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Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

One of the most famous cyclical models of reflection leading you through six stages exploring an experience: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan.

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences.  It offers a framework for examining experiences, and given its cyclic nature lends itself particularly well to repeated experiences, allowing you to learn and plan from things that either went well or didn’t go well. It covers 6 stages:

  • Description of the experience
  • Feelings and thoughts about the experience
  • Evaluation of the experience, both good and bad
  • Analysis to make sense of the situation
  • Conclusion about what you learned and what you could have done differently
  • Action plan for how you would deal with similar situations in the future, or general changes you might find appropriate.

Below is further information on:

  • The model – each stage is given a fuller description, guiding questions to ask yourself and an example of how this might look in a reflection
  • Different depths of reflection – an example of reflecting more briefly using this model

This is just one model of reflection. Test it out and see how it works for you. If you find that only a few of the questions are helpful for you, focus on those. However, by thinking about each stage you are more likely to engage critically with your learning experience.

A circular diagram showing the 6 stages of Gibbs' Reflective cycle

This model is a good way to work through an experience. This can be either a stand-alone experience or a situation you go through frequently, for example meetings with a team you have to collaborate with. Gibbs originally advocated its use in repeated situations, but the stages and principles apply equally well for single experiences too. If done with a stand-alone experience, the action plan may become more general and look at how you can apply your conclusions in the future.

For each of the stages of the model a number of helpful questions are outlined below. You don’t have to answer all of them but they can guide you about what sort of things make sense to include in that stage. You might have other prompts that work better for you.

Description

Here you have a chance to describe the situation in detail. The main points to include here concern what happened. Your feelings and conclusions will come later.

Helpful questions:

  • What happened?
  • When and where did it happen?
  • Who was present?
  • What did you and the other people do?
  • What was the outcome of the situation?
  • Why were you there?
  • What did you want to happen?

Example of 'Description'

Here you can explore any feelings or thoughts that you had during the experience and how they may have impacted the experience.

  • What were you feeling during the situation?
  • What were you feeling before and after the situation?
  • What do you think other people were feeling about the situation?
  • What do you think other people feel about the situation now?
  • What were you thinking during the situation?
  • What do you think about the situation now?

Example of 'Feelings'

Here you have a chance to evaluate what worked and what didn’t work in the situation. Try to be as objective and honest as possible. To get the most out of your reflection focus on both the positive and the negative aspects of the situation, even if it was primarily one or the other.

  • What was good and bad about the experience?
  • What went well?
  • What didn’t go so well?
  • What did you and other people contribute to the situation (positively or negatively)?

Example of 'Evaluation'

The analysis step is where you have a chance to make sense of what happened. Up until now you have focused on details around what happened in the situation. Now you have a chance to extract meaning from it. You want to target the different aspects that went well or poorly and ask yourself why. If you are looking to include academic literature, this is the natural place to include it.

  • Why did things go well?
  • Why didn’t it go well?
  • What sense can I make of the situation?
  • What knowledge – my own or others (for example academic literature) can help me understand the situation?

Example of 'Analysis'

Conclusions.

In this section you can make conclusions about what happened. This is where you summarise your learning and highlight what changes to your actions could improve the outcome in the future. It should be a natural response to the previous sections.

  • What did I learn from this situation?
  • How could this have been a more positive situation for everyone involved?
  • What skills do I need to develop for me to handle a situation like this better?
  • What else could I have done?

Example of a 'Conclusion'

Action plan.

At this step you plan for what you would do differently in a similar or related situation in the future. It can also be extremely helpful to think about how you will help yourself to act differently – such that you don’t only plan what you will do differently, but also how you will make sure it happens. Sometimes just the realisation is enough, but other times reminders might be helpful.

  • If I had to do the same thing again, what would I do differently?
  • How will I develop the required skills I need?
  • How can I make sure that I can act differently next time?

Example of 'Action Plan'

Different depths of reflection.

Depending on the context you are doing the reflection in, you might want use different levels of details. Here is the same scenario, which was used in the example above, however it is presented much more briefly.

Adapted from

Gibbs G (1988). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.

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LibAnswers: Referencing

How do i reference gibbs' reflective cycle in apa (7th ed.).

Wherever possible you should use the original work.

Gibbs, G. (1988).  Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods.   Further Education Unit.

Secondary referencing If you  have not  read the original you must make this clear by referring to the work in which you found the reference. In the reference list only include details of the work that you read.

In-text citation Gibbs’ reflective cycle (1988) as cited in Jasper (2013) shows that… or Gibbs’ reflective cycle is a seminal theory in reflective practice (Gibbs, 1988, as cited in Jasper, 2013).

In the reference list Jasper, M. (2013).  Beginning reflective practice  (2nd ed.). Cengage Learning.

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Article • 5 min read

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

Helping people learn from experience.

By the Mind Tools Content Team

gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

Many people find that they learn best from experience.

However, if they don't reflect on their experience, and if they don't consciously think about how they could do better next time, it's hard for them to learn anything at all.

This is where Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is useful. You can use it to help your people make sense of situations at work, so that they can understand what they did well and what they could do better in the future.

What Is Gibbs' Reflective Cycle?

Professor Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in his 1988 book " Learning by Doing ." It's particularly useful for helping people learn from situations that they experience regularly, especially when these don't go well.

Gibbs' cycle is shown below.

Figure 1 – Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

From "Learning by Doing" by Graham Gibbs. Published by Oxford Polytechnic, 1988.

Gibbs' original model had six stages. The stage we haven't covered here is "Analysis" – we've included this as part of the Evaluation stage.

Using the Model

You can use the model to explore a situation yourself, or you can use it with someone you're coaching – we look at coaching use in this article, but you can apply the same approach when you're on your own.

To structure a coaching session using Gibbs' Cycle, choose a situation to analyze and then work through the steps below.

Step 1: Description

First, ask the person you're coaching to describe the situation in detail. At this stage, you simply want to know what happened – you'll draw conclusions later.

Consider asking questions like these to help them describe the situation:

  • When and where did this happen?
  • Why were you there?
  • Who else was there?
  • What happened?
  • What did you do?
  • What did other people do?
  • What was the result of this situation?

Step 2: Feelings

Next, encourage them to talk about what they thought and felt during the experience. At this stage, avoid commenting on their emotions.

Use questions like these to guide the discussion:

  • What did you feel before this situation took place?
  • What did you feel while this situation took place?
  • What do you think other people felt during this situation?
  • What did you feel after the situation?
  • What do you think about the situation now?
  • What do you think other people feel about the situation now?

It might be difficult for some people to talk honestly about their feelings. Use Empathic Listening at this stage to connect with them emotionally, and to try to see things from their point of view.

You can use the Perceptual Positions technique to help this person see the situation from other people's perspectives.

Step 3: Evaluation

Now you need to encourage the person you're coaching to look objectively at what approaches worked, and which ones didn't.

  • What was positive about this situation?
  • What was negative?
  • What went well?
  • What didn't go so well?
  • What did you and other people do to contribute to the situation (either positively or negatively)?

If appropriate, use a technique such as the 5 Whys to help your team member uncover the root cause of the issue.

Step 4: Conclusions

Once you've evaluated the situation, you can help your team member draw conclusions about what happened.

Encourage them to think about the situation again, using the information that you've collected so far. Then ask questions like these:

  • How could this have been a more positive experience for everyone involved?
  • If you were faced with the same situation again, what would you do differently?
  • What skills do you need to develop, so that you can handle this type of situation better?

Step 5: Action

You should now have some possible actions that your team member can take to deal with similar situations more effectively in the future.

In this last stage, you need to come up with a plan so that they can make these changes.

Once you've identified the areas they'll work on, get them to commit to taking action, and agree a date on which you will both review progress.

Frequently Asked Questions About Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

What is purpose of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle?

The reflective cycle is a way to better learn from experience. It can be used to help people learn from mistakes, to make sense of situations, and analyse and refelct on their reactions to different situations.

What are the six stages of reflection?

The stages of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle are the following: descrition, feelings, evaluation, conclusion, and action. In the original model Gibbs included a sixth stage, analysis, which we've included in the evaluation stage.

What is the difference between Gibbs and Kolb's reflective cycles?

David Kolb's cycle has only four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Kolb's model is more about explaining the concept of what he calls "experiential learning" – whereas Gibbs' cycle is an attempt to provide a practical method for learning from experience.

This tool is structured as a cycle, reflecting an ongoing coaching relationship. Whether you use it this way depends on the situation and your relationship with the person being coached.

Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in 1988. There are five stages in the cycle:

  • Description.
  • Evaluation.
  • Conclusions.

You can use it to help team members think about how they deal with situations, so that they can understand what they did wel and where they need to improve.

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Gibbs Reflective Cycle: Theory and Example Template

Gibbs Reflective Cycle by Graham Gibbs - Toolshero

Gibbs Reflective Cycle: this article explains the Gibbs Reflective Cycle by Graham Gibbs in a practical way. Next to what it is, this arfticle also highlights the steps of the Reflective Cycle, the realtionship with experiences and a downloadable and editable Gibbs Reflective Cycle example template to get started yourself. After reading it, you understand the core of this management and self-reflection tool. Enjoy Reading!

What is the Gibbs Reflective Cycle?

In 1988, the American sociologist and psychologist Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle model in his book ‘ Learning by Doing ‘. Gibbs Reflective Cycle encourages people to think systematically about the experiences they had during a specific situation, event or activity.

Using a circle, reflection on those experiences can be structured in phases . This often makes people think about an experience, activity or event in more detail, making them aware of their own actions and better able to adjust and change their behaviour.

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By looking at both negative and positive impacts of the event, people can learn from it.

The Gibbs reflective cycle itself

The Gibbs Reflective Cycle starts at Description and then continues clockwise to Feelings , Evaluation , Analysis , Conclusion and ends at Action plan , to finally return to Description . Here the Gibbs reflective cycle is complete.

Gibbs Reflective Cycle steps - toolshero

Figure 1 – the steps of the Gibbs Reflective Cycle

The various steps are explained in more detail below:

Step 1: Description

During this step, you describe the situation, event or activity in detail, without drawing any conclusions right away. The most common questions that can help create an objective description are:

  • What happened?
  • When did it happen?
  • Where did it happen?
  • Who were involved?
  • What did you do yourself?
  • What did other people do?
  • What was the result of these actions?

It should be noted that important details must not be left out. For instance, why other people were involved in the situation in question. All information that is key to better understanding the situation is relevant.

Step 2: Feelings

This phase is about the feelings that the event triggered, as well as what someone’s thoughts were during the event, activity or situation described in step 1. The intention is not to discuss the feeling in detail or comment on it directly. Emotions don’t need to be evaluated or judged. Awareness is the most important goal of this phase. Helpful questions that are often used:

  • What did you feel leading up to the event?
  • What did you feel during the event?
  • What did you feel after the event?
  • How do you look back on the situation?
  • What do you think other people felt during event?
  • How do you think others feel about the event now?

Because people often have difficulty talking about their feelings, it helps that they’re encouraged by the questions or someone asking these questions.

This also demonstrates that the Gibbs Reflective Cycle can be used in an individual setting, or even in a coaching or counselling setting. The final two questions also allow one to see the event from other peoples’ perspectives.

Step 3: Evaluation

In this step, you ask yourself whether the experience of the event in step 1 was good or bad. Which approach worked well and in what way? Which approach didn’t work as well? It can be difficult for people to be objective about the situation. In order to still conduct a proper evaluation, the following questions may be helpful:

  • What went well during the event or activity?
  • Why was that?
  • What didn’t go so well?
  • What was your contribution?
  • What contribution did other people make?

It is also worth evaluating bad experiences, because the subsequent steps in the Gibbs Reflective Cycle help people learn from it.

Step 4: Analysis

This phase is about what you have learned from the situation, event or activity. Because of the experience, you now know what to do in similar, future situations.

This means that both positive and negative things and/or problems you experienced will be written down and analysed individually. After all, people learn from mistakes. This analysis is often done together alongside step 3.

Step 5: Conclusion

This is the step where you take a step back and look at yourself from a distance and ask what else you could have done in this situation. The information gathered earlier is very valuable in this step and can encourage you to come to a good and useful conclusion. The following questions may be helpful:

  • To what positive experience did the event, situation or activity lead?
  • To what negative experience did the event, situation or activity lead?
  • What will you do differently if the event, situation or activity were to happen again in the future?
  • Which skills do you need to develop yourself in a similar event, situation or activity?

Step 6: Action plan

In this final step, actions are developed for future situations, events or activities. Based on the ‘Conclusions’ in the 5th step, people make concrete promises to themselves. The intention is to keep these promises. If everything went well, you can promise yourself to act the same way next time.

In areas where things didn’t go so well, you can promise yourself not to make the same mistakes again. What will be a more effective approach and which change will lead to actual improvement?

In addition to an action plan , it’s wise to also make a plan on how to encourage yourself to stick to these promises.

Experiences

Thinking about one’s own experience can help to perform better or do things differently in the future. As the above shows, these experiences don’t have to be positive; negative experiences are also useful.

Next time a similar situation presents itself, you’ll know it’s better to approach the situation in a different way. It stimulates you to think long and hard about how to do things better next time. This is what Gibbs Reflective Cycle is all about.

People don’t just learn to understand certain situations better, but also learn to judge how the same situation can be handled in different ways in the future.

Gibbs reflective cycle: How to use it

Gibbs Reflective Cycle can be used in a variety of ways. First of all, any individual can use the cycle. If you’re open to actively changing yourself, the Reflective Cycle can be a helpful tool.

Coaches also use the Cycle to make their coaches aware of (unwanted) behaviour and find ways together for the coach to react differently to a situation.

In addition, the Reflective Cycle is often used in higher education. Especially when carrying out internship assignments, the cycle can be a good tool to make an intern aware of his or her actions. The part about how you’ll handle a similar situation differently in the future is specifically aimed at reflecting on one’s own actions.

After all, at the end of an internship period an intern should have developed him / herself enough to carry out internship assignments independently and behave professionally.

Gibbs Reflective Cycle template

Start reflecting on your experiences and actions with this editable Gibbs Reflecting Cycle template.

Download the Gibbs Reflecting Cycle template

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Now it is your turn

What do you think? What are your experiences with the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. How do you encourage people to think systematically about past experiences? Are you already using the Gibbs Reflective Cycle and do you have tips and tricks, or would you like to add anything?

Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below.

More information

  • Finlay, L. (2008). Reflecting on reflective practice . PBPL paper, 52, 1-27.
  • Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods . Oxford: Oxford Further Education Unit
  • Gibbs, G. (1998). Reviewing and improving your teaching . Practice Guide, 7, H851.

How to cite this article: Mulder, P. (2018). Gibbs Reflective Cycle . Retrieved [insert date] from Toolshero: https://www.toolshero.com/management/gibbs-reflective-cycle-graham-gibbs/

Original publication date: 02/28/2018 | Last update: 11/30/2023

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Patty Mulder

Patty Mulder

Patty Mulder is an Dutch expert on Management Skills, Personal Effectiveness and Business Communication. She is also a Content writer, Business Coach and Company Trainer and lives in the Netherlands (Europe). Note: all her articles are written in Dutch and we translated her articles to English!

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Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

Helping people learn from experience.

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle - Helping People Learn From Experience

© Veer BartekSzewczyk

Reflecting on experiences can help people deal with them better in the future.

Many people find that they learn best from experience.

However, if they don't reflect on their experience, and if they don't consciously think about how they could do better next time, it's hard for them to learn anything at all.

This is where Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is useful. You can use it to help your people make sense of situations at work, so that they can understand what they did well and what they could do better in the future.

About the Model

Professor Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in his 1988 book " Learning by Doing ." It's particularly useful for helping people learn from situations that they experience regularly, especially when these don't go well.

Gibbs' cycle is shown below.

Figure 1 – Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Diagram

From "Learning by Doing" by Graham Gibbs. Published by Oxford Polytechnic, 1988.

Gibbs' original model had six stages. The stage we haven't covered here is "Analysis" – we've included this as part of the Evaluation stage.

Using the Model

You can use the model to explore a situation yourself, or you can use it with someone you're coaching   – we look at coaching use in this article, but you can apply the same approach when you're on your own.

To structure a coaching session using Gibbs' Cycle, choose a situation to analyze and then work through the steps below.

Step 1: Description

First, ask the person you're coaching to describe the situation in detail. At this stage, you simply want to know what happened – you'll draw conclusions later.

Consider asking questions like these to help him describe the situation:

  • When and where did this happen?
  • Why were you there?
  • Who else was there?
  • What happened?
  • What did you do?
  • What did other people do?
  • What was the result of this situation?

Step 2: Feelings

Next, encourage him to talk about what he thought and felt during the experience. At this stage, avoid commenting on his emotions.

Use questions like these to guide the discussion:

  • What did you feel before this situation took place?
  • What did you feel while this situation took place?
  • What do you think other people felt during this situation?
  • What did you feel after the situation?
  • What do you think about the situation now?
  • What do you think other people feel about the situation now?

It might be difficult for some people to talk honestly about their feelings. Use Empathic Listening at this stage to connect with them emotionally, and to try to see things from their point of view.

You can use the Perceptual Positions   technique to help this person see the situation from other people's perspectives.

Step 3: Evaluation

Now you need to encourage the person you're coaching to look objectively at what approaches worked, and which ones didn't.

  • What was positive about this situation?
  • What was negative?
  • What went well?
  • What didn't go so well?
  • What did you and other people do to contribute to the situation (either positively or negatively)?

If appropriate, use a technique such as the 5 Whys   to help your team member uncover the root cause of the issue.

Step 4: Conclusions

Once you've evaluated the situation, you can help your team member draw conclusions about what happened.

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Encourage him to think about the situation again, using the information that you've collected so far. Then ask questions like these:

  • How could this have been a more positive experience for everyone involved?
  • If you were faced with the same situation again, what would you do differently?
  • What skills do you need to develop, so that you can handle this type of situation better?

Step 5: Action

You should now have some possible actions that your team member can take to deal with similar situations more effectively in the future.

In this last stage, you need to come up with a plan so that he can make these changes.

Once you've identified the areas he will work on, get him to commit to taking action, and agree a date on which you will both review progress.

This tool is structured as a cycle, reflecting an ongoing coaching relationship. Whether you use it this way depends on the situation and your relationship with the person being coached.

Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in 1988. There are five stages in the cycle:

1. Description. 2. Feelings. 3. Evaluation. 4. Conclusions. 5. Action.

You can use it to help team members think about how they deal with situations, so that they can understand what they did well, and so that they know where they need to improve.

This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter , or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!

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gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

Comments (15)

  • Over a month ago Yolande wrote Hi Lysam8, Thanks for taking the time to post a comment. At first glance, it looks as we've left out a step. However, we included the analysis stage under "Evaluation" - as per our note in the article that says: "Gibbs' original model had six stages. The stage we haven't covered here is "Analysis" – we've included this as part of the Evaluation stage." I hope that clears up any confusion? Do let us know if you have more questions/comments. Yolande, Mind Tools Team
  • Over a month ago Lysam8 wrote Analysis is missed out of the model.
  • Over a month ago BillT wrote Hi Nicole, Please visit our Permissions Help Desk for citation information. https://www.mindtools.com/community/Permissions BillT Mind Tools Team

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gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

Reflective Writing Guide

2. using reflective models, 2.2. gibbs' reflective cycle (1988).

In a similar way to Kolb, Gibbs' cycle encourages you to think systematically about an experience:

Image of Gibbs' reflective cycle described below

Gibbs' Stages:

  • Description : What happened?
  • Feelings: What were you thinking and feeling?
  • Evaluation : What was good and bad about the experience?
  • Analysis : What sense can you make of the situation?
  • Conclusion : What else could you have done?
  • Action plan: If it arose again what would you do?

gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

  • Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

May 9, 2023

Delve into Gibbs' Reflective Cycle, a powerful tool fostering critical thinking, deep learning, and professional growth through reflection.

Main, P (2023, May 09). Gibbs' Reflective Cycle. Retrieved from https://www.structural-learning.com/post/gibbs-reflective-cycle

What is Gibbs' Reflective Cycle?

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a popular model for reflection, acting as a structured method to enable individuals to think systematically about the experiences they had during a specific situation.

Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is a widely used and accepted model of reflection . Developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 at Oxford Polytechnic, now Oxford Brookes University, this reflective cycle framework is widely used within various fields such as healthcare, education, and management to enhance professional and personal development . It has since become an integral part of reflective practice, allowing individuals to reflect on their experiences in a structured way.

The cycle consists of six stages which must be completed in order for the reflection to have a defined purpose. The first stage is to describe the experience. This is followed by reflecting on the feelings felt during the experience, identifying what knowledge was gained from it, analyzing any decisions made in relation to it and considering how this could have been done differently.

The final stage of the cycle is to come up with a plan for how to approach similar experiences in future.

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle encourages individuals to consider their own experiences in a more in-depth and analytical way, helping them to identify how they can improve their practice in the future.

A survey from the British Journal of Midwifery found that 63% of healthcare professionals regularly used Gibbs' Reflective Cycle as a tool for reflection.

"Reflection is a critical component of professional nursing practice and a strategy for learning through practice. This integrative review synthesizes the literature on nursing students’ reflection on their clinical experiences." – Beverly J. Bowers, RN, PhD

The Six Stages of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

The Gibbs reflective cycle consists of six distinct stages: Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, and Action Plan. Each stage prompts the individual to examine their experiences through questions designed to incite deep and critical reflection. For instance, in the 'Description' stage, one might ask: "What happened?". This questioning method encourages a thorough understanding of both the event and the individual's responses to it.

To illustrate, let's consider a student nurse reflecting on an interaction with a patient. In the 'Description' stage, the student might describe the patient's condition, their communication with the patient, and the outcome of their interaction. Following this, they would move on to the 'Feelings' stage, where they might express how they felt during the interaction, perhaps feeling confident, anxious, or uncertain.

The 'Evaluation' stage would involve the student reflecting on their interaction with the patient, considering how they could have done things differently and what went well. In the 'Analysis' stage, the student might consider the wider implications of their actions and how this impacted on the patient's experience.

Finally, in the 'Conclusion' stage, the student would summarise their reflections by noting what they have learned from the experience. They would then set an 'Action Plan' for how they will apply this newfound knowledge in their future practice.

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a useful tool for nurses to utilize in order to reflect on their past experiences and improve their practice. By using reflective questions , nurses can actively engage in reflection and identify areas for improvement. 

  • Description : Start by objectively recounting the experience. Helpful questions to ask include: What happened? Who was involved? When and where did this occur?
  • Feelings : Capture your emotional response to the experience. It's essential to acknowledge both positive and negative emotions, as they significantly affect our interpretation of the event.
  • Evaluation : Assess the good and bad aspects of the experience. What worked well, and what didn't? What were the positive impacts and negative consequences?
  • Analysis : Dig deeper into understanding why things unfolded as they did. This analysis stage is where you draw on relevant literature and professional knowledge to interpret the experience.
  • Conclusion : Determine what you could have done differently and what you've learned from the experience.
  • Action Plan : Develop a plan detailing what you'll do if a similar situation arises in the future.

Gibbs Reflective Cycle

Examples of the Reflective Model in Practice

The Gibbs Reflective Cycle, a model of reflection, can be a powerful tool for learning and personal development across various vocations. Here are five fictional examples:

  • Nursing : A nurse named Jane had a challenging interaction with a patient. Using the Gibbs Reflective Cycle, she first described the situation and her initial reactions. She then reflected on her feelings, identifying negative emotions that arose. During the analysis stage, she realized that her communication skills needed improvement. She concluded that better communication could have led to a more positive outcome. Finally, she developed a personal development plan to improve her communication skills, demonstrating the positive impacts of deep level reflection.
  • Teaching : A teacher, Mr. Smith, had difficulty managing his classroom . He used the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to reflect on a particularly chaotic day. He identified negative aspects of his classroom management strategy and, through critical thinking, realized that he needed to set clearer expectations for his students. He then developed a plan to implement these changes, showing how the approach to reflection can lead to actionable improvements .
  • Customer Service : Sarah, a customer service representative, received constructive feedback from a customer who was dissatisfied with the service. She used the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to reflect on the interaction, identifying her feelings of disappointment and analyzing what went wrong. She concluded that she needed to improve her problem-solving skills and developed a plan to do so.
  • Management : A manager, Tom, struggled with delegating tasks to his team. He used the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to reflect on a project that was delayed due to his reluctance to delegate. He identified his fear of losing control as a negative emotion and realized during the analysis stage that trust in his team was crucial. He then developed a plan to practice delegation in future projects.
  • Counseling : A counselor, Dr. Lee, felt that her recent sessions with a client were not productive. She used the Gibbs Reflective Cycle to reflect on these sessions . She identified feelings of frustration and, upon analysis, realized that she needed to adjust her counseling techniques to better suit her client's needs. She then developed a plan to implement these changes.

These examples illustrate how the Gibbs Reflective Cycle can facilitate learning and reflection across different vocations, leading to personal and professional growth.

An Exploration of Gibbs' Model

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle offers a structured approach to reflection, making it a helpful tool for educators and learners alike. The model encourages critical reflection , stimulating the ability to analyze experiences through questions and transform them into valuable learning opportunities.

Experiential Learning , a concept closely tied with reflection, suggests that we learn from our experiences, particularly when we engage in reflection and active experimentation . Gibbs' model bridges the gap between theory and practice, offering a framework to capture and analyze experiences in a meaningful way.

By using Gibbs' model, educators can guide students through their reflective process , helping them extract valuable lessons from their positive and negative experiences.

Gibbs reflective cycle

Application of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle in Real-World Scenarios

The flexibility and simplicity of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle make it widely applicable in various real-world scenarios, from personal situations to professional practice.

For instance, Diana Eastcott, a nursing educator, utilized Gibbs' model to facilitate her students' reflection on their clinical practice experience. The students were encouraged to reflect on their clinical experiences, analyze their reactions and feelings, and construct an action plan for future patient interactions. This process not only enhanced their professional knowledge but also fostered personal growth and emotional resilience.

In another example, Bob Farmer, a team leader in a tech company, used Gibbs' Cycle to reflect on a project that didn't meet expectations. He guided his team through the reflective process, helping them identify areas for improvement and develop strategies for better future outcomes.

These scenarios underline the versatility of Gibbs' model, demonstrating its value in both educational and professional settings.

  • ( Gibbs Reflective Cycle , University of Northampton, https://www.northampton.ac.uk )
  • ( Gibbs' Reflective Cycle , Oxford Brookes University, https://www.brookes.ac.uk )
  • ( Reflective Practice , San Francisco State University, https://www.sfsu.edu )

gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle for Personal and Professional Development

The use of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle can have profound effects on personal and professional development. It aids in recognizing strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement, providing an avenue for constructive feedback and self-improvement.

In the context of professional development , Gibbs' model promotes continuous learning and adaptability. By transforming bad experiences into learning opportunities, individuals can enhance their competencies and skills , preparing them for similar future situations.

Moreover, the reflective cycle promotes emotional intelligence by encouraging individuals to explore their feelings and reactions to different experiences. Acknowledging and understanding negative emotions can lead to increased resilience, better stress management, and improved interpersonal relationships.

Implementing Gibbs reflective cycle

Transforming Experiences into Learning: The Role of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a practical tool that transforms experiences into learning. It incorporates principles of Experiential Learning and emphasizes the importance of abstract conceptualization and active experimentation in the learning process.

In the field of education, Gibbs' model can significantly influence teaching methods. It encourages educators to incorporate reflective practices in their teaching methods, promoting a deeper understanding of course material and facilitating the application of theoretical knowledge in practical scenarios.

Moreover, the model can be used to encourage students to reflect on their experiences, both within and outside the classroom, and learn from them. This process fosters critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and personal growth, equipping students with the skills they need for lifelong learning.

Embracing Gibbs cycle in your organisation

Here's a list of guidance tips for organizations interested in embracing Gibbs' Reflective Cycle as their professional development model.

  • Understanding the Gibbs Reflective Cycle : Before implementing, ensure that everyone in the organization understands the Gibbs Reflective Cycle model. This model consists of six stages: Description, Feelings, Evaluation, Analysis, Conclusion, and Action Plan. The goal is to encourage deep level reflection on experiences to foster learning and improve future actions.
  • Promote a Culture of Reflection : Encourage everyone in the organization to incorporate reflection into their daily routine. Reflection should not be seen as an added task, but rather as an integral part of the professional development process.
  • Use Real-Life Situations : For the methods in education to be effective, use real-life situations when applying the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. This way, employees can relate to the experiences, making the reflection process more relevant and meaningful.
  • Encourage Sharing of Reflections : Create a safe space for individuals to share their reflections. This could be through team meetings, one-on-one sessions with managers, or through online platforms. Sharing allows for collective learning and may provide different perspectives on the same situation.
  • Integrate Reflective Practice in Training Programs : Use the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in training programs. After each training session, encourage participants to go through the reflective cycle. This can help them understand the training content better and apply it in their work.
  • Link Reflection to Personal Development : Connect the outcome of the reflection to personal development plans. The Action Plan stage of the cycle should feed into the individual's personal development plan, helping them identify areas of strength and areas needing improvement.
  • Provide Guidance and Support : Provide guidance and support in the early stages of implementing the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. This could include providing templates or guides, or offering training on how to use the model effectively.
  • Continuous Review and Feedback : Regularly review the use of the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in your organization and provide feedback. This will help ensure that the model is being used effectively and is helping individuals in their professional development.
  • Model Reflective Practice : Leaders and managers should model reflective practice themselves. This shows that the organization values reflective practice and can motivate employees to engage in it themselves.
  • Celebrate Success : Recognize and celebrate when reflective practice leads to positive changes or improvements. This can motivate employees to continue using the Gibbs Reflective Cycle in their professional development.

gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

What is the Difference Between Kolb's and Gibbs' Reflective Cycle?

Both Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Gibbs' Reflective Cycle are influential learning methods used extensively in education and professional development. While they share similarities, such as promoting a cyclical learning process and fostering a deeper understanding of experiences, there are key differences.

Kolb's cycle consists of four stages: Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualization, and Active Experimentation. It focuses more on the transformation of direct experience into knowledge, emphasizing the role of experience in learning.

On the other hand, Gibbs' cycle, with its six stages, places a greater emphasis on emotions and their impact on learning. For example, a team leader might use Kolb's cycle to improve operational skills after a failed project, focusing on what happened and how to improve. However, using Gibbs' cycle, the same leader would also reflect on how the failure made them feel, and how those feelings might have influenced their decision-making.

Other notable Learning Methods and Cycles

Please note that each of these theories or models has been developed and refined over time, and they each have their own strengths and weaknesses depending on the specific learning context or goals.

Adopting the Cycle in Education

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is an invaluable tool for nurturing professional skills and fostering personal growth. By systematically integrating this reflective model into educational practices, institutions can significantly enhance their students' professional development.

Here are seven innovative ways educational institutions can harness the power of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle to boost skill acquisition , operational proficiency, leadership capabilities, and personal skills mastery.

  • Incorporate Reflective Practice in Curriculum: Educational institutions can incorporate Gibbs' Reflective Cycle into their curriculum, making it a regular part of learning. This can encourage students to develop professional skills by continually reflecting on their experiences and learning from them.
  • Real-World Scenarios: By using real-world situations or case studies, educational institutions can provide practical instances for students to apply the reflective cycle. This will help them understand the type of situation they might encounter in their professional life and how to handle it.
  • Promote Skill Acquisition: Gibbs' cycle can be used as a tool for skill acquisition. By reflecting on their performance in various tasks and projects, students can identify their strengths and areas that need improvement. This can aid in the development of operational skills, leadership skills, and personal skills.
  • Professional Development Workshops: Educational institutions can organize workshops that focus on the application of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle for professional development. These workshops could provide hands-on training on how to use the cycle effectively.
  • Reflective Journals: Encourage students to keep a reflective journal. This practice can help students regularly apply Gibbs' cycle, promoting introspection, and the development of key leadership skills.
  • Mentorship Programs: Implement mentorship programs where experienced professionals guide students in applying Gibbs' Reflective Cycle. This can provide students with valuable insights into how reflective practice can enhance their professional skills.
  • Assessments Based on Reflection: Design assessments that value reflective practice. Instead of solely focusing on theoretical knowledge, consider students' ability to reflect on their experiences and learn from them. This approach can make learning more engaging and relevant to real-world situations.

In the journey of life and work, we continuously encounter new situations, face challenges, and make decisions that shape our personal and professional trajectory. It's in these moments that Gibbs' Reflective Cycle emerges as a guiding compass, providing a structured framework to analyze experiences, draw insights, and plan our future course of action.

Underlying the model is the philosophy of lifelong learning. By encouraging critical reflection, it empowers us to not just passively experience life, but to actively engage with it, to question, and to learn. It's through this reflection that we move from the realm of 'doing' to 'understanding', transforming experiences into knowledge.

Moreover, the model emphasizes the importance of an action-oriented approach. It propels us to use our reflections to plan future actions, promoting adaptability and growth. Whether you're an educator using the model to enhance your teaching methods , a student exploring the depths of your learning process, or a professional striving for excellence in your field, Gibbs' Reflective Cycle can be a powerful tool.

In an ever-changing world, where the pace of change is accelerating, the ability to learn, adapt, and evolve is paramount. Reflective practices, guided by models such as Gibbs', provide us with the skills and mindset to navigate this change effectively. They empower us to learn from our past, be it positive experiences or negative experiences, and use these lessons to shape our future.

From fostering personal growth and emotional resilience to enhancing professional practice and shaping future outcomes , the benefits of Gibbs' Reflective Cycle are manifold. As we continue our journey of growth and learning, this model serves as a beacon, illuminating our path and guiding us towards a future of continuous learning and development.

  • Reflection in Learning and Professional Development
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  • The Impact of Reflective Practice on Teaching Effectiveness
  • Reflective Practice: A Guide for Nurses and Midwives
  • Reflective practice in nursing
  • Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods
  • Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle

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Committed to people development, gibbs reflective cycle.

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This is where Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle is useful. You can use it to help your people make sense of situations at work, so that they can understand what they did well and what they could do better in the future. It fits well into Coaching practice, especially where people want to work on what could be described as “liability behaviours”.

About the Model

Professor Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in his 1988 book “Learning by Doing.” It’s particularly useful for helping people learn from situations that they experience regularly, especially when these don’t go well.

There are five stages in the cycle:

  • Description
  • Conclusions

You can use it to help people think about how they deal with situations, so that they can understand what they did well, and reflect on where they need to improve.

The 5 stages

Step 1: Description

First, ask the person you’re coaching to describe the situation in detail. At this stage, you simply want to know what happened – you’ll draw conclusions later.

Consider asking questions like these to help them describe the situation:

  • When and where did this happen?
  • Why were you there?
  • Who else was there?
  • What happened?
  • What did you do?
  • What did other people do?
  • What was the result of this situation?

Step 2: Feelings

Next, encourage them to talk about what he thought and felt during the experience. At this stage, avoid commenting on their emotions.

Use questions like these to guide the discussion:

  • What did you feel before this situation took place?
  • What did you feel while this situation took place?
  • What do you think other people felt during this situation?
  • What did you feel after the situation?
  • What do you think about the situation now?
  • What do you think other people feel about the situation now?

Step 3: Evaluation

  • What was positive about this situation?
  • What was negative?
  • What went well?
  • What didn’t go so well?
  • What did you and other people do to contribute to the situation (either positively or negatively)?

Step 4: Conclusions

Once you’ve evaluated the situation, you can help the person draw conclusions about what happened.

Encourage them to think about the situation again, using the information that you’ve collected so far. Then ask questions like these:

  • How could this have been a more positive experience for everyone involved?
  • If you were faced with the same situation again, what would you do differently?
  • What skills do you need to develop, so that you can handle this type of situation better?

Step 5: Action

You should now have some possible actions that the person can take to deal with similar situations more effectively in the future.

In this last stage, you need to come up with a plan so that they can make these changes.

Once you’ve identified the areas they will work on, encourage them to commit to taking action, and agree a date on which you will both review progress.

gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

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The Gibbs&#39; Reflective Cycle Journal: For Teachers and Healthcare Professionals

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The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Journal: For Teachers and Healthcare Professionals Paperback – February 6, 2023

Purchase options and add-ons.

The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Journal is the perfect tool for teachers and healthcare professionals looking to enhance their self-awareness, improve problem-solving skills, and increase their overall well-being.

Based on the six stages of the Gibbs' Reflective Cycle model, this journal is designed to help individuals reflect on their experiences and process their thoughts and emotions.

Some of the key benefits of using this journal include:

  • Improved Professional Development By reflecting on their experiences and practices, teachers and healthcare professionals can identify areas for growth and make meaningful improvements in their work.
  • Enhanced Self-Awareness The reflective process promotes greater self-awareness and helps individuals understand their thoughts and behavior patterns.
  • Better Problem-Solving Skills The journal encourages individuals to reflect on challenges and obstacles, helping them develop their problem-solving skills and find creative solutions.
  • Improved Mental and Emotional Health Journaling can help manage stress, anxiety, and depression, providing a safe outlet for emotions and a space to process thoughts and feelings.

Additionally, this Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Journal includes a comprehensive 3000-word introduction, providing a thorough overview of the Gibbs' Reflective Cycle model and detailed instructions on how to use it effectively. The journal also features structured spreads, specifically designed to guide users through each stage of the cycle, making it easy to use and ensuring maximum impact. The journal's structure promotes reflective practice and helps users gain a deeper understanding of their experiences, thoughts, and emotions. Whether you are a seasoned practitioner or new to reflective journaling, this journal is the perfect tool to support and enhance your practice. So, if you want to take your reflective journey to the next level, this journal is for you!

It is the perfect tool for healthcare professionals and teachers looking to enhance their reflective practice. Nurses, doctors, and other healthcare practitioners can use the journal to reflect on their experiences and gain a deeper understanding of the impact they have on their patients' lives. Teachers can also use the journal to reflect on their teaching methods, student interactions, and the overall classroom environment. The structured spreads and clear instructions provided in the journal ensure that both healthcare professionals and teachers have a tool that supports their reflective journey, helping them grow and develop professionally. So, whether you are in the healthcare or education field, The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Journal is the perfect tool to take your reflective practice to the next level.

This journal is the perfect tool for anyone looking to grow both personally and professionally. With its sleek design, high-quality paper, and user-friendly format, it is the perfect companion for anyone looking to take their reflective practice to the next level. Buy yours today and start your journey towards a more fulfilled and meaningful life!

  • Print length 163 pages
  • Language English
  • Publication date February 6, 2023
  • Dimensions 6 x 0.37 x 9 inches
  • See all details

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  • ASIN ‏ : ‎ B0BV412GV8
  • Publisher ‏ : ‎ Independently published (February 6, 2023)
  • Language ‏ : ‎ English
  • Paperback ‏ : ‎ 163 pages
  • Item Weight ‏ : ‎ 10.7 ounces
  • Dimensions ‏ : ‎ 6 x 0.37 x 9 inches
  • #27,112 in Allied Health Professions (Books)
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First refuelling for Russia’s Akademik Lomonosov floating NPP

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The FNPP includes two KLT-40S reactor units. In such reactors, nuclear fuel is not replaced in the same way as in standard NPPs – partial replacement of fuel once every 12-18 months. Instead, once every few years the entire reactor core is replaced with and a full load of fresh fuel.

The KLT-40S reactor cores have a number of advantages compared with standard NPPs. For the first time, a cassette core was used, which made it possible to increase the fuel cycle to 3-3.5 years before refuelling, and also reduce by one and a half times the fuel component in the cost of the electricity produced. The operating experience of the FNPP provided the basis for the design of the new series of nuclear icebreaker reactors (series 22220). Currently, three such icebreakers have been launched.

The Akademik Lomonosov was connected to the power grid in December 2019, and put into commercial operation in May 2020.

Electricity generation from the FNPP at the end of 2023 amounted to 194 GWh. The population of Pevek is just over 4,000 people. However, the plant can potentially provide electricity to a city with a population of up to 100,000. The FNPP solved two problems. Firstly, it replaced the retiring capacities of the Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant, which has been operating since 1974, as well as the Chaunskaya Thermal Power Plant, which is more than 70 years old. It also supplies power to the main mining enterprises located in western Chukotka. In September, a 490 km 110 kilovolt power transmission line was put into operation connecting Pevek and Bilibino.

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gibbs reflective cycle 1988 book

COMMENTS

  1. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Overview. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences. It offers a framework for examining experiences, and given its cyclic nature lends itself particularly well to repeated experiences, allowing you to learn and plan from things that either went well or didn't go well.

  2. How do I reference Gibbs' reflective cycle in APA (7th ed.)?

    If you have not read the original you must make this clear by referring to the work in which you found the reference. In the reference list only include details of the work that you read. Gibbs' reflective cycle (1988) as cited in Jasper (2013) shows that…. Gibbs' reflective cycle is a seminal theory in reflective practice (Gibbs, 1988 ...

  3. PDF Gibbs' reflective cycle

    Gibbs' reflective cycle Gibbs (1988, p.49) created his "structured debriefing" to support experiential learning. ... The following text is an example of a piece of reflective writing, following Gibbs' model. The task was to write a reflection about an incident which occurred during the first few weeks of a teaching placement (1000 words ...

  4. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Professor Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in his 1988 book " Learning by Doing ." It's particularly useful for helping people learn from situations that they experience regularly, especially when these don't go well. Gibbs' cycle is shown below. Figure 1 - Gibbs' Reflective Cycle. Figure 1 - Gibbs' Reflective Cycle.

  5. Learning by Doing : A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods

    This guide is written to be used as a resource rather than as a book to be read right through. Section 2 provides an explanation of experiential learning theory and the experiential learning cycle. It offers a way of structuring and sequencing learning to improve the effectiveness of learning from experience. Section 3 describes the ways in which individuals differ in their preferred learning ...

  6. PDF Learning by Doing

    by Graham Gibbs (1988) and is reproduced with his permission ... The reflective learning cycle presented in the book models how ... In particular the reflective cycle described here has been widely adopted by those studying, practising and teaching the skills of critical reflection. It has become a seminal text for health care

  7. Gibbs Reflective Cycle: Theory and Template

    In 1988, the American sociologist and psychologist Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle model in his book 'Learning by Doing'. Gibbs Reflective Cycle encourages people to think systematically about the experiences they had during a specific situation, event or activity.

  8. The Reflective Journal: Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Model: Writing and

    The Reflective Journal emerges as an indispensable companion for professionals, expertly guiding you through the intricate stages of developing reflective skills that are pivotal for your advancement. Within the pages of this invaluable tool, you'll discover the guidance and resources essential for cultivating your reflective writing prowess. ...

  9. PDF 16 Using a framework for reflection: Gibbs' reflective cycle

    This sort of task is often set as a reflective assignment. This section tracks the devel-opment of a piece of reflective writing using the Gibbs framework, in three steps: 1 An extract from notes briefly describing the experience. 2 An analysis of the experience using Gibbs' model. 3 A short reflective report, ready to hand in.

  10. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    About the Model. Professor Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in his 1988 book " Learning by Doing ." It's particularly useful for helping people learn from situations that they experience regularly, especially when these don't go well. Gibbs' cycle is shown below.

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  12. Reflective Practice and Its Role in Simulation

    Gibbs's (1988) reflective cycle comprises six stages and is a reinterpretation of the experiential learning cycle by Kolb (1984). ... He has published more than 20 books and 400 articles on teaching, learning, and assessment in higher education (Education Arena, 2010).

  13. Reflective Writing Guide: Gibbs' Reflective Cycle (1988)

    Print book Print this chapter More Home Student Services Collapse ... Gibbs' Reflective Cycle (1988) In a similar way to Kolb, Gibbs' cycle encourages you to think systematically about an experience: Gibbs' Stages: Description: ...

  14. What is the Gibb's Reflective Cycle?

    One of the prominent frameworks for reflective practice is the Gibb's Reflective Cycle, developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988. This cycle provides a structured approach to examining experiences ...

  15. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a popular model for reflection, acting as a structured method to enable individuals to think systematically about the experiences they had during a specific situation.. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle is a widely used and accepted model of reflection.Developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 at Oxford Polytechnic, now Oxford Brookes University, this reflective cycle framework is ...

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  17. Gibbs Reflective cycle

    Professor Graham Gibbs published his Reflective Cycle in his 1988 book "Learning by Doing.". It's particularly useful for helping people learn from situations that they experience regularly, especially when these don't go well. There are five stages in the cycle: Description. Feelings.

  18. The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Journal: For Teachers and Healthcare

    The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle Journal is the perfect tool for teachers and healthcare professionals looking to enhance their self-awareness, improve problem-solving skills, and increase their overall well-being. Based on the six stages of the Gibbs' Reflective Cycle model, this journal is designed to help individuals reflect on their experiences ...

  19. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Gibbs' reflective cycle is named for its creator, scientist J. W. Gibbs. Back in 1988, he wrote a book called "Learning by Doing" that helped to revolutionize teaching methods in education. Alongside Bob Farmer and Diana Eastcott, Gibbs emphasized the importance of critical reflection and created the reflective cycle as a tool for improving ...

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    For the first time, a cassette core was used, which made it possible to increase the fuel cycle to 3-3.5 years before refuelling, and also reduce by one and a half times the fuel component in the cost of the electricity produced. The operating experience of the FNPP provided the basis for the design of the new series of nuclear icebreaker ...

  22. LLC "TFN" Company Profile

    Other Miscellaneous Retailers Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing Sporting Goods, Hobby, Musical Instrument, Book, and Miscellaneous Retailers Retail Trade. Printer Friendly View Address: d. 22 kv. 44, ul. Pushkina Elektrostal, Moscow region, 144005 Russian Federation Employees (this site): ...