doing, Victor destroys his second creation. The Monster is enraged and swears that he will get revenge on Victor.

Victor gathers up the body parts he was working with and takes a boat out on the lake to dump them. While out on the water, a storm kicks up and Victor cannot return to the island where he was doing his work. He washes ashore in a nearby town and is arrested and accused of murder. When they reveal the body to him, he sees that it is Henry, who has been strangled by The Monster. Victor is sent to prison and becomes feverishly ill.

Eventually, Victor returns to Geneva with his father. Shortly after, he becomes engaged to his childhood companion, Elizabeth. On the night of their wedding, Victor sends her away out of fear that The Monster will show up to kill him. However, it turns out that The Monster always intended to kill his bride. When Elizabeth is murdered by The Monster, Victor returns home to his father who dies of grief after a brief time passes. Victor promises that the rest of his life will be dedicated to finding The Monster and getting revenge. Victor tracks The Monster north but loses the trail. This is when Walton finds him.

Walton closes out with some final letters to his sister. Victor died on his ship shortly after telling his story. He had been ill for some time and the cold exacerbated his health problems. Walton visits the room in which Victor’s body is kept one day and is shocked to find The Monter weeping over his creator’s body. The Monster tells Walton that he has suffered greatly because of his solitude, hatred, and shame. He then leaves for the most remote and icy location of the north to die alone and leave behind his suffering.


By mary shelley, frankenstein quotes and analysis.

I felt the greatest eagerness to hear the promised narrative, partly from curiosity, and partly from a strong desire to ameliorate his fate, if it were in my power. I expressed these feelings in my answer. "I thank you," he replied, "for your sympathy, but it is useless; my fate is nearly fulfilled. I wait but for one event, and then I shall repose in peace. I understand your feeling," continued he, perceiving that I wished to interrupt him; "but you are mistaken, my friend, if thus you will allow me to name you; nothing can alter my destiny listen to my history, and you will perceive how irrevocably it is determined." Preface, Letter 6

In this passage, Frankenstein conveys to Walton the belief that the course of his life -- his fate -- is bound to the monster he created. In this way, he has been enslaved by his own creation because his one goal in life has become to destroy it.

No human being could have passed a happier childhood than myself. My parents were possessed by the very spirit of kindness and indulgence. We felt that they were not the tyrants to rule our lot according to their caprice, but the agents and creators of all the many delights which we enjoyed. When I mingled with other families, I distinctly discerned how peculiarly fortunate my lot was, and gratitude assisted the development of filial love. Volume I, Chapter 2

What's interesting to note, which Frankenstein highlights here, is that he had a childhood characterized by loving, caring, present parents. This contrasts directly with Frankenstein's prompt abandonment of his monster, following its creation.

Natural philosophy is the genius that has regulated my fate; I desire, therefore, in this narration, to state those facts which led to my predilection for that science. When I was thirteen years of age, we all went on a party of pleasure to the baths near Thonon: the inclemency of the weather obliged us to remain a day confined to the inn. In this house I chanced to find a volume of the works of Cornelius Agrippa. I opened it with apathy; the theory which he attempts to demonstrate, and the wonderful facts which he relates, soon changed this feeling into enthusiasm. A new light seemed to dawn upon my mind; and, bounding with joy, I communicated my discovery to my father. My father looked carelessly at the title page of my book, and said, "Ah! Cornelius Agrippa! My dear Victor, do not waste your time upon this; it is sad trash." If, instead of this remark, my father had taken the pains to explain to me that the principles of Agrippa had been entirely exploded, and that a modern system of science had been introduced, which possessed much greater powers than the ancient, because the powers of the latter were chimerical, while those of the former were real and practical; under such circumstances, I should certainly have thrown Agrippa aside, and have contented my imagination, warmed as it was, by returning with greater ardour to my former studies. It is even possible that the train of my ideas would never have received the fatal impulse that led to my ruin. But the cursory glance my father had taken of my volume by no means assured me that he was acquainted with its contents; and I continued to read with the greatest avidity. Volume I, Chapter 2

Here, Victor claims that he never would have gone down the road that ultimately led to the creation of the monster if his father had responded differently to his interest in alchemy. In this way, one might say that Victor's father turned him 'into a monster', just as Victor created a monster all his own.

"The ancient teachers of this science," said he, "promised impossibilities, and performed nothing. The modern masters promise very little; they know that metals cannot be transmuted, and that the elixir of life is a chimera. But these philosophers, whose hands seem only made to dabble in dirt, and their eyes to pore over the microscope or crucible, have indeed performed miracles. They penetrate into the recesses of nature, and show how she works in her hiding places. They ascend into the heavens: they have discovered how the blood circulates, and the nature of the air we breathe. They have acquired new and almost unlimited powers; they can command the thunders of heaven, mimic the earthquake, and even mock the invisible world with its own shadows." Such were the professor's words--rather let me say such the words of fate, enounced to destroy me. As he went on, I felt as if my soul were grappling with a palpable enemy; one by one the various keys were touched which formed the mechanism of my being: chord after chord was sounded, and soon my mind was filled with one thought, one conception, one purpose. So much has been done, exclaimed the soul of Frankenstein--more, far more, will I achieve: treading in the steps already marked, I will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers, and unfold to the world the deepest mysteries of creation. Volume 1, Chapter 3

The reaction of Frankenstein's first professor to his interest in alchemy, similar to his father's reaction, only spurs him on in pursuit of the path that will ultimately lead to creating the monster. Note the language of fate: throughout the novel, Frankenstein describes the tragic events of his life as a course that was determined for him. He attributes little-to-no agency to himself.

Remember, I am not recording the vision of a madman. The sun does not more certainly shine in the heavens, than that which I now affirm is true. Some miracle might have produced it, yet the stages of the discovery were distinct and probable. After days and nights of incredible labour and fatigue, I succeeded in discovering the cause of generation and life; nay, more, I became myself capable of bestowing animation upon lifeless matter. Volume I, Chapter 4

Frankenstein's language prefacing the creation of his monster underscores the text's preoccupation with proof and verification: he is invested in convincing the reader that the events he describes are both true and scientifically tenable.

I see by your eagerness, and the wonder and hope which your eyes express, my friend, that you expect to be informed of the secret with which I am acquainted; that cannot be: listen patiently until the end of my story, and you will easily perceive why I am reserved upon that subject. I will not lead you on, unguarded and ardent as I then was, to your destruction and infallible misery. Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge, and how much happier that man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow. Volume I, Chapter 4

The reserved nature which Frankenstein has about conveying the actual mechanism by which he created the monster does two things: it establishes a degree of narrative unreliability because we know that he is intentionally withholding information from Walton; it is also somewhat ironic that he is withholding the scientific mechanism, given his preoccupation with substantiating the claims of his story.

But I forget that I am moralising in the most interesting part of my tale; and your looks remind me to proceed. Volume I, Chapter 4

This brief comment after Frankenstein digresses on the context within which he created his monster is rather telling of the narrative as an overall piece: part of the game in Frankenstein is for the reader to absorb the events and decide on the moral implications for herself.

I started from my sleep with horror; a cold dew covered my forehead, my teeth chattered, and every limb became convulsed: when, by the dim and yellow light of the moon, as it forced its way through the window shutters, I beheld the wretch -- the miserable monster whom I had created. He held up the curtain of the bed; and his eyes, if eyes they may be called, were fixed on me. His jaws opened, and he muttered some inarticulate sounds, while a grin wrinkled his cheeks. He might have spoken, but I did not hear; one hand was stretched out, seemingly to detain me, but I escaped, and rushed down stairs. I took refuge in the courtyard belonging to the house which I inhabited; where I remained during the rest of the night, walking up and down in the greatest agitation, listening attentively, catching and fearing each sound as if it were to announce the approach of the demoniacal corpse to which I had so miserably given life. Volume 1, Chapter 5

Note that in the one brief moment shared between the creator and the created before Frankenstein flees, the monster smiles at him. This lends credibility to the argument that Frankenstein was prejudiced against the monster from his very inception, and spurned him where he might otherwise have raised him to be a reasonably well-adjusted being.

"I can hardly describe to you the effect of these books. They produced in me an infinity of new images and feelings that sometimes raised me to ecstasy, but more frequently sunk me into the lowest dejection." Volume II, Chapter 7

The monster says this in describing the three books with which he learned how to read -- Paradise Lost, Plutarch's Lives, and Sorrows of Werter . It relates the monster to both the novel as a whole, and to Frankenstein: Frankenstein also formulated much of his identity from books in his youth; and the whole as a home is largely structured by allusions and excerpts from other, earlier texts.

"You, who call Frankenstein your friend, seem to have a knowledge of my crimes and his misfortunes. But in the detail which he gave you of them he could not sum up the hours and months of misery which I endured, wasting in impotent passions. For while I destroyed his hopes, I did not satisfy my own desires. They were for ever ardent and craving; still I desired love and fellowship, and I was still spurned. Was there no injustice in this? Am I to be thought the only criminal when all human kind sinned against me? Why do you not hate Felix who drove his friend from his door with contumely? Why do you not execrate the rustic who sought to destroy the saviour of his child? Nay, these are virtuous and immaculate beings! I, the miserable and the abandoned, am an abortion, to be spurned at, and kicked, and trampled on. Even now my blood boils at the recollection of this injustice. "But it is true that I am a wretch. I have murdered the lovely and the helpless; I have strangled the innocent as they slept, and grasped to death his throat who never injured me or any other living thing. I have devoted my creator, the select specimen of all that is worthy of love and admiration among men, to misery; I have pursued him even to that irremediable ruin. There he lies, white and cold in death. You hate me; but your abhorrence cannot equal that with which I regard myself. I look on the hands which executed the deed; I think on the heart in which the imagination of it was conceived, and long for the moment when these hands will meet my eyes, when that imagination will haunt my thoughts no more." Volume III, Chapter 7

This is part of the monster's final monologue to Walton, after Frankenstein has died on the ship. Note that the monster has not actually found any sense of justice in spite of taking revenge: the only one who could make him happy was Frankenstein, by making him a mate -- something that he refused to do. He also agrees to what Frankenstein has said all along: because of his actions, he is 'a wretch'. However, it is important to note that he thinks he is a wretch because of the actions he took in seeking revenge against Frankenstein. So, it seems that he only became a wretch in response to Frankenstein rejecting him and calling him a wretch -- making it something of a self-fulfilling prophecy.

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Frankenstein Questions and Answers

The Question and Answer section for Frankenstein is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.

Explain about the gigantic figure in Frankenstein?

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Consider the monsters motivations for tracking down Frankenstein. Why does the master switch out his creator according to the text?

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Study Guide for Frankenstein

Frankenstein study guide contains a biography of Mary Shelley, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

  • About Frankenstein
  • Frankenstein Summary
  • Frankenstein Video
  • Character List

Essays for Frankenstein

Frankenstein essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.

  • Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Frankenstein
  • Egotism, Personal Glory, and the Pursuit for Immortality
  • Frankenstein and the Essence Of the Romantic Quest
  • Like Father Like Son: Imitation and Creation
  • Frankenstein's Discovery

Lesson Plan for Frankenstein

  • About the Author
  • Study Objectives
  • Common Core Standards
  • Introduction to Frankenstein
  • Relationship to Other Books
  • Bringing in Technology
  • Notes to the Teacher
  • Related Links
  • Frankenstein Bibliography

E-Text of Frankenstein

Frankenstein e-text contains the full text of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.

  • Letters 1-4
  • Chapters 1-4
  • Chapters 5-8
  • Chapters 9-12
  • Chapters 13-16

Wikipedia Entries for Frankenstein

  • Introduction
  • Author's background
  • Literary influences
  • Composition

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Essays on Frankenstein


Victor Frankenstein Essay

Revenge Theme in Frankenstein

In the Novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley discusses several important themes. These themes represent her thoughts and occurrence from her real life. She presents the action and decision of some of the characters to introduce these themes. Among them, revenge is a key theme throughout the novel Frankenstein. Thus, the continuous cycle of revenge due to the excited state of strong emotions- love, anger, hatred, loneliness, and rejection drive the plot of the novel. Revenge is shown as the important aspects […]

Frankenstein Literary Analysis

The novel Frankenstein was written by Mary Shelley in the 1800s. The story is about a doctor, Frankenstein, and his hideous creation. The basis of the novel is to show the development of the character of the Creature, and to show how Nature versus Nurture affects Frankenstein’s creation. Most readers start reading with the idea that Frankenstein’s monster is a horrid being and deserved to be shunned from society, but after reading the novel, individuals realize the Creature is not […]

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Analysis Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein and David Fincher

There was a young boy who father was a drug addict and always in and out of jail. One day the young boy mother took her children and moved somewhere where his dad couldn’t find them. He was a very abusive dad especially toward the young boy mother. Now the mother is a single mom of three girls and one boy. By the age of 12 years old the boy lived a criminal life outside of his mother home. Skipping […]

Frankenstein Stereotypical Gender Analysis

Can gender stereotypes and assumptions be incorporated into literary characters? In Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, published at first anonymously in London 1818, they are. The book tells the story of an alchemist named Victor Frankenstein and the monster he created while dabbling in occult sciences and natural philosophy. Additionally, it focuses on the interior life of Victor’s creation after his birth. Throughout the novel, Shelley depicts stereotypical gender roles through Victor, the monster, and other characters. A place stereotypical gender […]

Frankenstein Critical Analysis Evaluation

Marilyn Speers Butler also known as Lady Butler was the professor of English literature of King Edward VII from 1986 to 1993. Marry who died at the age of 77 was famously know as leading scholar of Romanticism literature. Her books build her reputation among the fellow scholars but students also read her work with enthusiasm.  Mary was noted as political -curious and intellect after editing the work of Edgeworth. She also emerged as critic for the work of Mary […]

Frankenstein Romanticism

Knowledge is a theme mentioned throughout Frankenstein by Mary Shelley (1818). This creates a notion that she considers knowledge as dangerous and a primary source of unhappiness. She portrays her main character, Frankenstein, as an individual holding the acquisition of knowledge with contempt. Labeling knowledge as a being dangerous refers to the science that means to play with the law of nature rather than the branches of science, which have benefits such as the study of disease or medicine. In […]

Explore the Significance of the ‘Monster’s’ Voice in Mary Shelley’s Novel

From the novel Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) edition Chris Baldick argues that “the ‘monster’s’ most convincingly human characteristic is of course his power of speech.” Explore the significance of the ‘monster’s’ voice in Mary Shelley’s novel. Few texts have pervaded the cultural consciousness to take on the afterlife of a haunting myth, as with Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818). To a twenty-first century reader, the image of ‘Frankenstein,’ often wrongly identified as the creature rather than creator, has become conflated with […]

Nature Vs Nurture Frankenstein

In today’s fast-paced world, it is important to build connections and relationships with people and society. Being able to bond with surroundings, is key for living a healthy and happy life. Family is what helps humans build their foundations and are able to learn and succeed with the support of them. In Mary Shelley’s novel, Frankenstein, the lack of connection the characters have to either their family or society leads them to murder, hopelessness and tragedy. Specifically Victor and his […]

Frankenstein Isolation

In the novel Frankenstein, the theme of family, isolation, the laws of nature, and revenge can be found. Victor told a story from his standpoint which later included one from the monster’s point of view. In the novel, victor’s ambition leads him to stealing body parts to create the monster that he grew to despise. He spent weeks separate obsessing over his work, and his need to create life which one can say could have to do with the death […]

Frankenstein Cruelty

Frankenstein is one such story that is considered to be utterly significant. The author, Mary Shelley, does this by incorporating a mentor who dramatically changes how the character views not only himself, but the world itself. Such instance is the professor, Waldon, who inspires Victor about life which influences him to be bring something extraordinary into life. In Frankenstein, the professor Walden, exhibits a strong influence on Victor. Walden is a chemist professor who sparks Victor’s interest in alchemy. Victor’s […]

The Role of Appearance on Social Acceptance

Within the gothic novel Frankenstein; Or the Modern Prometheus, appearance is critical to being accepted by society. When I looked around I saw and heard of none like me. Was I, a monster, a blot upon the earth from which all men fled and whom all men disowned? (Frankenstein, 105). This familiar quote, spoken by the monster conveys the discriminating yet, the inevitability of judgment that the monster faces in Mary Shelley’s gothic novel Frankenstein; Or the Modern Prometheus. Throughout […]

Frankenstein Book Review

Frankenstein is a novel created by English author Mary Shelley. Its genre is divided as horror, science-fiction, and historical. Frankenstein is an antique model about an expert who produces a monster and the terrible events he accidentally grounds. Victor Frankenstein is a meticulous undeveloped man at university who realises how to give life to a non-living body and uses his knowledge to produce a man-monster. He believes in his discovery that it will give rise to extra scientific advances. The […]

Relationship between Victor and Frankenstein

The next aspect that of the book that is important to my paper is the relationship between Victor and Frankenstein. To understand this, we first must understand each character. Victor is obsessed with the idea of recreating life. After he fills this obsession, he falls into depression and fear due to how monstrous his creation turned out to be: I took refuge in the courtyard belonging to the house which I inhabited; where I remained during the rest of the […]

Creation of Victor – Frankenstein

Question1 We learn that he is a professional performer who is capable of entertaining his audience. His work is to motivate his audiences to utilize writing processes. Question 2 What’s the point of the frame narrative? Why do we begin and end with Robert Walton? Does he learn a lesson from his encounter with Frankenstein? If so, what is it? Question 3 I think the narrator Victor Frankenstein is unreliable narrator due to the fact that his point of view […]

The Prosecution of Victor Frankenstein

Your honor, ladies and gentlemen of the jury, opposing counsel, my name is Brandon Vu and I am the prosecuting attorney on this case against Victor Frankenstein and his crimes against humanity. Dr. Frankenstein is charged with the following crimes: Multiple charges of grave robbery, possession, and supply of human body parts, malpractice, potential child abandonment and negligence, and the murders of several individuals. Let it be known that Dr. Frankenstein is a threat to not only our society but […]

The Modern Prometheus

Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus, has long been considered one of the first and greatest gothic novels of all time. First published in 1818 when the author, Mary W. Shelley was just 20 years old, the novel follows the journey of Robert Walton as he seeks to discover a new passage through the Arctic Ocean. Along the way he encounters a man, Dr. Victor Frankenstein, who recounts his tale of his own journey to push the boundaries of scientific discovery […]

Ambition in Frankenstein

With ambition follows responsibility and the necessity of harnessing it so that the consequences don’t backfire on the individual or those around them. In the novel Frankenstein, the renowned author Mary Shelley explores the aftermaths of chasing ambition in the absence of deliberation. Blinded by their dreams of transforming society and bringing glory upon themselves, both Victor and Walton set out to accomplish their own scientific successes. Consumed by longing for glory and dignity, they fail to consider the consequences […]

The Love in Frankenstein

Frankenstein, was written in 1817 by Mary Shelley. Mary Shelley has been “described as a modern pagan. She rejected the God of the Bible. ” Shelley wrote this book from the view of tabula rasa, or, in English, “the blank slate.” Tabula rasa is the idea that human beings are born without any form of knowledge, and therefore everything we know, comes from perception or experience. This idea was very popular at the time and was supported by Shelley, Stevenson, […]

Frankenstein Victim or Villain

In the “Frankenstein,” a novel by Mary Shelley, there is a contradiction on the actual antagonist therein. Whereas the monster is painted as a symbol of evil through its readiness and desire to harm people, it falls short on uncovering its true motives. It destroys the lives of others without any regrets. On the contrary, it is notable that the creature was not directly responsible for what it developed to be since it was only a victim of circumstances. Although […]

Roles of Women in the Nineteenth Century

Abstract This paper examines some theories of feminist views on Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. It analyzes the depictions of women in the story in relation to men. Moreover, it takes into account Mary Shelley’s life to understand the roles of women in the nineteenth century. The analysis draws upon Anne Mellor’s On Feminist Utopia, Ellen Moers’s Female Gothic, and Johanna M. Smith’s ‘Cooped Up’ with ‘Sad Trash’: Domesticity and the Sciences in Frankenstein. It also contains the introduction of Mary Shelley […]

Human Nature and Frankenstein

Humans are not perfect beings. However, they are sadly quite often responsible for not only their own life, but the lives of others as well. This is shown in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, a story about Victor Frankenstein creating a monster, fearing it, abandoning it, and facing the consequences of having his family and friends killed off by the vengeful monster. Frankenstein does not take responsibility for the monster, and several times lies and tricks the monster, and sees nothing wrong […]

Powerfully Passive the Contradiction in Frankenstein’s Women

Frankenstein’s women are, as a rule, extremely passive. Their role is generally only to further the plot and be an accessory to the male leads, which from a modern perspective immediately gives the novel a sexist undertone. Safie’s only real importance is as a vessel for the English lessons that the monster learns from; Justine is framed for a male character’s crimes; Elizabeth waits for Victor until her eventual murder. Even Margaret, who the letters telling the story were addressed […]

Women’s Role in Frankenstein

The Role of Women Seen in Historical Literature The roles women have held throughout history have regretfully usually been roles of subservience to males as women held little power. This theme is very common and can be seen in many of the works from the Romantic as well as the Victorian Era. Specifically, the role of women during these time periods is highlighted very well in Mary Robinson’s “The Poor Singing Dame” and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Starting with “The Poor […]

Frankenstein and the Modern Pandora

On 1 January 1818, Mary Shelley birthed her hideous progeny into the world. One of the enduring tales of modern literature, Frankenstein is the narrative of a scientist who creates monstrous life. Robbing both cemeteries and slaughterhouses in his single-minded, egoistic quest to circumvent the natural order. But, in doing so, he ensures the destruction of his wife, his best friend, his maid, and his baby brother. By the end of the novel, he becomes so exhausted by his own […]

Knowledge Vs. Ignorance

Knowledge vs. Ignorance At the age of 18, Mary Shelley started writing the classical novel, Frankenstein. This novel was about a man named Robert Frankenstein that was infatuated with the thought of bringing the dead back to life. He studied *pseudoscience and soon started to construct a creature that was diverse than any other human. Frankenstein promptly started to regret this new creation and abandoned the creation to fend for himself. The creation was distraught by this and went to […]

Frankenstein Obsession

Frankenstein is the story of Victor Frankenstein, a man whose passions lead to tragic outcomes. Victor’s intensity and obsessions drive his thirst for knowledge and ultimately, these passions lead him to create a destructive creature. This being that Victor brings to life also develops obsessions that blind the creature from reality, similar to Victor himself. As a result, the two characters act irrationally and fail to recognize the consequences of their actions. By illustrating the the dangers of obsessive behavior […]

Science Sexuality and the Erasure of Gender

One of the most overlooked questions of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is the gender of the creature – due to the fact that many readers assume that the monster is a male – because it is never explicitly expressed through Victor Frankenstein’s intentions. Many feminist and scientific critics argue that Shelley reveals the unstable, conflicted aspects of Frankenstein’s sexuality which expose[s] his homophobia and state that Frankenstein reject[s] women (Daffron 417). However, similar to President Trump’s attempts to erase transgender people […]

Frankenstein Transgender: Reproductive Cloning

“Reproductive cloning involves creating an animal that is genetically identical to a donor animal through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In reproductive cloning, the newly created embryo is placed back into the uterine environment where it can implant and develop” (“What Is the Difference”). Reproductive cloning is a good thing because it can provide children who have the same genetics as their parents who can’t have children. In the book Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, Victor the creator of the monster wants […]

Feminism in Frankenstein

Frankenstein is known all over for being about a monster that loses control and kills people, but no one talks about some of the topics that Mary Shelley portrays in the novel. This book seems male dominant. The females play a big role, but not in the way that big roles are usually played. Women seem to hide from playing a part in Frankenstein, but Mary Shelley finds a way to display feminism in the book and that is how […]

In “Frankenstein”, Caroline Beaufort, is Illustrated as the Perfect Daughter, Wife and Eventual Mother

During the 18th and 19th centuries, women were seen as inferior to men by society. Similarly in the novel, Frankenstein, women lacked any leading roles. Throughout “Frankenstein”, the audience hears from three main perspectives, all of which are men. At first glance, it appears that the female characters in the story have no role in its development, which is ironic, seeing as Mary Shelley’s mother, Mary Wollstonecraft is known as one of the first feminists of her time and fully […]

Mary Shelley’s cult novel “Frankenstein” has been one of the main novels in world literature for more than two centuries. This book is devoted to the story of a young scientist, Victor Frankenstein, who creates a living being from dead body parts, only to realize that he has unleashed a monster upon the world. This novel has inspired countless literary analytical essays, research papers, and criticism since its publication in 1818. Writing an academic analytical essay on Frankenstein can be daunting as a student, but it is essential to understand the themes, characters, and story as a whole.

If this is your essay topic, it’s essential to clearly understand the book and the issues it raises, including the character of Victor Frankenstein and the monster created in his image. By studying essay examples selected by our experts, you will learn how to create a convincing argument and create a good hook that will catch the reader’s attention.

Reading free argumentative essays about Frankenstein can help you understand the essential components of successfully written material, such as creating a good lead and outline. This will also help you develop a strong thesis statement and introduction and use prompts from the book to support your claims.

Our literary analysis essay examples on Frankenstein provide a novel summary to help you get started with writing. In conclusion, our sample essay titles will be a source of ideas for your own academic work.

When you hear the name Frankenstein, what is the first thing that pops too your mind? When you Frankenstein you often get this picture in your head of a big ugly green monster that was created by a lightning strike. But Frankenstein is just a monster that was created by a man named Victor Frankenstein, so if you think about it, he really doesn’t have a name just takes the name of his creator. There are movies, videos, stories, games, and much more which portrays the character Frankenstein in so many different viewpoints that allows him to live on even until today. There are so many different stories about this monster some which make him out to be good, bad, and even a real monster, but the first Frankenstein was released by Mary Shelley on January 1st, 1818. Frankenstein continues to exist today for so much things such as movies. In the movie Hotel Transylvania there is a character that plays the role of Frankenstein. Throughout this movie you can see that this character is made out to be a helpful, friendly, and caring monster. You can also see that in the movie he is a big, ugly, green monster, but he made out to be nothing compared to the story by Mary Shelley. There is also a movie called Frankenweenie in which the role of Frankenstein is played by a dog which the owner Victor brings back to life through a lightning bolt. There are also many books for kids such as Frankenstein Makes a Sandwich by Adam Rex. In this book the monster is teaching young kids how to make sandwiches. They use a monster as the main character so that young kids will know Frankenstein not as a scary monster but a friendly monster that they won’t have to be afraid of. Throughout the story of Frankenstein you start to notice how he tries hard to fit in and have a place in this world. Frankenstein just wants to feel like he belongs and not to feel like an outsider which is how most of the people make him feel. In the beginning of the novel Victor abandons the monster to fend for his own, he does not know what is wrong or what is right which explains why he would kill people when he would get angry especially at Victor. Frankenstein had to learn how to belong in the world on his own. He didn’t know how to speak the language they did, did not know how to treat people, etc. Frankenstein becomes excluded from society, and tries to humanize himself through knowledge of language. The monster has no one to talk to which makes him lonely for most of the story and full of sadness. He tries so hard to be normal and fit, in but when he tries to communicate with others they run and scream out of fear because of his appearance. During the story you start to notice that there is some feminism. There is not really any roles played by women in the novel, but we notice that Frankenstein has an interest in Safie and Agatha. He shows the same interest in the Delacey family. He shows more interest in Safie because he sees how she knows nothing of the language they speak so when the Delacey family teaches her that is how Frankenstein learns. The monster starts to do human things for the family such as gather firewood for them in the middle of the night he wants to do good for all the things that he did bad. Today Frankenstein is one of the most popular monsters of all times. People see the monster as different things he could be seen as bad, good, or a scary monster. So many people find an interest in him, many of which don’t know the real story but know the stories that people recreated him to be.

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The Analysis of Frankenstein

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frankenstein essay analysis

Frankenstein - Free Essay Samples And Topic Ideas

Frankenstein is a novel by Mary Shelley, often heralded as one of the first pieces of science fiction, exploring themes of creation, ambition, and the moral implications of scientific advancement. Essays on “Frankenstein” could delve into these themes, the character analysis of Victor Frankenstein and the Creature, and the novel’s enduring legacy in literature and popular culture. Moreover, discussions might extend to the novel’s influence on the genre of science fiction and horror. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to Frankenstein you can find at Papersowl. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Who is the Real Monster in Frankenstein

Monsters in literature are normally characterized as a creature that possesses some type of inhuman qualities or deformities, is perceived as evil, and has no compassion for mankind. The term monster can also refer to a person who has done a terrible thing in life that poorly affects others around them. In literature, outcasts are people who are not wanted and are rejected by society. In the novel Frankenstein, by Mary Shelley, many readers label the creature as a monster […]

Differences between French, Russian and American Revolutions

A revolution is a successful attempt made by a large group of people to change / challenge the political system of their country. People who are willing to engage and take action in a revolution are trying to fix the struggles in justice, reminding people not to forget the future against the past. People who want to change the political system are looking out for the future of their country. Revolution was the only way average people or citizens felt […]

Physical Appearance in Frankenstein

The main theme in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is the importance of appearance which correlates to the idea of acceptance in modern society. Today's society, as well as in the society of Frankenstein, people judge one often solely on their looks. Social prejudice is often based on looks, whether it be the pigments that make up someone's skin color, the facial features that one has and the clothes that a person wears. Society makes rapid judgments based on these and other […]

Gothic Elements in Frankenstein

Mary Shelley lived and wrote her novel Frankenstein during the peak of the romantic era of literature in the early 1800's. She shows this as her work reflects many of the key elements that are associated with romanticism. In Frankenstein, Shelley also utilizes many of the elements of gothic literature. Shelley uses many of the conventions aligned with romantic and gothic literature in Frankenstein's setting, subject matter, characterization, and plot to portray her overall tone and mood in the novel. […]

The American and the French Revolutions

The right of revolution was an idea proposed by Enlightenment Philosopher John Locke, which inspired and challenged the colonies in America and the people of France to revolt. Displeased with their current positions with their governments, they mustered up the courage and strength to challenge authority. Through their battles and hardships, both revolutions sought a government that mirrored the Enlightenment beliefs of natural rights, power of the people, and equality. With those goals in mind, they demonstrated the idea that […]

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Family Relations and Alienation in “Frankenstein”

In today's fast-paced world, it is important to build connections and relationships with people and society. Being able to bond with surroundings, is key for living a healthy and happy life. Family is what helps humans build their foundations and are able to learn and succeed with the support of them. In Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, the lack of connection the characters have to either their family or society leads them to murder, hopelessness and tragedy. Specifically Victor and his […]

Shelley about Romanticism Versus the Enlightenment

In the novel, "Frankenstein," Mary Shelley uses various elements of both mysterious and romantic literature to convey her indictment of the Enlightenment thinking over the use of her characters displayed throughout the novel. Being written in the time of the Romantic era, Shelley uses vivid language to portray her objection of the Enlightenment age as it influenced many people to use logical reasoning and science to disregard barbarism and superstition from the World. In Frankenstein, Shelley's response to this ideology […]

The French Revolution Within Frankenstein

Almost twenty years after the end of the French Revolution, Mary Shelley published her gothic horror novel, Frankenstein, in 1818. Shelley grew up with parents who were intellectual radicals (Sterrenburg 143). Yet, she was detached from radicalism and opted for a more conservative perspective (Sterrenburg 143). She did a vast amount of readings on the French Revolution (Sterrenburg 143). By extensively studying the ideas around the revolution, it is not a surprise that they appear embedded through her work, more […]

Discrimination and Prejudice in Frankenstein

During our human history, prejudice and discrimination have existed. Prejudice refers to the irrational and inflexible attitudes that members of a particular group hold about members of another group (Sibley and Duckitt 248). Prejudices are either harmful or positive. Both forms of prejudice are usually preconceived by the people who hold them and are extremely difficult to alter (Stephan, Cookie and Stephan 33). The negative form of prejudices leads to discrimination- unjust behaviors that holders of negative prejudice direct against […]

American, French and Mexican Revolutions

When it comes to the American Revolution, there was one individual that gave American people an idea of what they should be fighting for. John Locke’s idea of “life, liberty, and estate” heavily inspired Thomas Jefferson’s “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” when fighting against the British. So why did the Americans revolt? What beliefs did they have? One thing the American, French, and Mexican revolutions have in common is that their governments were corrupt. The Colonists called for […]

Philosophy of Dualism and Materialism in “Frankenstein”

In Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein, the philosophies of dualism and materialism can be found through the story's main characters, Victor Frankenstein and the Creature. Throughout the novel, the decisions that both make and their justifications for those decisions are rooted in both dualistic and materialistic ideas. In the scene leading up to the creation to the Creature as well as the scene itself, much of Victor's decision to even try such a feit stems from a materialistic standpoint, using science […]

Frankenstein Revenge

In her novel ?Frankenstein?, Mary Shelley shows that both Frankenstein and his creature are obsessed with revenge through their strong emotional language and obsessive actions, yet neither of them wins and gets revenge in the end. After Victor Frankenstein is threatened by the creature after destroying his nearly complete bride, Frankenstein states that he “?burned with rage to pursue the murderer of my peace and precipitate him into the ocean. I walked up and down my room hastily and perturbed, […]

Frankenstein and Gothic Literature

The character's identity and outward appearance interferes with the norms of the hierarchical societies in which they live. Thus, preventing them from experiencing life outside of the isolated confinement they are subjected to. While experiencing a constant conflict with acceptance it strikes the curiosity inside them. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the experience of loneliness and obsession of science drives Victor Frankenstein to assume the role of God by reanimating a corpse. The horror presented derives from the source of control […]

Economic Crisis Druing the French Revolution

The economic issues made by the French kings additionally added to the Revolution. Amid the eighteenth century, the French government spent more cash than it gathered in expenses. By 1788, the nation was bankrupt. Arthur Young, an Englishmen, and spectator, who ventured out to France from 1787 to 1789 furiously portray the living conditions of the workers in his book Travels in France (Campbell, 18). The measure of expense every individual must pay is out of line. Landholders found in […]

The Role of Science in Frankenstein

Mary Shelley tells a story of a scientist who creates a hideous creature in the novel Frankenstein. Victor Frankenstein is an amazing, smart scientist who admired human anatomy, and soon decided to create his own creature. Who is more at fault for the monsters behavior, Victor or the monster? If you were in the monsters position would you become a murderer for revenge? The monster is often viewed as the antagonist, however is Victor Frankenstein the reason many people in […]

Isolation: Frankenstein and the Heart of Darkness

As humans we are naturally inclined to socialize with each other. There are times when we don’t want to be surrounded by others and just by ourselves, but prolonging that isolation can be detrimental to one’s psyche. Isolation can lead to stress levels rising, poor sleep, immune system dysfunction, and even cognitive depreciation (Psychology Today). In Heart of Darkness ?by Joseph Conrad, we see through Marlow’s eyes the descent of the antagonist Kurtz due to prolonged isolation in the wild […]

Foster’s Chapter “Every Trip is a Quest” in “Frankenstein”

In Foster's Chapter, Every Trip Is A Quest , he implies that every journey is a quest and every quest has to have a quester, a place to go, a stated reason to go there, challenges and trials along the way, and a real reason to go. When a character goes on a quest, he goes with intentions on fulfilling the originally stated reason, but once he is on the quest, he never ends up going for that originally stated […]

Dark Romanticism

“Words have no power to impress the mind without the exquisite horror of their reality” (Edgar Allan Poe). Dark Romanticism is a literary movement that made waves that still resonate today within modern horror and pop culture, from Frankenstein to Dracula many recognizable names came from this era of writing. From the subjects covered by the many influential authors of the era to how it still has a place within modern writing, Dark Romanticism, a writing movement that began in […]

The History of Frankenstein in Film

From the dawn of the cinematic age, both horror and science fiction films have been shown throughout every cinema available. More common, however, were films based upon previously written works such as books or plays as they were easy to adapt from one medium to another. In 1910, Edison studios released what would inevitably lead to a cultural shift around the plot of one of the most famous, if not the most famous gothic novels: Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1818). The […]

Creation of Life in “Frankenstein”

The next major aspect of the novel that I would like to focus on is the creation of Frankenstein. This will include dissecting the experience into pieces, such as the use of technology, the role of God and religion and the reason behind creating the monster. In the novel, technology is used in correlation with the creation of Frankenstein. Victor says, I collected bones from charnel houses; and distributed, with profane fingers, the tremendous secrets of the human frame (Shelley […]

Victor Frankenstein in “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley

Frankenstein tells the story of Victor Frankenstein, a scientist in the 18th century. The story begins with a letter from Captain Walton to his sister. The first letter is dated 17--. In Walton's letters, he tells his sister of his encounter with the scientist Victor Frankenstein. Victor becomes consumed with discovering the secret of creating life. In his pursuit of this knowledge, Victor creates a living creature made of body parts of corpses. Victor is successful in creating life, but […]

Technology and Morality in Shelley’s “Frankenstein”

In Frankenstein, Shelley addresses her concerns regarding human advancement by using a framed narrative that includes parallels, foils, and allusions in order to express that many people are unaware of the consequences of their actions because their hubris and ambition blinds them. This tends to disrupt the balance of society. Shelley’s framed structure leads us gradually to the central ideas of her novel and has us question our own society as a whole. The intention of each narrative in the […]

How Technology Changed Society

Technology has dramatically changed society in ways people never imagined. Before the dawn of modern-day technology, life was troublesome and everyday tasks like chores or transport consumed too much of humans’ effort and time. Now, because of technology human can communicate, transport, and work faster than ever. Due to the efficiency of tech, humans’ lives have been eased tremendously and almost all humans live in comfort. In the 21st Century, technology and human life are inseparable; society these days depends […]

Novel “Frankenstein” : Roles of Gender

Throughout reading the novel Frankenstein, I thought it was indeed interesting how Mary Shelley incorporated themes of gender and the aspect of creation. Mary Shelley uses her own life experiences to shape her works and to gain ideas to integrate social issues into her work. Mary Shelley portrays the problems and incorporates them throughout the book and touches on the aspect of social hierarchies of gender, which inherently value men over women. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, issues of gender and […]

Frankenstein Dangerous Knowledge

Isolation is a dangerous act. Whether it is forced by the ones around us or a choice made by us to be alone isolation separates the victim from society damaging them emotionally. In Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, the monster, Frankenstein's monster, comes to know the true act of isolation. The monster was not only cast out by the townspeople but by his creator. Their prejudiced views of the monster as only that, a monster, turned him into what they truly sought […]

Frankenstein Isolation

One theme presented in Marry Shelley's book Frankenstein is the theme of isolation. Right from the beginning, someone has felt isolated from someone else. The three characters consistently developed the theme of isolation are Victor, the Creature, and Elizabeth. Though the three experience isolation, their isolation experience differs. Unlike the Creature and Elizabeth, Victor chose to isolate himself from people. This is evidenced from right when he was working on his research and when he tries to create a life. […]

Frankenstein: the Cruelty he Faced

For centuries, society has placed stereotypes on those individuals who are different. Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein is an example of one specific stereotype, which is the discrimination of a person because of a physical deformity. Frankenstein shows how social prejudices against physical deformities can automatically classify a person as bad or monstrous. In gothic novels, visual codes were used to identify good from bad and socially acceptable from socially unacceptable. By using these codes, it was possible to tell if […]

Frankenstein Book Review

In the book “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley, it is clear to lay the blame upon Victor Frankenstein. The definition of blame is the assignation of responsibility towards someone/something for a fault or wrong. Victor’s love and passion for science led to a monstrous idea and ended up killing three people. While his pride was a driving force, abandoning the creature was not a smart move. Due to the fact that his idea was matched with the act of doing gives […]

Feminism Represented through Frankenstein Characters

Frankenstein is known all over for being about a monster that loses control and kills people, but no one talks about some of the topics that Mary Shelley portrays in the novel. This book seems male dominant. The females play a big role, but not in the way that big roles are usually played. Women seem to hide from playing a part in Frankenstein, but Mary Shelley finds a way to display feminism in the book and that is how […]

Frankenstein Critical Analysis

In Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, isolation is a motif, or recurring idea with symbolic importance, revealed throughout the story between two characters, Victor Frankenstein, and his scientifically animated monster, the Creature. They both engage in acts and narratives of projecting the consequential dogma of isolation, that inevitably isolation results negatively and perpetuates misanthropy. Victor on one hand is an obsessive personality, lost in his studies he removes himself from very much human contact and engaging society. It results in his […]

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Often regarded as the first science fiction novel in history, Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is a true masterpiece. Although she was only 21 when she published one of the best gothic romance novels of all time, its value doesn’t diminish even today. So, why is this book so popular among all generations two centuries later? The answer probably lies in the themes elaborated and the universal truths revealed. Ambition, revenge, love, and hatred have ruled over humanity across millennia and seem to be infinite sources of inspiration for discussion. Moreover, the symbols portrayed are ideal prompts for essay titles. As for the plot, Victor Frankenstein provides the perfect foundation for analysis and criticism. As profound as his knowledge is, Victor uses his brain to his detriment. Because of his eagerness to surmount the unsurmountable and create life out of death, he sacrificed his family. Victor’s character is unique because of the clash between love and hate, intelligence and ignorance. Most readers end up reading with a single thought: Is Victor the real monster? As a result, Mary’s debut in the writing realm is a true gem for students of all ages. Essay topics can include the pursuit of knowledge, the importance of family, the symbols of nature, isolation, and revenge. The number of literary analysis essay examples on Frankenstein is endless. For instance, you might dedicate your research paper to atypical appearances as opposed to societal expectations. Ideally, your thesis statement will mention prejudices based on looks. For maximum impact, ensure you cap the introduction with a good hook that grabs the readers’ attention. Are you confused about where to start and how to outline your academic paper? Worry not because PapersOwl is always by your side and offers multiple free argumentative essays about Frankenstein. All you need to do is visit the platform and insert the required theme. Feel free to explore the extra features, including a free plagiarism checker, a conclusion and summary generator, and a paragraphing tool. Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus Essay Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus is a novel by English author Mary Shelley. This is considered one of the most popular literary works studied in schools and colleges all over the world. If you’re a student, you will have to read the book and probably do a literary analysis of its characters, themes, and symbols at some point. Many students are assigned the task of writing a critical essay or a research paper on Frankenstein. A highly original story for its time, the novel packs a lot of ideas and still provides intriguing and thought-provoking insights, which is why it’s so thoroughly studied. The plot is simple at first sight. Victor Frankenstein is a young scientist, who conducts a scientific experiment at the end of which he manages to bring to life a new living creature. Despite its monstrous look, the creature has the same thinking and feeling abilities as any human being. This simple plot makes way for the exploration of many interesting concepts, which means that a student can easily find many topics to cover when writing an essay on Frankenstein. To get examples of a good argumentative essay, see our page where we explore the controversial ethical questions posed in the book and perform character analysis and a dissection of the most important themes. Read our essay examples to get a good overview of the novel’s symbolism and create your own outline. We discuss aspects such as alienation, the dangerous pursuit of knowledge, monstrosity, ambition, family values, the natural world, and many other key concepts that Mary Shelley delved into in her novel. Reading literary analyses is important for students to not miss out on important ideas after the first reading of the book itself.

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The Novel “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis Essay

Introduction, walter scotts critique, naomi hetherington’s critique, works cited.

Frankenstein’s work has been criticized by many scholars who have tried to come up with other ideas concerning the Novel. Her book contains critical information which cannot be underestimated in the current contemporary society. Her use of hypothetical questions and fiction in the setup of her ideas can be utilized in recent literary works. This essay discusses two critiques by Professor Naomi Hetherington’s and Walter Scott’s analysis of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein.

Walter Scott, who was a British national, wrote the Romantic Circle Critiques. He was born in Edinburg and attended Edinburgh High School. He further went to Edinburgh University to study arts and law (Romantic Circles). He was involved in the Romantic Movement and participated in various occupational Walter was conducted, including poetry, historical novelist, clerk session, and advocate. His first poem was entitled Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. Additionally, he published novels like Waverley, Guy Mannering, and Tales of My Land.

Mary’s novel is featured in the romantic fiction of nature which depicts family values and fundamental laws of nature. The author aims to explain the romantic nature by explaining unusual settings and nature components (Romantic Circles). The perceptions which drove Frankenstein, such as the change of species Belle Assemblee are explained. Furthermore, the difficulties and challenges Frankenstein and encounters with demons are illustrated. The changes that occur from life to death and death to stamina are explained. Themes of creation and revenge run across the novel in the urge of Frankenstein to avenge his originator for all the miseries.

Scoots’ analysis goes in hand with the settings and perceptions of Mary’s fiction. The element of imaginary setting and magical narration is the primary focus of the author’s critique. They bring about a better understanding of this novel in a relevant manner. The author supports Mary’s work and critically analysis the novel with matching arguments in a necessary way. He uses romance fiction and the element of vengeance and anger due to demons’ control which generally gives a good narration based on historical events. I agree with the critique since it uses Frankenstein’s ideas and themes which support his arguments. The similarity in the content and the settings are valid and authentic.

Another critique is from Professor Naomi Hetherington, who has a Ph.D. from Southampton University. She has been a teacher in Birkbeck for almost five years at the University of London, where she earned a teaching and scholarship award for her incredible contribution to literature. Naomi’s thesis illustrates that Mary wanted to use myths through fiction, the meaning of being a human being in a universe full of troubles (Hetherington 42). Additionally, she suggests that Mary revised her work to deviate from Lawrence and compare it with Christian Orthodox etiology.

Naomi’s thesis statement is relevant since it illustrates a step-by-step analysis of the novel. The first section of her research relates Frankenstein to Milton’s Paradise Lost and Prometheus legend. On the other hand, the last section describes the book to the religious nature of Mary after her husband dies (Ozherelyev 63). The Miltonic illustrations seen throughout the novel are used to emphasize the origin of evil in the world. The presence of a deity who creates human beings is seen. I agree with Naomi’s Critique since it relates outside resources such as Frankenstein to Milton Paradise Lost and Prometheus legend to support her arguments. She further identifies other themes related to the main content making these resources valid.

In summary, the two critiques by Naomi and Scoot give a better review of the novel provide literature and comprehension of the past event. Factors that contribute to environmental changes are discussed. The themes of creation and vengeance are illustrated to give a clear perspective of Mary’s main aim in writing her book. After the death of her husband, Mary becomes religious and seeks Christian Orthodox etiology ideas. The existence of a deity who creates human beings indicates the origin of life, and its end is seen by death.

Hetherington, Naomi. “Creator And Created in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein .”Taylor & Francis , vol, 12, no. 5, 2022, pp. 32-85

Ozherelyev, Konstantin A. “Philosophical Contexts in Mary Shelley’S Novel «Frankenstein.» Herald Of Omsk University , vol 25, no. 3, 2020, pp. 61-66. Dostoevsky Omsk State University ,

Romantic Circles. “Belle Assemblee Review of Frankenstein. March 1818, Romantic Circles”. Romantic-Circles.Org , 2022, Web.

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IvyPanda. (2023, August 20). The Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis.

"The Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis." IvyPanda , 20 Aug. 2023,

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IvyPanda . 2023. "The Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis." August 20, 2023.

1. IvyPanda . "The Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis." August 20, 2023.


IvyPanda . "The Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis." August 20, 2023.

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‘ChatGPT detector’ catches AI-generated papers with unprecedented accuracy

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A machine-learning tool can easily spot when chemistry papers are written using the chatbot ChatGPT, according to a study published on 6 November in Cell Reports Physical Science 1 . The specialized classifier, which outperformed two existing artificial intelligence (AI) detectors, could help academic publishers to identify papers created by AI text generators.

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Desaire, H., Chua, A. E., Kim, M.-G. & Hua, D. Cell Rep. Phys. Sci. (2023).

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TA402 Uses Complex IronWind Infection Chains to Target Middle East-Based Government Entities 

Key takeaways .

  • From July through October 2023, Proofpoint researchers observed TA402 engage in phishing campaigns that delivered a new initial access downloader dubbed IronWind. The downloader was followed by additional stages that consisted of downloaded shellcode.  
  • During the same period, TA402 adjusted its delivery methods, moving from using Dropbox links to using XLL and RAR file attachments, likely to evade detection efforts.  
  • This threat actor has consistently engaged in extremely targeted activity, pursuing less than five organizations with any single campaign. They have also maintained a strong focus on government entities based in the Middle East and North Africa.  
  • Proofpoint has tracked TA402 since 2020. Our researchers assess the threat actor is a Middle Eastern advanced persistent threat (APT) group that historically has operated in the interests of the Palestinian Territories and overlaps with public reporting on Molerats, Gaza Cybergang, Frankenstein, and WIRTE.  

In mid-2023, Proofpoint researchers first identified TA402 (Molerats, Gaza Cybergang, Frankenstein, WIRTE) activity using a labyrinthine infection chain to target Middle Eastern governments with a new initial access downloader Proofpoint has dubbed IronWind. From July through October 2023, TA402 utilized three variations of this infection chain—Dropbox links, XLL file attachments, and RAR file attachments—with each variant consistently leading to the download of a DLL containing the multifunctional malware. In these campaigns, TA402 also pivoted away from its use of cloud services like Dropbox API, which Proofpoint researchers observed in activity from 2021 and 2022, to using actor-controlled infrastructure for C2 communication.  

As of late October 2023, Proofpoint researchers had not observed any changes in targeting by   TA402, an APT group that historically has operated in the interests of the Palestinian Territories, nor identified any indications of an altered mandate despite the current conflict in the region. It remains possible that this threat actor will redirect its resources as events continue to unfold.   

Campaign details and IronWind 

July 2023 Activity: In July 2023, Proofpoint researchers observed the first of TA402’s new, more convoluted infection chain as compared to prior campaign activity from 2021 and 2022 (Figures 1 and 2).  

Figure 1

Figure 1. TA402 infection chain used from November 2021 to January 2022.  

Figure 2

Figure 2. TA402 infection chain used in July 2023 campaign. 

TA402 engaged in a phishing campaign using a compromised Ministry of Foreign Affairs email account to target Middle Eastern government entities. The emails used an economic-themed social engineering lure ("برنامج التعاون الإقتصادي مع دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي 2023-2024" [Machine Translation: Economic cooperation program with the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council 2023-2024"]) to deliver a Drobox link that downloaded a malicious Microsoft PowerPoint Add-in (PPAM) file. The PPAM file contained a macro that dropped three files: version.dll (IronWind), timeout.exe, and gatherNetworkInfo.vbs. Timeout.exe was used to sideload IronWind. Once sideloaded, IronWind sent an HTTP GET request to a known TA402 C2 domain, theconomics[.]net, which was hosted on 191.101.78[.]189 at the time of analysis in August 2023. Proofpoint researchers have observed TA402 leveraging Dropbox for malware delivery since at least December 2021. 

After receiving the HTTP GET request, the C2 responded with shellcode that represented the third stage of the infection chain. During Proofpoint’s analysis, the shellcode used reflective .NET loaders to conduct WMI queries. The shellcode also served as a multipurpose loader, downloading the fourth stage—a .NET executable that used SharpSploit , a .NET post-exploitation library written in C#.  

The .NET executable continued to use HTTPS POSTs and GETs to theconomics[.]net for C2 and received JSON responses. It passed authentication via a custom UserAgent string, "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:<tag>) Gecko/<auth> Firefox/3.15" and almost certainly would have downloaded additional shellcode payloads. Based on Proofpoint analysis, this UserAgent is unique enough to be used for detection purposes. Proofpoint researchers did not observe the fifth stage at the time of analysis but took note that the last stage payload contained unused code, suggesting TA402 may be making further updates and adjustments to the malware.  

August 2023 activity: In August 2023, TA402 shifted to sending an attached XLL file to load IronWind using “قائمة الأشخاص والكيانات (المصنفة إرهابية) من قبل هيئة مكافحة غسيل الأموال وتمويل الإرهاب” as a lure instead of using a malicious PPAM file delivered via Drobox. The machine translation of the lure is as follows: “List of persons and entities (designated as terrorists) by the Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing Authority.” TA402 used the same compromised Ministry of Foreign Affairs email account observed in the July activity. As part of the initial infection process, TA402 sent a base64 encoded check in to Request Inspector—a third-party service for creating endpoints for HTTP requests—to exfiltrate some system information. 

October 2023 activity: In October 2023, TA402 shifted a portion of its infection chain yet again. This time the threat actor sent a RAR file attachment that contained a renamed version of tabcal.exe for sideloading IronWind and propsys.dll (IronWind) instead of using a malicious PPAM file delivered via Dropbox or an attached XLL file to load the malware. The delivered malware again used Request Inspector for initial check in and a new TA402 C2 domain, inclusive-economy[.]com.  

TA402 also continued to leverage a compromised Ministry of Foreign Affairs email account to send phishing emails with the lure "تقريــر وتوصيــات الـدورة (110) بخصوص الحرب على غزة,” which translates to “Report and Recommendations of the 110th Session on the War on Gaza.” Currently, TA402 only appears to be using the conflict for lure purposes. Additionally, TA402 continues to phish, indicating the conflict has not significantly disrupted the group’s operations. 

IronWind: PDB analysis  

During malware analysis, Proofpoint researchers identified TA402 had failed to sanitize the group’s PDB paths during malware development for multiple stages. A YARA rule for hunting purposes is attached at the end of this blog.  

Based on the following PDB paths, Proofpoint researchers assess with moderate confidence that the IronWind malware project name is \tornado\ and malware development is broken out by function, including IA (the IronWind dropper), stager (the stager DLL), and payloads.  

  • VT Stage 1: C:\Users\Win\Desktop\Reno\NewTor\27-07-2023\tornado\tornado\Payloads\BAR_33\I.A\out\IA.pdb 
  • July 2023 Stage 2: C:\Users\User\Desktop\tornado\Payloads\WKS_10\I.A\out\stagerx64.pdb 
  • August 2023 Stage 1: C:\Users\Win\Desktop\Reno\NewTor\27-07-2023\tornado\tornado\Payloads\BAR_38\I.A\out\IA.pdb 
  • August 2023 Stage 2: C:\Users\Win\Desktop\Reno\NewTor\NewIA-Tornado-WithStealer\Payloads\KIL_03\I.A\out\stagerx64.pdb 
  • Stage 4: K:\prj\WIP\C# - Payload\Client-Side\https\client-Divided\KALV\obj\Release\KALV.pdb 


TA402 regularly employs geofencing techniques to make detection of its malicious activity more difficult. This aspect of the threat actor’s tactics, techniques, and procedures has remained consistent since at least 2020. Even with the more elaborate infection chains observed in 2023, TA402 continues to include URLs that will at times redirect to decoy documents hosted on legitimate document hosting platforms if the geofencing is not bypassed.   


Proofpoint researchers attributed the campaigns to TA402 based on tactics, techniques, and victimology. The 2023 campaigns share similarly themed lures as historical TA402 activity and retain a focus on Arabic-speaking targets located in the Middle East. Over the years, TA402 has consistently targeted government entities based in the Middle East and North Africa, at times going after the same targets repeatedly. TA402’s use of compromised Ministry of Foreign Affairs email accounts, geofencing, and decoy documents additionally contributed to the attribution. 

Proofpoint researchers also assess TA402 operates in support of Palestinian espionage objectives with a focus on intelligence collection. This is consistent with prior Proofpoint published reports on this threat actor. While Proofpoint recognizes that TA402 overlaps with a number of publicly reported threat actors, including Molerats, WIRTE, and Frankenstein, Proofpoint researchers cluster independently based on internal malware analysis and investigations.  


Based on Proofpoint’s tracking of this threat actor since 2020, TA402 remains a persistent and innovative threat actor that routinely retools its attack methods and malware in support of its cyber espionage mandate. Its ongoing use of geofencing and decoy documents continues to serve its detection evasion efforts. While TA402 is an intelligence collection focused threat actor with a specific interest in Middle Eastern and North African government entities, the group could find itself under direction to adjust its targeting or social engineering lures in reaction to the ongoing Israel-Hamas conflict.  

Indicators of Compromise (IOCs) 

Et signatures .

  • 2049153 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 CnC User-Agent
  • 2049154 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 CnC Response M1
  • 2049155 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 CnC Response M2
  • 2049158 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 Checkin
  • 2049159 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 Checkin M2
  • 2049160 - ET MALWARE TA402 CnC Domain in DNS Lookup
  • 2049161 - ET MALWARE Observed TA402 Domain in TLS SNI
  • 2049162 - ET MALWARE TA402 CnC Domain in DNS Lookup
  • 2049163 - ET MALWARE Observed TA402 Domain in TLS SNI
  • 2049164 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 CnC Activity (POST)
  • 2049165 - ET MALWARE Win32/TA402 CnC Activity (GET)

rule TA402_PDB 

    author = "Proofpoint inc." 

    description = "Finds TA402 related PDB paths" 

    date = “2023-09-27” 


$pdb1 = "C:\\Users\\Win\\Desktop\\Reno\\NewTor" ascii wide  

$pdb2 = "C:\\Users\\User\\Desktop\\tornado\\" ascii wide  

$pdb3 = "K:\\prj\\WIP\\C# - Payload\\Client-Side\\https\\client-Divided\\KALV\\obj\\Release\\KALV.pdb" ascii wide  

$pdb4 = "K:\\prj\\WIP\\C# - Payload\\Client-Side" ascii wide  


any of them 

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David French

The New Republican Party Isn’t Ready for the Post-Roe World

A cheering crowd holds up signs that read, “Yes on Issue 1.”

By David French

Opinion Columnist

Ohio is not a swing state, not any longer. Donald Trump won it by eight points, twice. It has a Republican governor, and while its senators are split between the parties, its U.S. House delegation is made up of 10 Republicans and five Democrats. And yet Ohio just passed an abortion-rights referendum by a margin of more than 13 points.

There’s no way to spin this result. There’s no way to spin every other pro-choice result in every other red-state referendum. The pro-life movement is in a state of electoral collapse, and I think I know one reason.

In the eight years since the so-called New Right emerged on the scene and Trump began to dominate the Republican landscape, the Republican Party has become less libertarian but more libertine, and libertinism is ultimately incompatible with a holistic pro-life worldview.

I’m not arguing that the pro-choice position is inherently libertine. There are many millions of Americans — including pro-choice Republicans — who arrive at their position through genuine philosophical disagreement with the idea that an unborn child possesses the same inherent worth as anyone else. But I’ve seen Republican libertinism with my own eyes. I know that it distorts the culture of the Republican Party and red America.

The difference between libertarianism and libertinism can be summed up as the difference between rights and desires. A libertarian is concerned with her own liberty but also knows that this liberty ends where yours begins. The entire philosophy of libertarianism depends on a healthy recognition of human dignity. A healthy libertarianism can still be individualistic, but it’s also deeply concerned with both personal virtue and the rights of others. Not all libertarians are pro-life, but a pro-life libertarian will recognize the humanity and dignity of both mother and child.

A libertine, by contrast, is dominated by his desires. The object of his life is to do what he wants, and the object of politics is to give him what he wants. A libertarian is concerned with all forms of state coercion. A libertine rejects any attempt to coerce him personally, but he’s happy to coerce others if that gives him what he wants.

Donald Trump is the consummate libertine. He rejects restraints on his appetites and accountability for his actions. The guiding principle of his worldview is summed up with a simple declaration: I do what I want. Any movement built in his image will be libertine as well.

Trump’s movement dismisses the value of personal character. It mocks personal restraint. And it’s happy to inflict its will on others if that achieves what it wants. Libertarianism says that your rights are more important than my desires. Libertinism says my desires are more important than your rights, and this means that libertines are terrible ambassadors for any cause that requires self-sacrifice.

I don’t think the pro-life movement has fully reckoned with the political and cultural fallout from the libertine right-wing response to the Covid pandemic. Here was a movement that was loudly telling women that they had to carry unwanted pregnancies to term, with all the physical transformations, risks and financial uncertainties that come with pregnancy and childbirth, at the same time that millions of its members were also loudly refusing the minor inconveniences of masking and the low risks of vaccination — even if the best science available at the time told us that both masking and vaccination could help protect others from getting the disease.

Even worse, many of the same people demanded that the state limit the liberty of others so that they could live how they wanted. Florida, for example, banned private corporate vaccine mandates .

This do-what-you-want ethos cost a staggering number of American lives. A 2022 study found that there were an estimated 318,981 vaccine-preventable deaths from January 2021 to April 2022. Vaccine hesitancy was so concentrated in Republican America that political affiliation was more relevant than race and ethnicity as an indicator of willingness to take the vaccine. Now there’s evidence from Ohio and Florida that excess mortality rates were significantly higher for Republicans than Democrats after vaccines were widely available.

And this is the party that’s now going to tell American women that respect for human life requires personal sacrifice?

It’s not just that libertinism robs Republicans of moral authority; it’s that libertinism robs Republicans of moral principle. The pro-life movement could fail so decisively in Ohio only if Republicans voted against abortion restrictions. The same analysis applies to the movement’s ballot referendum losses in pro-Trump states like Kansas , Montana and Kentucky .

In each state, all the pro-life movement needed was consistent Republican support, and it would have sailed to victory. All the Democrats in the state could have voted to protect abortion rights, and they would have lost if Republicans held firm. But they did not.

“Do as I say and not as I do” is among the worst moral arguments imaginable. A holistic pro-life society requires true self-sacrifice. It asks women to value the life growing inside of them even in the face of fear and poverty. It asks the community to rally beside these women to keep them and their children safe and to provide them with opportunities to flourish. It requires both individuals and communities to sublimate their own desires to protect the lives and opportunities of others.

As the Republican Party grows more libertine, the pro-life movement is going to keep losing. Of course, it’s going to keep losing with Democrats and independents, many of whom have always been skeptical of pro-life moral and legal arguments. But it’s also going to lose in the Republican Party itself, a party that is increasingly dedicated to outright defiance.

An ethos that centers individuals’ desires will bleed over into matters of life and death. It did during Covid, and it’s doing so now, as even Republicans reject the pro-life cause.

The challenge for pro-life America isn’t simply to raise more money or use better talking points. As Republican losses in Virginia demonstrate, advocating even a relatively mild abortion ban — a 15-week law, not a so-called heartbeat six-week bill — is fraught. The challenge is much more profound. Pro-life America has to reconnect with personal virtue. It has to model self-sacrifice. It has to show, not just tell, America what it would look like to value life from conception to natural death.

At present, however, the Republican Party is dominated by its id. It indulges its desires. And so long as its id is in control, the pro-life movement will fail. There is no selfish path to a culture of life.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

Follow The New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Twitter (@NYTopinion) and Instagram .

David French is an Opinion columnist. He is a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom and a former constitutional litigator. His most recent book is “Divided We Fall: America’s Secession Threat and How to Restore Our Nation.” You can follow him on Threads ( @davidfrenchjag ).


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    The most prominent symbols in the novel are light, darkness, Adam, Satan, and fire. They reflect the most important themes and concepts of the book. For the same reason, Shelley often resorts to allusions. By allusion, one should understand a brief and mostly indirect reference to a person, idea, or work of literature.

  20. The Novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Shelley: Critical Analysis Essay

    Mary's novel is featured in the romantic fiction of nature which depicts family values and fundamental laws of nature. The author aims to explain the romantic nature by explaining unusual settings and nature components (Romantic Circles). The perceptions which drove Frankenstein, such as the change of species Belle Assemblee are explained.

  21. 'ChatGPT detector' catches AI-generated papers with ...

    A text-classifier tool produced by OpenAI, the maker of ChatGPT, also performed poorly — it was able to spot AI-written introductions with an accuracy of around 10-55%. The new ChatGPT catcher ...

  22. TA402 Uses Complex IronWind Infection Chains to Target Middle East

    The PPAM file contained a macro that dropped three files: version.dll (IronWind), timeout.exe, and gatherNetworkInfo.vbs. Timeout.exe was used to sideload IronWind. Once sideloaded, IronWind sent an HTTP GET request to a known TA402 C2 domain, theconomics[.]net, which was hosted on 191.101.78[.]189 at the time of analysis in August 2023.

  23. Obama Urges Americans to Take in 'Whole Truth' of Israel-Gaza War

    Nicole Craine for The New York Times. By Lisa Lerer. Nov. 4, 2023. Barack Obama offered a complex analysis of the conflict between Israel and Gaza, telling thousands of former aides that they were ...

  24. The New Republican Party Isn't Ready for the Post-Roe World

    Ohio is not a swing state, not any longer. Donald Trump won it by eight points, twice. It has a Republican governor, and while its senators are split between the parties, its U.S. House delegation ...