Natural Disasters Essay for Students and Children
500+ Words Essay on Natural Disasters
A Natural disaster is an unforeseen occurrence of an event that causes harm to society. There are many Natural disasters that damage the environment and the people living in it. Some of them are earthquakes , cyclones, floods, Tsunami , landslides, volcanic eruption, and avalanches. Spatial extent measures the degree or severity of the disaster.
Levels of Disaster
The severity or degree of damage can be further divided into three categories:
Small Scale Disasters: Small scale disasters are those that extend from 50 Kms. to 100 Kms. So this kind of disasters does not cause much damage.
Medium-scale disasters: Medium Scale disasters extend from 100 Kms to 500 Kms. These cause more damage than a small scale disaster. Moreover, they can cause greater damage if they occur in colonial states.
Large Scale Disasters: These disasters cover an area of more than 1000 Kms. These cause the most severe damage to the environment. Furthermore, these disasters can even take over a country if the degree is high. For instance, the wiping out of the dinosaurs was because of a large scale natural disaster.
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Types of Disasters
Causes: These can cause of releasing of the energy. This release is from the core of the earth. Furthermore, the release of energy causes seismic waves. Rupturing of geological faults causes earthquakes. But other events like volcanic eruptions, landslides mine blasts can also cause it.
Landslides: Landslides is the moving of big boulders of rocks or debris down a slope. As a result, landslides occur on mountains and hilly areas. Moreover, landslides can cause destruction to man-made things in many ways.
Causes: Gravitational pull, volcanic eruptions , earthquakes can cause landslides. Moreover, soil erosion due to deforestation is also a cause of landslides.
Avalanches: Avalanches are like landslides. But instead of rocks thousand tons of snow falls down the slope. Moreover, this causes extreme damage to anything that comes in its way. People who live in snowy mountains always have fear of it.
Causes: Avalanches takes places when there is a large accumulation of snow on the mountains. Moreover, they can also occur from earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Furthermore, the chances of surviving an avalanche are very less. This is because people die of hypothermia in it.
Tsunami: Tsunami is the production of very high waves in oceans and seas. Moreover, the displacement of the ground causes these high waves. A tsunami can cause floods if it occurs near shores. A Tsunami can consist of multiple waves. Moreover, these waves have a high current. Therefore it can reach coastlines within minutes. The main threat of a tsunami is if a person sees a Tsunami he cannot outrun it.
Causes: Tsunami is unlike normal eaves that occur due to the wind. But Tsunami is waves that occur by ground displacement. Thus earthquakes are the main causes of Tsunamis.
FAQs on Essay on natural disaster
Q1.What are natural disasters?
A1. Natural Disasters are unforeseen events that cause damage to the environment and the people.
Q2.Name some Natural disasters.
A2. Some Natural Disasters are earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, Landslides, floods, Tsunami, avalanches. Natural disasters can cause great damage to human society. But preventive measures can be taken to reduce the damage from these disasters.
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Effects of Natural Disasters Essay
Introduction, effects of natural disasters on natural resources, effects of natural disasters on physical infrastructure, impacts of natural disasters on population, economic effects of natural disasters, effects of natural disasters on human labor and technology, effects of hurricane katrina to the u.s economy, reference list.
Natural disasters range from climatic cataclysms such as droughts, floods, hurricanes and tornadoes to geological catastrophes like earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis. Their consequences are both short-term and long-term and lead to either negative or positive consequences on the economy of a country. This effects of natural disasters essay will examine each outcome of such tragedies.
Generally, natural disasters affect the physical infrastructural facilities and lead to a lack of agricultural productivity. They tend to cause the loss of life and damage to property. Various factors influence the effects of natural disasters on a country. Among them are the magnitude of the disaster, the geography of the area affected and recovery efforts directed towards reducing the immediate consequences. Failure to mitigate the short-term economic issues impacts the long-term economic growth of a country.
It can be crucial to understand both causes and effects of natural disasters. This essay, however, will focus on the negative consequences that follow such tragedies.
The effects of natural disasters on natural resources can be both negative and positive. Natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes dislodge trees causing a reduction in forest cover. Hurricanes and floods also wash away the fertile top soil reducing soil fertility that negatively affects agricultural productivity (Popp 2003, 63). Disasters also lead to the destruction of agricultural resources notably crops and livestock.
Natural disasters such as droughts and floods affect crop and livestock farming thus reducing agricultural production (Bradford & Carmichael, 2006: 56). This phenomenon results to “high food prices products, which in turn affect the economic stability of a region or country” (Maharatna, 1999: 54). Natural disasters also lead to the destruction of wildlife and natural phenomena thus affecting tourism; for instance, storms such as the Tenerife storm in 2005 destroyed ‘El Dedo de Dios’ an important tourist attraction thus affecting tourism
Natural disasters can also cause beneficial effects to a country’s economy. Rich fertile alluvial soils deposited on flood plains are ideal for faming of crops. Additionally, Abbott posits that “Disasters such as volcanic eruptions emit volcanic ash that forms fertile volcanic soils ideal for agriculture” (2004: 342). Volcanic eruptions also lead to the formation of craters that are important tourist attraction.
Natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods destroy infrastructural facilities such as roads and airports affecting transportation and economic growth. As Temple says, physical infrastructural facilities are important in stimulation of economic growth of any country (1999: 139).
However, natural disasters destroy these structures and thus negatively affect economic growth of a country. Critical infrastructure such as transportation and communication, health systems and energy supply are affected by natural infrastructure (Parfomak, 2005:14). However, efforts geared towards reconstruction and rebuilding of physical infrastructural facilities can help promote return to normalcy.
Natural disasters have negative effects on population growth of a country. Many lives are lost during natural catastrophes such as tsunamis and floods which reduces the population of a region or a country; a good example is the Japan tragedy which saw thousands of lives lost.
Additionally, Cain laments that the prospects of “a natural disaster occurring causes fear which leads to a decline in birth rate of f the population” (1983: 698). Destruction of natural resources affects the economy leading to low per capita income among the citizens, which in turn influences the fertility rate of a population (Lee, 1985: 635). Low fertility rate contributes to a decline in population growth.
Natural disasters negatively affect important sectors of a country’s economy. Natural disasters affect a country’s energy production stations including oil refineries and nuclear plants leads energy crisis, which results to high oil prices (Noy, 2009: 13).
According to the Congressional Research Service report, “Hurricane Katrina affected oil refineries and pipelines in the U.S. Gulf coast leading to higher oil prices nationally and internationally” (Cashell & Labonte, 2005: 16 ). This led to slower economic growth of the regions hit by the hurricane. Japan is still battling to prevent a nuclear disaster following the recent earthquake and tsunami that rocked the country recently.
Natural disasters also lead to reduced domestic and international trade, which negatively affect the economy. Moreover, natural disasters affect ports and transportation, which lead to reduction of the amount of imports and exports thus affecting trade. Additionally, natural disasters can bring beneficial effects to the economy of a region.
Skidmore and Toya highlight that, natural disasters precede “intensive construction and building activities to bring about recovery” (2002, 148). The locals and the businesses operating in a region affected by the natural disaster are employed in these recovery activities. However, the destruction of property and infrastructure by natural disasters often result to massive unemployment rates.
Skilled human labor is an important element in achieving economic development in any country. Natural disasters like floods and volcanoes cause death and loss of life thereby reducing the human capital of a region and as Skoufas notes, natural disasters also affect training of human capital through the disruption of schools and damage to training facilities (2003: 99).
Damage to property and unemployment lead to reduced family income, which affect education of especially the young people leading to majority of students to drop out of school. Natural disasters adversely affect technological developments of a country. However, natural disasters can stimulate technological innovations to withstand future disasters such as earthquakes. Technological innovations promote economic growth of a country.
Hurricane Katrina caused damage to many residential property and affected “physical infrastructure like roads and bridges in many states especially Louisiana and Mississippi” (Black & Veatch, 2006: 4). Wastewater disposal systems were affected especially in New Orleans due to damage caused on pipes.
It also affected water supply, electricity and essential healthcare delivery to the affected regions. Transportation of oil products and gas back and forth these regions were affected (Rahman, 2005: 114). The hurricane Katrina affected economy of the states hit by the disaster and the national economy. The U.S. national economic growth declined up to 1.0% because of the effects of the hurricane in these states. However, rebuilding activities will enhance economic growth.
The hurricane disaster affected the energy production centers including the oil refineries in Louisiana. The daily output of these refineries reduced because of the effects of the hurricane leading to a rise in oil and gas prices in the country.
The effects to the ports and oil pipes also contributed to energy crisis experienced during the same period. Due to the destruction of property and industrial facilities by the hurricane, high unemployment rates occurred in these states (Liu, Matt, & Mabanta, 2006: 123). Recovery efforts involve rebuilding the industrial and physical infrastructure and facilities such as schools.
The effects of natural disasters are both short-term including loss of life and damage to property and long-term affecting the economic stability of a region or a country. Damage to infrastructure and energy production centers lead to adverse effects on a country’s economic development. Recovery efforts involving construction and rebuilding of facilities help reverse the effects of disasters and provide employment to the affected people. Other natural disasters such as floods bring beneficial products as sectors such as agriculture improve.
Abbott, P, Natural Disasters . McGraw, New York, 2004.
Black, R & S Veatch, ‘Assessment of Reconstruction Costs and Debt Management for Wastewater Utilities Affected by Hurricane Katrina’, Water Environment Federation , 2006.
Bradford, M & R Carmichael, Natural disasters. Salem Press, Pasadena, 2001.
Cain, M, ‘Fertility as an adjustment to risk’, Population and Development Review , vol. 9, No. 4, 1983, pp. 680- 689.
Cashell, B & M Labonte, ‘The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina’, CRS Report for Congress , 2005.
Lee, R, ‘Population homeostasis and English demographic history’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History , vol.15, no. 4, 1985, pp. 635-660.
Liu, A, et al, ‘Special Edition of the Katrina Index: A One Year Review of Key Indicators Of Recovery in Post Storm New Orleans’, The Brookings Institution , 2006.
Maharatna, A, The demography of famines . Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999.
Noy, I, ‘The macroeconomic consequences of disasters’, Journal of Development Economics , vol. 88, no. 2, 2009, pp. 10-21.
Parfomak, W, ‘Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: Background And Policy Options’, CRS Report for Congress , 2005.
Popp, A, The effects of natural disasters on long run growth , 2003. Web.
Rahman, S, ‘Impact of Natural Disasters on Critical Infrastructures’ The 1st Bangladesh Earthquake Symposium , 2005
Skidmore, M & H Toya, ‘Do Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?’ Economic Inquiry , vol. 40, no. 16, 2002, pp.142.
Skoufas, E, ‘Economic Crises and Natural Disasters: Coping Strategies and Policy Implications’, World Development , vol.31, no. 4, 2003, pp. 78-103.
Temple, J, ‘The New Growth Evidence’, Journal of Economic Literature , vol. 37, no. 9, 1999, pp. 112-156.
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Natural Disasters Essay
Natural disasters are not in the control of human beings. Like many other countries, India is also plagued with many natural disasters because of its geographical location and environment. In the past few decades, the temperature in the Indian subcontinent has risen. A natural calamity is called a disaster when it affects people or property on a large scale. Here are a few sample essays on the topic ‘Natural Disasters’.
100 Words Essay On Natural Disasters
Humans have been subjected to the impact of natural disasters for as long as they have been on Earth. Disasters, unfortunately, are happening all the time. Most of the Natural Disasters we see are caused by natural forces. Therefore, they are almost impossible to prevent from happening. Natural disasters like floods, drought, landslides, earthquakes, and cyclones frequently occur all throughout the world. Often, natural disasters leave mass effects and it can take years to control the damage. However, the negative effects and damages caused by these natural disasters can be reduced significantly if proper warning systems or policies are used.
200 Words Essay On Natural Disasters
Natural disasters are mostly naturally occurring events that greatly damage human lives and assets. Every year, many lives are lost due to natural disasters across the globe. Many people are left with no home or property. They suffer endlessly. Some natural disasters are floods, landslides, cyclones, hurricanes, drought, wildfires. This problem becomes far more severe when a natural disaster occurs in a densely populated place. Unfortunately, most natural disasters are unpreventable from happening. We can only forecast these events and take necessary measures to mitigate the loss.
India is one of the most vulnerable countries to natural disasters because of its unique geological position. Every year India witnesses nearly five cyclones of various intensities. Droughts in summer and mild to strong earthquakes are frequently experienced in many northern parts of India near the Himalayas. In India, wildfires are caused in the forest area during the autumn and summer seasons. Our country is also witnessing dramatic climate changes and massive global warming due to pollution and greenhouse gases. Due to this, natural disasters are becoming more frequent than before.
Coping Up With Natural Disasters
Most natural disasters are out of our control and can occur randomly. All we can do, however, is take necessary precautions as soon as we are able to predict when the disaster is going to take place. Global Warming is an important reason for all these things. Therefore, we must protect and preserve our natural environment. It is essential to warn people of upcoming disasters. A mandatory evacuation should be carried out if necessary. After the disaster, people should be provided financial help to recover from damages and losses from the disaster.
500 Words Essay On Natural Disasters
Natural disasters are events that occur due to either biological activity or human-made activity. Human lives and property are affected for a long time after it occurs. The number of cases is increasing worldwide every day. It is because of the over-exploitation of natural resources by mankind. India suffers significantly from natural disasters due to its vulnerable geographical location. Due to this, our country still needs a proper disaster management unit.
Types Of Natural Disasters
Different kinds of Natural Disasters in India occur very often and have major effects on people’s lives.
Earthquake | An earthquake is a natural event when the Earth's tectonic plates suddenly shift and cause the ground to shake. This shaking can damage buildings and other structures, as well as loss of life. Earthquakes can happen at any time and can strike without warning, making them a frightening and unpredictable phenomenon.
Cyclone | A cyclone is a type of storm characterised by a low-pressure centre and strong winds that spiral inward and upward. Cyclones are also typhoons or hurricanes, depending on the region in which they occur. Cyclones form over warm ocean waters and typically move toward land, where they can cause widespread damage and destruction. They are often accompanied by heavy rainfall and can spawn tornadoes. The destructive power of a cyclone comes from its strong winds, which can reach speeds of over 150 miles per hour. These winds can uproot trees, damage buildings, and create storm surges, large waves that can flood coastal areas.
Wildfire | A wildfire is a large, uncontrolled fire that occurs in a natural habitat, such as a forest, grassland, or prairie. Wildfires can happen due to various factors, including lightning, human activity, and extreme weather conditions. When a wildfire occurs, it can spread quickly, consuming everything in its path. Wildfires can have many adverse effects on the environment and people. For example, they can destroy homes and other buildings and critical infrastructures, such as roads and bridges. They can also cause air pollution and respiratory issues for people living in the area.
Human Activities And Natural Disasters
Human activities can contribute to the occurrence and severity of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires. For example, activities like deforestation, urbanisation, and climate change can increase the likelihood and impact of these events.
Deforestation, which removes vegetation from an area, can increase the risk of natural disasters. Trees and other vegetation hold the upper layer of soil in place, which prevents erosion and landslides. When these plants are removed, the ground becomes more vulnerable to being swept away by heavy rainfall or other natural forces.
Urbanisation, or the growth of cities and towns, can also contribute to natural disasters. As more and more people move into urban areas, the risk of earthquakes, wildfires, and other natural disasters increases. For example, the construction of buildings and other structures can alter the natural landscape, making it more susceptible to damage from earthquakes and other events.
Climate change, the long-term warming of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, can also increase the likelihood and severity of natural disasters. Higher temperatures can lead to more often intense heat waves, droughts, and wildfires. Rising sea levels can cause more severe flooding, particularly in coastal areas.
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GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.
A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.
If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi .
The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.
Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.
Bank Probationary Officer (PO)
A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO), what is probationary officer or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts.
A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.
An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.
Bank Branch Manager
Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.
Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.
A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.
A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.
Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.
Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared.
An expert in plumbing is aware of building regulations and safety standards and works to make sure these standards are upheld. Testing pipes for leakage using air pressure and other gauges, and also the ability to construct new pipe systems by cutting, fitting, measuring and threading pipes are some of the other more involved aspects of plumbing. Individuals in the plumber career path are self-employed or work for a small business employing less than ten people, though some might find working for larger entities or the government more desirable.
Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.
Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood. Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.
An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it.
Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems.
Orthotist and Prosthetist
Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.
A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.
A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.
Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth.
When it comes to an operation theatre, there are several tasks that are to be carried out before as well as after the operation or surgery has taken place. Such tasks are not possible without surgical tech and surgical tech tools. A single surgeon cannot do it all alone. It’s like for a footballer he needs his team’s support to score a goal the same goes for a surgeon. It is here, when a surgical technologist comes into the picture. It is the job of a surgical technologist to prepare the operation theatre with all the required equipment before the surgery. Not only that, once an operation is done it is the job of the surgical technologist to clean all the equipment. One has to fulfil the minimum requirements of surgical tech qualifications.
Also Read: Career as Nurse
An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.
Those who wish to make a dentist career in India must know that dental training opens up a universe of expert chances. Notwithstanding private practice, the present dental school graduates can pick other dental profession alternatives, remembering working in medical clinic crisis rooms, leading propelled lab examinations, teaching future dental specialists, or in any event, venturing to the far corners of the planet with International health and relief organizations.
Individuals following a career as health inspectors have to face resistance and lack of cooperation while working on the sites. The health inspector's job description includes taking precautionary measures while inspecting to save themself from any external injury and the need to cover their mouth to avoid toxic substances. A health inspector does the desk job as well as the fieldwork. Health inspector jobs require one to travel long hours to inspect a particular place.
For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs.
Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.
Video Game Designer
Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.
The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.
If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.
Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.
A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.
An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story.
They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.
Fashion bloggers use multiple social media platforms to recommend or share ideas related to fashion. A fashion blogger is a person who writes about fashion, publishes pictures of outfits, jewellery, accessories. Fashion blogger works as a model, journalist, and a stylist in the fashion industry. In current fashion times, these bloggers have crossed into becoming a star in fashion magazines, commercials, or campaigns.
Photography is considered both a science and an art, an artistic means of expression in which the camera replaces the pen. In a career as a photographer, an individual is hired to capture the moments of public and private events, such as press conferences or weddings, or may also work inside a studio, where people go to get their picture clicked. Photography is divided into many streams each generating numerous career opportunities in photography. With the boom in advertising, media, and the fashion industry, photography has emerged as a lucrative and thrilling career option for many Indian youths.
In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook.
Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.
For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.
In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.
Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.
Fashion journalism involves performing research and writing about the most recent fashion trends. Journalists obtain this knowledge by collaborating with stylists, conducting interviews with fashion designers, and attending fashion shows, photoshoots, and conferences. A fashion Journalist job is to write copy for trade and advertisement journals, fashion magazines, newspapers, and online fashion forums about style and fashion.
A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications.
Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.
A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product.
A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.
Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers.
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Quality Assurance Manager Job Description: A QA Manager is an administrative professional responsible for overseeing the activity of the QA department and staff. It involves developing, implementing and maintaining a system that is qualified and reliable for testing to meet specifications of products of organisations as well as development processes.
A QA Lead is in charge of the QA Team. The role of QA Lead comes with the responsibility of assessing services and products in order to determine that he or she meets the quality standards. He or she develops, implements and manages test plans.
Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment.
A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.
ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks.
Information Security Manager
Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack
Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.
An IT Consultant is a professional who is also known as a technology consultant. He or she is required to provide consultation to industrial and commercial clients to resolve business and IT problems and acquire optimum growth. An IT consultant can find work by signing up with an IT consultancy firm, or he or she can work on their own as independent contractors and select the projects he or she wants to work on.
A Data Architect role involves formulating the organisational data strategy. It involves data quality, flow of data within the organisation and security of data. The vision of Data Architect provides support to convert business requirements into technical requirements.
The Security Engineer is responsible for overseeing and controlling the various aspects of a company's computer security. Individuals in the security engineer jobs include developing and implementing policies and procedures to protect the data and information of the organisation. In this article, we will discuss the security engineer job description, security engineer skills, security engineer course, and security engineer career path.
A UX Architect is someone who influences the design processes and its outcomes. He or she possesses a solid understanding of user research, information architecture, interaction design and content strategy.
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Home — Essay Samples — Environment — Disasters — Natural Disasters
Essays on Natural Disasters
Hook examples for natural disasters essays, "nature's wrath unleashed" hook.
"Natural disasters remind us of the raw power of the Earth. Explore the awe-inspiring, yet devastating, forces that shape our world and challenge our resilience."
"Surviving the Unthinkable" Hook
"Survivors of natural disasters carry stories of strength and survival. Share firsthand accounts of individuals who faced nature's fury and emerged as heroes."
"Disaster Preparedness: Are We Ready?" Hook
"In an era of climate change, disaster preparedness is paramount. Analyze the state of our preparedness efforts, the role of technology, and the importance of community resilience."
"The Environmental Toll of Natural Disasters" Hook
"Beyond human impact, natural disasters take a toll on our environment. Investigate the ecological consequences of disasters and the long-term effects on ecosystems."
"Mitigating Disaster: A Race Against Time" Hook
"Scientists and policymakers are working tirelessly to mitigate the impact of natural disasters. Explore innovative strategies, early warning systems, and the quest to save lives."
"Humanitarian Response and Resilience" Hook
"Natural disasters bring out the best in humanity as communities and organizations rally to provide aid. Celebrate stories of humanitarian response and the strength of human resilience."
"The Future of Disaster Management" Hook
"As natural disasters become more frequent and severe, we must adapt. Discuss the future of disaster management, sustainable solutions, and global cooperation in the face of adversity."
Tornado Detection Using Dual Polarization Radar
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The Catastrophic Cyclone of April 1991 in Bangladesh
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A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth.
Geological disasters: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, sinkholes, etc. Hydrological disasters: floods, tsunami, limnic eruptions. Meteorological disasters: droughts, tropical cyclone, blizzards, hailstorms, etc. Wildfires. Space disasters.
Damage paths of tornadoes can be in excess of one mile wide and 50 miles long. Between 2000 and 2012, natural disasters caused $1.7 trillion in damage and affected 2.9 billion people. Floods are the most widespread natural disaster aside from wildfires. 90% of all US natural disasters declared by the president involve some sort of flooding.
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Essay on Earthquake in English for Children and Students
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Essay on Earthquake: The earthquake is one of the most terrible natural disasters. Its source can be traced to the early days of earth formation. It is responsible for a great loss of life and property. It is, therefore, a great problem for mankind. The word earthquake is derived from the Greek words, ‘earth’ meaning ground and ‘quake’ meaning shaking or trembling. An earthquake, therefore, is a shaking or trembling of the earth.
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Earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. Earthquakes may be brief and mild or big and destructive. Our planet has suffered several severe and mild earthquakes since centuries. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. People around the world have suffered immensely due to earthquakes in the past.
Long and Short Essay on Earthquake in English
Here are essay on Earthquake of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select any Earthquake essay as per you need:
Short Essay on Earthquake in 200 words
Earthquakes occur suddenly, usually without any warning signs, and can cause huge destruction. Though there is a separate branch of science referred to as seismology that study about earthquakes and tries to predicts their occurrence however, it doesn’t help in determining the exact time or date of this natural calamity.
Scientists around the world constantly try to predict the occurrence of earthquakes. While seismology department does warn against Earthquake in certain areas in future however it is unable to find out as to when exactly it would occur.
As it is said, little knowledge is dangerous hence lame predictions about earthquakes do more harm to the people than good. People begin to live in constant fear of earthquake. Panic among people living in such areas can be seen clearly as they can hardly do much about safeguarding themselves from the possible destruction caused due to this natural calamity.
However, earthquakes aren’t always severe and destructive. At times, these are small and mild. Sometimes, these are so mild that people do not even get to know that these have occurred. However, even at the slightest of tremors, it is suggested to evacuate the buildings and come out in an open area to ensure safety.
Essay on Earthquake in 300 words
Earthquakes and volcanoes are two natural calamities that occur due to the changes in the surface of Earth. Man has little or just no role in bringing about these natural disasters. Earthquakes and volcanoes are said to be interrelated. It has been observed that volcanic regions are more prone to earthquakes that often serve as a warning sign of an impending volcano.
Earthquake is basically the shaking of the Earth. Earthquakes either occur due to the movement of tectonic plates under the Earth’s surface or because of the movement of magma in volcanoes. The ones caused due to magma movements may be followed by volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes can be weak as well as violent. While the weak volcanoes are hardly felt, the violent ones can result in the devastation of big buildings and huge loss of life. Numerous earthquakes have occurred in different parts of the world causing severe destructions.
Volcano is the eruption of hot lava from the surface of Earth. It occurs when the Earth’s crust ruptures. Hot lava, poisonous gases and volcanic ash come out by way of volcanic eruptions and can cause vast destruction. Different types of volcanoes include super volcanoes, sub-glacial volcanoes, underwater volcanoes and mud volcanoes.
What is Volcanic Earthquake?
Volcanic earthquake also known as volcano tectonic earthquake is caused due to the movement of magma. This movement exerts pressure and causes changes in the rock around the magma and this eventually leads to volcanic earthquake. These earthquakes are known to cause major destruction that may include ground deformation, uprooting of buildings and ground cracks.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes may result in severe loss for the mankind. While scientists try their best to predict both of these, they haven’t been successful in determining the time and date for these natural disasters. People living in earthquake and volcano prone areas must stay vigilant and be prepared to face these and should act calmly and wisely if such a problem occurs.
Essay on Earthquake in 400 words
Earthquakes are caused due to the movement of magnum or tectonic plates under the Earth’s surface. They may vary in severity, time and other factors. Earthquakes have been classified into various categories. The effect they cause varies based on their type.
Types of Earthquake
There are different types of earthquakes that have been experienced on our planet. Here is a look at the main types of earthquakes:
- Tectonic Earthquake
A tectonic earthquake is an outcome of the breakage of Earth’s crust because of exertion of pressure on rocks and tectonic plates.
This is often a mild earthquake that takes place in the same area that has been hit by a severe earthquake few hours, days or weeks before.
A small earthquake that takes place before a severe earthquake is referred to as a foreshock.
- Explosion Earthquake
This type of earthquake occurs because of explosion of a chemical and nuclear device.
- Volcanic Earthquake
It is an earthquake that occurs due to the combination of tectonic forces and volcanic activities.
- Collapse Earthquake
This type of earthquake is caused due to the explosion of rocks. These are generally mild earthquakes that occur due to mining activities.
- Submarine Earthquake
It is an earthquake that takes place underwater particularly at the bottom of an ocean. It is commonly referred to as Tsunami.
Causes of Earthquake
An earthquake basically is an outcome of the movements of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface. However, these are also caused due to certain other reasons. These are mostly natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Given below are the various causes of earthquakes:
- Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
- Geological Fault
It occurs because of the displacement of plates from their original position. As the rocks move alongside these planes, it brings about tectonic earthquakes.
- Human Activities
Man is known to influence various natural activities and earthquakes are no exception. Nuclear bombing, building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause earthquake.
Effects of Earthquake
Mild earthquakes are harmless however the violent ones can cause mass destruction. Numerous lives are lost, several people are injured and many houses and other buildings are devastated during this natural calamity.
Earthquake is a dangerous natural calamity that has caused huge damage in various parts of the world. It cannot be avoided as the scientists are not able to predict its occurrence accurately.
Also Read: Speech on Earthquake in simple and easy words
Essay on Earthquake in 500 words
Earthquake is a natural calamity which is capable of causing vast destruction and there is no way to stop it from occurring. Our planet has been hit by a number of strong earthquakes of different magnitudes that have led to the loss of many innocent lives and heavy damage to the property. A need for disaster management for earthquake was felt owing to the huge and frequent damage they had been causing around the world.
The seismic department studies earthquakes. The department monitors the environment and the activities that occurs under the Earth’s surface in an attempt to predict earthquakes and their severity. However, it has largely failed in predicting the exact date and time of occurrence of the earthquake.
Since it is almost impossible to forecast and avoid the occurrence of earthquakes, we must prepare ourselves to lower the losses caused by these. Japan for instance is highly prone to earthquakes. However, their preparedness to handle this natural calamity ensures little or no damage to property and life in the country.
The recent earthquakes that jolted India have shown how under-prepared we are to handle this natural calamity. A need to build an environment which is earthquake resistant has been felt. Though, this cannot be full proof however efforts in this direction can certainly help bring down the magnitude of losses.
Extensive research is going on in this direction. Builders are being encouraged to build earthquake resistant structures. Special degree in Earthquake Engineering is being imparted to prepare our future generations to tackle this natural disaster smartly. Structural Earthquake Engineering, Geo-technical Earthquake Engineering, Remote Sensing and Seismology are the fields that are being explored and taught.
Do not Panic during an Earthquake
It is but natural to panic during any difficult situation however doing so only worsens the problem. We must thus not panic during earthquake. We should rather act wisely. Here are few things you can do to lower the possibility of disaster:
- Come out of your house/ office/ shop and gather in an open place.
- Do not use elevator. Take the stairs to go down.
- Make sure you are at a safe place as you come out and not somewhere where there is a possibility of falling objects or collapsing building.
- Get under a table or bed if you cannot move out.
- Stay calm and don’t indulge in negative talks.
- Help those caught inside or in need if you can.
Earthquake: Precautions to be taken
People living in earthquake prone areas must stay alert and prepared to handle this natural disaster at all times. Here are certain things that they must keep handy:
- Necessary medicines
- Canned packaged food
- Camp stoves that can be installed outdoors
- Enough drinking water
- Sanitation stock
- Cash/ Debit card/ Credit Card
- Important Certificates/ documents
It is a good idea to prepare a bag that can be carried easily in case of emergency.
The government must take measures to ensure the destruction caused by this natural calamity is lowered. In case of a severe earthquake, the government must take measures to help people who lose their houses and other important belongings. The government must be prepared to handle such an emergency situation efficiently so that people do not suffer further.
Essay on Earthquake in 600 words
Earthquakes occur when the tectonic plates shift and climb over one another. This leads to mountain building referred to as orogeny which is the cause of severe earthquakes. Thus, the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth are responsible for this natural calamity. Just like many other parts of the world, India has also experienced numerous earthquakes in different areas. While some of these have caused serious destruction others have largely gone unnoticed.
Major Earthquakes in India
Our country has suffered from some major earthquakes in the past that have led to severe damage and immense panic among people. Some of the major earthquakes experienced in India are as follows:
The Hindu Kush Earthquake (26 October 2015) : This was a magnitude 7.5 earthquake that caused vast destruction in South Asia. Jammu and Kashmir in India was jolted by this quake and tremors were felt in many other parts of Northern India. With its epicentre in Afghanistan, the quake caused tremendous destruction in the country as well as in its neighbouring country Pakistan. Statistics reveal that 399 people lost their lives and as many as 2539 were injured during this earthquake.
The May 2015 Nepal Earthquake : Yet another severe earthquake in Nepal that led to havoc in India too as strong tremors were felt in various parts of our country including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Delhi. With its epicentre in Dolakha and Sindhupal Chowk, Nepal it was a 7.3 magnitude earthquake. Considered to be an aftermath of the April 2015 earthquake, it took away 218 lives and injured more than 3200 people.
The April 2015 Nepal Earthquake : This is said to be one of the major earthquakes that has ever occurred in the recent times. It was a 7.8 magnitude earthquake. The epicentre of this earthquake was Gorkha District in Nepal however strong tremors were felt in various parts of India too. It led to the devastation of many buildings and took as many as 9,000 lives. 22,000 people were injured during the event.
Bhuj Earthquake (26 January 2001): This was one of the most devastating natural calamities that ever hit our country. The earthquake with a magnitude of 7.7 lasted for more than 2 minutes and wrecked havoc on the beautiful Indian state of Gujarat. Numerous buildings were devastated as a result of this earthquake. It killed around 20,000 people and injured as many as 167,000 people.
The Latur Earthquake (30 September 1993): The Latur earthquake hit the Indian state of Maharashtra. This 6.2 magnitude earthquake mainly affected the districts of Latur and Osmanabad. It demolished as many as 52 villages in Maharashtra and killed around 10,000 people. As many as 30,000 people were injured during the event.
Uttarkashi Earthquake (2 nd October 1991): The earthquake with a 6.8 magnitude hit Gharwal and Uttarkashi in Uttrakhand. Strong tremors were felt in these two regions and various other parts of Uttar Pradesh. It caused mass destruction. Numerous buildings were wrecked during the event. More than 700 people lost their lives and numerous others became homeless.
Earthquake Prone Areas in India
Almost every part of India has been hit by earthquake at some point or the other. While some areas in the country are highly prone to earthquakes others stand a low chance of being hit by them. Some of the earthquake prone areas in the country include Srinagar, Mumbai, Delhi, Guwahati, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai, Patna, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram. All these regions have felt strong tremors of earthquake in the past and stand a high chance of experiencing the same in future as well.
India has seen major destruction due to earthquakes. Many buildings have been damaged and several people have lost their lives due to this natural calamity. We wish and pray to God that such strong tremors don’t occur in future.
Essay on Earthquake in 800 words
An earthquake is a tremor that is produced when two surfaces of earth, underneath the surface, slip against each other and release seismic waves. Thus, an earthquake implies a sudden release of energy from within the earth, which takes the form of tremors, generally called earthquake. World over, around fifty thousand earthquakes occur annually, but only about hundred of them are potentially dangerous. Little was understood about them until the 20 th century, when Seismology was introduced as a study of earthquakes. In the following essay we will go through the causes, effects and facts about earthquakes.
Causes of Earthquakes
Earthquakes are caused by the movement or breaking of rocks underneath the surface of earth. Under earth’s surface layers of rocks stay connected to each other. The rocks or plates push each other continuously, but doesn’t move as the forces balance each other.
However, if the rocks break or layers move against each other, seismic waves are produced which reach the surface in form of tremors known as earthquake. Hence earthquake is felt as long as the rocks are rubbing against each other and ceases as soon as the rocks get stuck again. In seismic language, the point immediately below where the rocks break is called the focus and the point immediately above is called the epicenter.
The severity of an earthquake is measured in Richter scale. A strong earthquake has a high value on Richter scale while a low earthquake has a lower value.
An earthquake which measures 6 to 7 on Richter scale is potentially damaging to life and property, while the effects of earthquake measuring 4 to 5 on Richter scale could result only in mild tremors or a little structural damage.
There are many effects of earthquake and may include the following; though, they are not limited to the effects mentioned here below-
1) Tremors or Shaking
Shaking of ground is the first effect of earthquake and is also the most damaging one. The severity of shaking; however, depends on the magnitude of earthquake and the distance of the place from the epicenter. An earthquake measuring around 6 or above on Richter scale has an ability to destroy even the most strongest of buildings, depending on their proximity to the epicenter.
2) Ground Rupture
Sometimes, an earthquake measuring high on Richter scale could cause visible rupture in the ground along the fault line. Sometimes, when the earthquake is potentially high on Richter scale, a ground rupture measuring several meters deep and several kilometers long, may result. Such ground ruptures are considerably harmful to significant structures like dams, nuclear power stations and bridges.
Earthquakes can cause forest fires, as tremors force the trees to rub each other, thereby generating heat and sparks. There have been forest fires recorded after earthquakes. Moreover, an earthquake can cause fire in urban areas also, by rupturing electrical lines and damaging electrical protection systems.
Landslides are the most common aftereffects of earthquake in hilly areas. Shaking of earth displaces the soil on sloppy hills, resulting in a landslide. The landslides sometimes could be potentially more dangerous than the earthquake itself, as they contain debris like trees and rocks, and have a high potential to damage life and property.
Tsunami is the most severe and frightening aftereffect of earthquake. Tsunami is caused when the epicenter of an earthquake lies under the ocean surface. An earthquake in the sea bed results in waves those are not more than a ripple over the epicenter, but as they travel towards the shore, they get bigger, faster and stronger. A wave only measuring 1 meter above the epicenter could measure 100 meters at the shores, resulting in huge loss of life and tremendous damage to the property.
What to do in an Earthquake?
Though the science of studying earthquake has developed significantly, and today it’s possible to forecast an earthquake, even then it might not be possible in every place and situation. Below given are some of the safety precautions you could take when caught in a situation, to save yourself and family from harm.
Situation 1 – Outdoors
If you are outdoors and sense an earthquake, move away from buildings, poles, trees as fast as you can. The greatest danger is immediately outside of a building and near boundaries. When caught outside in an earthquake it’s wise to stand still on a clear ground, away from any structure that could fall upon you.
Situation 2 – Indoors
If you are caught in an earthquake inside a building, the best option for you would be to find some sturdy and strong table or bed and lie down below it, ducking your head under your arms. Stay put in this position until the tremor ceases or help arrives.
Situation 3 – Driving a Vehicle
If you are driving and sense an earthquake, then move as fast as possible from buildings and other high structures and stay inside the vehicle. Even after earthquake, proceed cautiously and avoid bridges if possible, as the tremors might have damaged them.
Earthquakes are a natural phenomenon and despite our knowledge on them, we cannot stop them from occurring; nevertheless, we can always act wisely when caught in the situation, saving our life as well as life of others.
Essay on Earthquake FAQs
What is called an earthquake.
An earthquake is the shaking of the ground caused by sudden movements in Earth's crust.
What makes an earthquake?
Earthquakes happen when the Earth's plates suddenly move or slide past each other, releasing energy that causes the ground to shake.
What is the topic of an earthquake?
The topic of an earthquake revolves around the shaking and vibrations in the Earth's surface caused by geological movements.
What is the meaning of earthquake in English?
Earthquake in English refers to the shaking or trembling of the ground due to geological forces.
What is the introduction of an earthquake?
An earthquake introduction would cover the basics: how it occurs due to tectonic plate movements, causing shaking or trembling of the ground.
How do you write an earthquake essay?
To write an earthquake essay, start with an introduction explaining what an earthquake is, discuss its causes, effects, and safety measures, and conclude with preventive measures.
What is an earthquake in 150 words?
An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the Earth's surface caused by movements in the Earth's crust. These movements release energy, creating seismic waves that make the ground shake, potentially causing damage to structures and landscapes. Safety measures and preparedness are crucial to mitigate the impact of earthquakes.
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Natural disasters on earth: essay on natural disasters (9069 words).
Here is your comprehensive essay on Natural Disasters!
Nature and Management :
A natural disaster is unforeseen, severe and immediate. Pollution, ozone depletion in the stratosphere and global warming come in this category. Natural disasters include cyclones, earthquakes, floods, drought (though these two are now being increasingly considered ‘man- made’ disasters) heat and cold waves, landslides, avalanches, flash floods, severe thunderstorms, hail, low level wind shears, and microburst.
Image Courtesy : go.standard.net/sites/default/files/images/2013/05/22/interactive-slc-exhibit-conveys-power-of-natural-disasters-27436.jpg
The destructive potential of any natural hazard is estimated basically by its spatial extent and severity. Spatial extent upto which the effect of a disastrous event could be felt may easily be classified into small, medium and large scales. The phenomenon extending from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers are termed as small scale.
Growing industrialisation and unjustified exploitation of natural resources have brought our echo system to a verge of non-reversibility and imbalance. This has led to a threat from a set of natural hazards like pollution, global warming and ozone depletion on large or global scale.
The management aspect of disaster may be classified as: (a) early warning system; (b) rescue operations; (c) relief operations; (d) rehabilitation; and (e) long range planning. The most important is the early warning systems. Unless sufficient advance notice is available, evacuation of the population likely to be affected cannot be undertaken.
There are two aspects of early warning system. One is the availability of an effective technique to forecast the disaster with its extent and the other is effective communication of the same to the civil authority responsible for rescue operations.
In some phenomena, such as cyclones, flood, etc. the time available to respond to the hazard is of the order of a few days. Hence early warning, communication, and rescue operations are possible. But, in a few cases like flash floods, microburst, etc., the response time is of the order of few minutes only, which calls for a very fast early warning and efficient communication system.
The human-activity-induced hazards like pollution and global warming have already started showing their precursors, giving sufficient time to control and avoid these hazards by long term planning. On the contrary, in earthquakes no proven methods has yet been evolved to give any prior warning and so post-hazard mitigation is the only alternative.
Role of Communication For a developing country like India, the role of communication in disaster mitigation is extremely critical. Vast areas of the country do not have telephone/ telegraph links. These can neither be provided in a short span of time available for mitigation nor are there resources to do so.
We have to depend on existing links, many of which completely break down during the disaster. The various types available for dissemination of disaster warning as well as arranging mitigation are: (a) land line links; (b) underground cable links; (c) wireless links; (d) microwave (LOS); and (e) satellite links. The only effective communication which is likely to remain completely or partially unaffected is the satellite link.
This assumes that the earth stations at the two ends are suitably located to remain unaffected. Further link between the earth station and the affected area is usually through microwave/ land line, which has its limitation as it may break down.
The most effective way of dissemination of warning is Disaster Warning System (DWS) used by the IMD for issue of cyclone bulletin to the coastal areas. This could be extended to the entire earthquake/ flood prone areas. Experience has shown that it remains completely unaffected under the severest cyclonic condition. However, the system is limited to one way communication only.
For effective two way communication, VHF/UHF links should be established from every earth station to the affected zone. Use of existing police VHF/UHF link can be made. The only addition required is the missing link between the nearest earth station to police headquarters. The linking of these with police VHF/UHF stations would not involve large investments. This would be a cost effective and reliable communication system for disaster warning and mitigation.
Stated simply, ‘an earthquake is a vehement shake of the earth from natural causes’. Technically an earthquake is a phenomenon of strong vibrations occurring on the ground, consequent to release of large amount of energy within a short period of time because of some disturbance in the earth’s crust or in the upper part of the mantle.
The theory of plate tectonics offers a comprehensive explanation for several geological phenomena — continental drift, mountain building and volcanism, and, of course, earthquake. According to this theory, when the molten mass that was the earth billions of years ago cooled down, the crust that was formed was not one homogenous piece but broken into about a dozen large plates and several smaller ones with their thickness ranging from 30 km down to the lithosphere at depth of about 100 km or so.
The plates are in incessant motion, with speeds of about 1 cm to 5 cm a year. This mobile jigsaw puzzle is what is termed as the continental drift, which results in the formation of mountains, midoceanic ridges, ocean trenches, volcanoes and seismic energy buildup. Where two places converge or collide, a deep trench forms and one plate is deflected downwards into the asthenosphere which lies below the crust and the lithosphere.
When two thick continential plates collide, rocks on the land are relatively light and too buoyant to descend into the asthenosphere. The result is a huge zone of crushing, with rocks and other materials being folded. And this is how the Himalayas have emerged or, in fact, are continuing to emerge.
As the deformation of the plate margins goes on, energy builds up in rocks in the form of elastic strain which continues till it exceeds their elastic limits and the rocks give way. The sudden release of stored elastic energy causes earthquakes.
Earthquakes in India are caused by the release of elastic strain energy created and replenished by the stresses from the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate. The most intense earthquakes occur on the boundaries of the Indian plate to the east, north and west.
In the Indian plate, faults are created when this rubs against the Eurasian plate. (When an earthquake occurs along a fault line within the plate, it is called an intra-plate earthquake. The majority of the earthquakes occur along plate boundaries.)
Earthquakes are also caused by volcanic activity. Construction of large water reservoirs may also cause earthquakes—these are called reservoir-induced earthquakes.
The movement of the plates and occurrence of earthquakes seem to be concentrated in certain areas or zones of the earth.
Based on intensity and frequency of occurrence, world map is divided into the following earthquake zones or belts—
Circum-Pacific Belt Surrounds the Pacific Ocean and accounts for more than three-fourths of the world’s earthquakes. Sometimes called the ‘Ring of Fire’, its epicentre are the coastal margins of North and South America and East Asia. These represent the eastern and western margins of the Pacific Ocean respectively. The occurrence of maximum number of earthquakes in this region is due to four ideal conditions—
(i) Junction of continental and oceanic margins
(ii) Zone of young folded mountains
(iii) Zone of active volcanoes
(iv) Subduction zone of destructive or convergent plate boundaries
Also called the Mediterranean Belt or Alpine-Himalayan Belt, it accounts for about 21 per cent of the total seismic shocks. It includes the epicentres of the Alpine mountains and their offshoots in Europe, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Himalayan Mountains and Burmese hills.
Mid-Atlantic Ridge Belt:
The epicentres of this region are along the mid-Atlantic Ridge and the islands near the ridge. This belt represents the zone of moderate and shallow focus earthquakes—the reason for this being the creation of transform faults and fractures because of splitting of plates followed by their movement in the opposite direction.
Based on seismic data and different geological and geophysical parameters, the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) had initially divided the country into five seismic zones. In 2003, however, BIS redefined the seismic map of India by merging zones I and II.
Thus India has four such zones now—II, III, IV and V. There is thus no part of the country that can be termed earthquake free. Of the five seismic zones, zone V is the most active region and zone I shows least seismic activity.
The entire north-eastern region falls in zone V. Besides the North- East, zone V includes parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kachch in Gujarat, northern Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. One of the reasons for this region being prone to earthquake is the presence of the young-fold Himalayan Mountains here which have frequent tectonic movements.
Zone IV which is the next most active region of seismic activity covers Sikkim, Delhi, remaining parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, northern parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Gujarat and small portions of Maharashtra near the west coast.
Zone III comprises Kerala, Goa, Lakshadweep, remaining parts of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, parts of Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The remaining states with lesser known activity fall in zone II.
The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the Bihar-Nepal border, the Rann of Katchh in Gujarat and the Andaman Islands fall into the unstable belt which stretches right across the globe.
The high seismicity of the Indian subcontinent arises from the tectonic disturbances associated with the northward movement of the Indian plate, which is underthrasting the Eurasian plate.
The Himalayan region has been the site for great earthquakes of the world of magnitude greater than 8.0. This highly seismic belt is a branch of one of the three major seismic belts of the world called the “Alpide-Himalayan Belt”. The high seismicity region extends from Hindukush in the west to Sadiya in the northeast which further extends down to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Different institutions including the Indian Meteorogical Department and the Indian School of Mines, have after a study of mechanics of several earthquakes in the north- eastern region found that the thrust faulting was generally indicated along with Dawki fault and the Indo-Burma border.
Dr. H. Teiedemann, a member of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Seismological Society of America, said in 1985 that the increased interplay activity near the north-eastern boundary in the Indian plate coupled with thrusting of the Himalayan Burmese sector pointed to the danger of earthquakes in the region.
Tracking an earthquake:
There are three kinds of seismic waves. Waves that move the fastest are called primary, or P, waves. These waves, like sound waves, travel longitudinally by alternate compression and expansion of the medium, like the movement of the bellows of an accordion. Somewhat slower are the secondary, or S, waves which propagate transversely in the form of snakelike wriggles at right angle to the directions of travel.
These cannot travel through liquids or gases. The slowest earthquake waves are the long, or L, waves which cause the most extensive damage as they move along the earth’s surface. Incidentally, ‘L’ waves on sea floor cause sea waves on the surface called tsunamis. They rise to 100 feet or more and cause damage when they break on habitated coasts.
All three kinds can be detected and recorded by sensitive instruments called seismographs. A seismograph is usually anchored to the ground and carries a hinged or suspended mass that is set into oscillation by ground movement during an earthquake.
The instrument can record both horizontal and vertical ground movement in the form of wavy lines on paper or film. From the record, called a seismogram, it is possible to find out how strong the quake was, where it began and how long it lasted.
The location of the epicentre of a quake is determined from the time of arrival of the P and S waves at the seismographic station. Since P waves travel at a speed of about 8 km per second and S waves at 5 km per second, it is possible to compute the distance of their origin from the seismic record. If the distance from three stations are computed, the exact location can be pin pointed. A circle of appropriate radius is drawn around each station. The epicentre lies where the circles intersect.
‘Magnitude’ and ‘intensity’ are the two ways in which a quake’s strength is generally expressed. The magnitude is a measure that depends on the seismic energy radiated by the quake as recorded on seismographs.
The intensity, in turn, is a measure that depends on the damage caused by the quake. It does not have a mathematical basis but is based on observed effects.
A quake’s magnitude is usually measured in terms of the Richter scale. Devised by the American seismologist, Charles Francis Richter, in 1932, the Richter scale is not a physical device but a logarithmic scale based on recordings of seismographs, instruments which automatically detect and record the intensity, direction and duration of a movement on the ground.
The scale starts at one and has no upper limit. Since it is a logarithmic scale, each unit is 10 times greater than the previous one; in other words, an increase of one unit (whole number) on the Richter scale signifies a 10-fold jump in the quake’s size (or 31 times more energy released).
On this scale, the smallest quake felt by humans is about 3.0, and the smallest quake capable of causing damage is about 4.5. The strongest quake ever recorded had a magnitude of 8.9. Richter magnitude effects are confined to the vicinity of the epicentre.
The Richter scale has been immensely modified and upgraded since it was introduced. It remains the most widely known and used scale for measuring the magnitude of an earthquake.
For measurement of the intensity of an earthquake, the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is used. The 12-point Mercalli scale measures the intensity of shaking during an earthquake and is assessed by inspecting the damage and interviewing survivors of the earthquake. As such, it is extremely subjective.
Furthermore, because the intensity of shaking varies from one place to another during an earthquake, different Mercalli ratings can be given for the same earthquake. Unlike the Mercalli scale, the Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake at its epicentre.
What are aftershocks?
Aftershocks are earthquakes that often occur during the days and months that follow some larger quake. Aftershocks occur in the same general region as the main shock and are believed to be the result of minor readjustment of stress at place in the fault zones. Generally, major quakes are followed by a larger number of aftershocks, decreasing in frequency with time.
Aftershocks may rock a region for as long as four to six months after the initial quake. However, strong ones last only a few days. Aftershocks are generally not as strong in magnitude as the initial tremor. But a small chance of them being stronger in magnitude cannot be ruled out, in which case the first and aftershocks become known as foreshocks.
How frequently do quakes occur?
Earthquakes occur every day around the world. Each day there are about 1,000 very small earthquakes measuring 1 to 2 on the Richter scale. Approximately, there is one every 87 seconds. Annually, on an average, there are 800 quakes capable of causing damage with a magnitude of 5-5.9, and 18 major ones with a magnitude of 7 or more.
Prediction of earthquakes:
The science of earthquake prediction is at its infancy at present, even though several intensive attempts in this direction have been going on for the last two to three decades in the USA, Russia, Japan, China and India. In spite of some breakthroughs— the notable example being the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake of China (7.3M)—there is yet no reliable system to predict an earthquake. For, just a year later in 1976, the seismologists could not predict the Tangshan earthquake.
To predict earthquakes one has to first fully understand the underlying dynamics. For example, even though it is known that this intense seismic activity is a result of the north-northeastern movement and under thrusting of the Indian plate, it is not known what fraction of the strain energy is being released by earthquakes along the belt.
Aside from such dynamic imputs, an empirical basis of prediction can be founded by recognising, monitoring and interpreting observable and decipherable precursory phenomena. Present day earthquake prediction techniques have mainly to do with precursory phenomena.
The parameters that are normally looked at include electrical resistivities, geomagnetic properties, variation in the ratio of compressional to shear wave velocities, etc. Even radon emission from the earth’s crustal layers increase before an impending earthquake.
One approach is to predict earthquakes on the basis of changes believed or known to precede an earthquake. Such earthquake precursors include abnormal tilting of ground, change in strain in rock, dilatancy of rocks which could be measured by a change in velocities, ground and water levels, sharp changes in pressure, and unusual lights in the sky.
The behaviour of some animals is also believed to undergo a distinct change prior to an earthquake. Some lower creatures are perhaps more sensitive to sound and vibrations than humans; or endowed with what one may call prescience. Another approach is to estimate the probabilistic occurrence of an earthquake statistically by relating the past occurrences to weather conditions, volcanic activity and tidal forces.
There have been some notable Indian efforts too in developing prediction models in the Himalayan-belt context. One relates to the so- called seismic gaps, which postulates that great earthquakes rupture the Himalayan arc whose total length is about 1700 km. Of this, about 1400 km is supposed to have been ruptured releasing part of the pent-up energy during the last four great earthquakes, leaving a portion of about 300 km to be broken in a “future great earthquake”.
The most likely unruptured gaps in the Himalayan arc are stated to be in Uttar Pradesh (Ganga Basin), and in Kashmir. Proponents of this model have postulated that the entire Himalayan detachment would rupture in 180-240 years, the rupture being caused by a 8.0 M plus earthquake. This hypothesis forms the basis for the apprehension of the Tehri dam being subjected to earthquakes of this magnitude.
Some scientists have noted that certain cycles of low and high seismicity characterise the Alpide belt. For example, after an extremely active cycle from 1934 to 1951, with 14 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.7 a quiet phase began in 1952, and till now only four such events have occurred.
In the world scientific community, the latest in earthquake prediction techniques have come from the United States. One method developed by the Americans involves the use of laser beams. These beams are shot from an observatory to a geostationary satellite in space.
On hitting the satellite, the waves are reflected back to the observatory. A substantial difference in the time taken by the laser beams to travel between the two points is an indication of considerable tectonic plate movement, and perhaps an imminent earthquake.
A recent study of Indonesian reefs showed that corals record cyclical environmental events and could predict a massive earthquake in the eastern Indian Ocean within the next 20 years. The study conducted off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island showed they have annual growth rings, like those in tree trunks, which record cyclical events such as earthquakes.
Scientists said the earthquake could be similar to the magnitude 9.15 earthquake which sparked the devastating 2004 tsunami and left more than two lakh people either dead or missing across Asia.
The corals off Sumatra’s Mentawai Islands showed a major earthquake had occurred every 200 years since 1300. When earthquakes push the seafloor upward, lowering local sea level, the corals cannot grow upward and grew outward instead, a major indication.
An area off Sumatra that has been the source of disastrous earthquakes, still carries a lot of pent-up pressure that could result in another strong quake, noted the study reported in the journal Nature.
It is not, however, clear as of now whether a precise earthquake prediction and warning system can be developed and put to any effective use.
Damage caused by an earthquake:
The greatest damage in an earthquake is caused by the destruction of buildings and resultant loss of life and property and destruction of infrastructure.
The earthquakes having the same magnitude on the Richter scale may vary in damage from place to place. The extent of damage that an earthquake can cause may depend on more than one factor. The depth of the focus may be one factor. Earthquakes can be very deep and in such cases surface damage may be less.
The extent of damage also depends on how populated and developed an area is. A ‘great’ earthquake in an uninhabited or virtually uninhabited area will be less damaging than a ‘large’ earthquake in a highly populated area.
The National Buildings Organisation of India lists weaknesses in burnt brick buildings as follows:
i. Poor strength of material in tension-and shear.
ii. Toothed joint causing a vertical plane of weakness between perpendicular walls.
iii. Large openings placed too close to the corners. Long rooms having long walls unsupported by cross-walls.
iv. Unsymmetrical plan, or with too many projections.
v. Use of heavy roofs having flexibility in plan.
vi. Use of light roofs with little binding effects on walls.
How to minimise damage?
Some measures to prevent building collapse during the earthquake are: symmetry and rectangularity of building; symmetry in locating openings; simplicity in elevation or avoidance of ornamentation; intersecting internal walls so as to divide the total plan in square enclosures of not more than 6 m wide; use of steel or wooden dowels going into walls meeting at corners (shear walls) or T-junctions to provide effective bonding; use of bond beam or band of reinforced concrete at lintel levels of openings and serving as lintel too. The last one is the one feature that is most effective in ensuring the integrity of enclosures like a rigid box.
For masonry construction, the BIS has specified that materials to be used should be well-burnt bricks and not sun-dried bricks. The use of arches to span over openings is a source of weakness and should be avoided unless steel ties are provided.
Scientists have suggested designing buildings to counter quake movement by shifting the centre of gravity with the help of a steel weight placed on the top of the buildings.
In plain areas or towns which are located on a river bank, or situated on a thick layer of alluvial soil (like Ahmedabad), the ‘deep piles technology’ may be useful. In this technique, thick, columns of concrete and steel are inserted 10-30 metre deep into the soil beneath the regular foundation. In case of earthquakes, these pillars provide extra strength and prevent the buildings from collapsing.
In the ‘base isolation technique’, heavy blocks of rubber and steel are put between the foundation and the building. During a quake, the rubber absorbs the shocks.
In high-rises, enlarged structures on the top floors should be avoided. Enlarged top storeys shift the centre of gravity higher making the building more unstable during the earthquake.
‘Soft first storeys’ should be avoided. In cities, many buildings stand on columns. The ground floor is generally used for parking and walls start from the first floor. These buildings collapse quickly during an earthquake.
Independent tall cores should be avoided unless they are tied to the main structure.
Tropical cyclones, the most destructive of nature’s phenomena, are known to form over all tropical oceans except over the South Atlantic and the South Pacific, east of about 140° W. An intense low pressure area in the atmosphere is formed before/after the monsoon. It is associated with fierce wind and heavy rainfall. Horizontally it extends from 500 to 1000 km and vertically from the surface to about 14 km.
Severe tropical cyclones cause considerable damage to property and agricultural crops. The principal dangers posed are: (a) fierce winds; (b) torrential rains and associated flooding; and (c) high storm tides (combined effect of storm surge and tides). Rainfall up to 20 to 30 cm a day is common.
The highest ever sustained winds recorded in the case of tropical cyclones are 317 kmph. Storm surge (rise of sea level) of four metres are common. The highest sea level elevation in the world due to continued effect of storm surge and astronomical high tide occurred in 1876 near Bakerganj, where the sea level rose by about 12 metres above the mean sea level on that occasion.
Tropical cyclones over the Bay of Bengal occur in two district seasons, the pre-monsoon months of April-May and the post-monsoon months of October-November. On an average, in fact, almost half a dozen tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea every year, out of which two or three may be severe.
Out of these, the stormiest months are May-June, October and November. Compared to the pre- monsoon season of May, June, when severe storms are rare, the months of October and November are known for severe cyclones. The IMD has published the tracks of the cyclones since 1891 and updates them every year in its quarterly scientific journal, Mausam.
As 90 per cent of the deaths in severe cyclones all over the world occur in high storm surges accompanying them, the only feasible method to save the lives of human beings and animals is to evacuate them to safe inland cyclone shelters as early as possible after the receipt of advance cyclone warnings from the IMD. The evacuation of people is difficult in flat coastal districts as in Bangladesh where the tides of six to 10 metres above the sea level submerges offshore islands and travels inland for considerable distances.
Tropical cyclones are by nature devastating mainly because of their place of birth, namely, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). This is a narrow belt at the equator, where the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet.
It is a region of high radiation energy which supplies the necessary heat for the vaporisation of sea water into the air. This moist unstable air rises, generates convective clouds and leads to an atmospheric disturbance with a fall in surface atmospheric pressure. This causes a convergence of surrounding air towards this region of low pressure.
The converging mass of air gains a rotary motion because of what is known as the Coriolis force caused by the rotation of the Earth. However, under favourable circumstances, such as high sea-surface temperatures, this low pressure area can get accentuated.
The convective instability builds up into an organised system with high-speed winds circulating around the low pressure interior. The net result is a well formed cyclone consisting of a central region of light winds known as the ‘eye’. The eye has an average radius of 20 to 30 km. in fact, in a mature storm like in Bangladesh. It can even be as much as 50 km.
Given the existing scientific knowledge about cyclones, it is not yet possible to physically dissipate the buildup of a massive cyclone. Cures are generally worse than the disease. For example, while seeding by sodium iodide crystals has been attempted in some parts of the world— with marginal success—a more effective prescription proposed sometimes is a nuclear explosion. Obviously, that would be trading one disaster for an even greater one.
Accepted technology, therefore, only provides the capability to detect and track cyclones with sophisticated satellite imagery and ground- based radar systems. But here too the limitations are glaring. Atmospheric science, for example, is not yet in a position to unambiguously predict the motion and behaviour of a cyclone more than 24 hours ahead of its arrival. So all that is possible in that brief span is to warn the vulnerable sections of the population of the imminent danger and adopt measures to move them to safer cyclone withstanding structures.
The frequency, intensity and coastal impact of cyclones varies from region to region. Interestingly, the frequency of tropical cyclones is the least in the north Indian Ocean regions of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea; they are also of moderate intensities. But the cyclones are deadliest when they cross the coast bordering North Bay of Bengal (coastal areas of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh).
This is mainly due to storm surges (tidal waves) that occur in this region inundating the coastal areas. Over the last two-and-a-half centuries, 17 of the 22 severe tropical cyclones—each causing loss of more than 10,000 human lives—took place in the North Bay of Bengal. While gales and strong winds, as well as torrential rain, that usually accompany a cyclone can cause sufficient havoc to property and agriculture, loss of human life and cattle is mainly due to storm surges.
If the terrain is shallow and shaped like a funnel, like that of Bangladesh—much of the exposed land is just about at the mean sea level or even less—storm surges get enormously amplified. Coastal inundation due to a combination of high tide and storm surge can cause the worst disaster.
India has an efficient cyclone warning system. Tropical cyclones are tracked with the help of (i) regular observation from weather network of surface and upper air observation stations, (ii) ships report, (iii) cyclone detection radars, (iv) satellites, and (v) reports from commercial aircraft.
Ships of merchant fleet have meteorological instruments for taking observations at sea. A network of cyclone detection radars have been set up along the coast at Kolkata, Paradip, Visakhapatnam, Machilipatnam, Chennai, Karaikal, Kochi, Goa, Mumbai and Bhuj. The range of these radars is 400 km. When the cyclone is beyond the range of coastal radars, its intensity and movement is monitored with weather satellites.
Warnings are issued by the area cyclone warning centres located at Kolkata, Chennai and Mumbai, and cyclone warning centres at Bhubaneswar, Visakhapatnam and Ahmedabad.
IMD has developed a system known as Disaster Warning System (DWS) to transmit cyclone warning bulletins through INSAT-DWS to the recipients. This consists of the following elements:
(i) The cyclone warning centre for originating the area code of the districts and disaster warning message;
(ii) The earth station located near the cyclone warning centre with uplink facility in C-band and suitable communication links;
(iii) The C/S band transponder on board INSAT; and
(iv) The INSAT-DWS receivers located in cyclone prone areas.
Typically, in a cyclone the maximum devastative effects are within about 100 km from the centre and on the right of the storm track where all the islands lie. Evacuating the population just 24 hours before would require an army of high speed boats, an unfeasible proposition for a resource—poor country. The obvious solution, therefore, would be to provide a large number of storm shelters in the particularly vulnerable areas.
So inured are we to the annual phenomena of floods in season, that one more village practically washed away by a flash flood causes no more than a ripple. But for the people there it is a traumatic experience.
In most cases ‘flooding’ is caused by a river over-spilling its banks due to (a) excessive precipitation, (b) obstruction in the river bed, (c) inadequate waterways at rail/road crossings, (d) drainage congestion, and (e) change in river course.
Flood forecasting in India commenced in 1958 with the establishment of a unit in Central Water Commission (CWC). Earlier, it used to be done by a conventional method—gauge to gauge or discharge correlation by which future gauges at forecast points are estimated on the basis of gauge discharge observed at some upstream station. Gradually, other parameters like precipitation, etc. were incorporated. Nowadays, computer-based hydrological models are being used for inflow and flood forecasting.
The basic information required for flood forecasting is rainfall data of the catchment area of the river. Due to poor communication and inaccessibility, complete information is not always available. However, with sophisticated high-powered S-band radars, it is now possible to estimate the rainfall in an area of up to 200 km around the radar site.
This system is used extensively in the US for estimating the rainfall potential in the catchment areas of major rivers an issue of flood forecast warning. The use of radar for the precipitation estimate is based on the principle that the amount of echo return from a volume of cloud depends on the number and size of hydrometeros in it. The empirical relationship between the echo return and the rainfall rates has been developed for various types of rain.
Using fast switching digital circuits, the return video is digitised, integrated, normalised and contoured into standard six or seven rainfall rates. Observations taken every ten minutes can be cumulatively added and averaged to give 24-hour rainfall prediction over the region. Through appropriate modes, the information from a number of radar sites can be sent to a central office where powerful computers process the data and yield the overall rainfall potential of the weather system.
The advantage of using radars for hydrological work lies in the fact that the information over the inaccessible region is available without actual human intervention. Of course, there are many assumptions which do not always hold good, thereby introducing large errors in the result.
But with suitable calibration with actual gauge measurements correction factors could be applied. Another advantage of the radar measurement that it puts the time for the collection of rainfall data thereby increasing the lead time available for rescue/evacuation efforts in the region likely to be affected.
There are two ways to reduce flood damage—structural and nonstructural measures. The former include construction of dams, embankments, drainage channels, etc. This has not helped much as population has moved into areas where flooding used to occur and has been controlled due to structure. Whenever flooding level is higher than what the structure can hold, the result is devastating.
The non-structural approach calls for removing populations from the flood plains. Another important aspect is to reduce the silting of rivers. Afforestation in the catchment areas, along the river banks, helps in maintaining the effective river volume.
The National Flood Commission (NFC) was set up specifically to deal with the problem of floods. But it is evident that, over the last four decades or so, flood control efforts have proved counter-productive because they have not included adequate planning for conservation of watersheds.
As a result the increasing siltation of rivers is accelerating their rate of flow in flood, eventually forcing even well built embankments to give way. As is well known, embankments increase the force of the river by channelling it over a narrow area instead of permitting it to spread. The danger of relying too heavily on the system of embankments for flood control has been well documented.
Apart from the depletion in forest cover, overgrazing contributes greatly to soil loss in the catchment areas. Even in the mountainous areas, where efforts have been made to plant trees on steep slopes to reduce the soil loss during rains, mountain goats have impeded the process of regeneration. Cattle and goats also destroy the plant cover that springs up after the rain which is crucial for holding down the soil.
Human activity is yet another factor. Quarrying, road construction, and other building activity in sensitive catchment areas add to the soil loss.
As a result of all these factors, the silt load of many rivers has increased greatly. The siltation level of dams, which has generally been underestimated at the time of construction has had to be revised by 50 to 400 per cent in some cases. Siltation reduces the capacity of reservoirs.
Consequently in order to save the dam, unscheduled and panic releases of water are resorted to often without giving adequate warning to people downstream who live in the path of the released water. Thus ironically dams built partly to assist in flood control, are today contributing to the devastation caused by floods.
The phenomenon that really ought to engage the minds of planners is how and why the flood-prone area in the country is increasing each year. Even areas which have never known floods in the past are now affected. The NFC estimates that 40 million hectares are flood-prone of which 32 million hectares can be protected.
Although flood management is a state subject, the Union government provides Central assistance to the flood-prone states for a few specified schemes, which are technical and promotional in nature.
Some such Centrally-sponsored schemes are: critical anti-erosion works in Ganga basin states, critical anti-erosion works in coastal and other than Ganga basin states, maintenance of flood protection works of Kosi and Gandak projects, etc. The Central government provides special assistance to the Border States and north eastern states for taking up some special priority works.
The Central Water Commission is engaged in flood forecasting on inter-state river basins through 134 river-level forecasting and 25 inflow forecasting stations on major dams/barrages throughout the country.
A tsunami is a series of travelling ocean waves which are set off by geological disturbances near the floor of the ocean. The waves of very, very long wavelengths and period rush across the ocean and increase their momentum over a stretch of thousands of kilometers. Some tsunamis may appear as a tide but they are not tidal waves in reality.
While tides are caused by gravitational influences of the moon, sun and the planets, tsunamis are seismic sea waves. That is, they are related to an earthquake- related mechanism of generation. Tsunamis are usually a result of earthquakes, but may be at times caused by landslides or volcanic eruption or, very rarely, a large meteorite impact on the ocean.
The tsunami can be understood at the basic level by looking at the series of concentric ripples formed in a lake when a stone is thrown into it. A tsunami is like those ripples but caused by a disturbance much greater in magnitude.
Tsunamis are shallow-water waves different from the wind-generated waves which usually have a period of five to twenty seconds which refers to the time between two successional waves of about 100 to 200 metres. Tsunamis behave as shallow-water waves because of their long wavelengths.
They have a period in the range of ten minutes to two hours and a wavelength exceeding 500 km. The rate of energy loss of a wave is inversely related to its wavelength. So tsunamis lose little energy as they propagate as they have a very large wavelength. So they will travel at high speeds in deep waters and travel great distances as well losing little energy.
A tsunami that occurs 1000 metres deep in water has a speed of 356 km per hour. At 6000 m, it travels at 873 Ion per hour. It travels at different speeds in water: it travels slow in water that is shallow and fast in deep water. As an average ocean depth of 5000 m is assumed, one talks of tsunamis as having an average speed of about 750 km per hour.
Propagation of Tsunamis:
The long gravity tsunami waves are caused by two interacting processes. There is the slope of the sea surface which creates a horizontal pressure force. Then there is the piling up or lowering of sea surface as water moves in varying speeds in the direction that the wave form is moving.
These processes together create propagating waves. A tsunami can be caused by any disturbance that displaces a large water mass from its equilibrium position. An undersea earthquake causes buckling of the sea floor, something that occurs at subduction zones, places where drifting plates that constitute the outer shell of the earth converge and the heavier oceanic plate dips below the lighter continents.
As a plate plunges into the interior of the earth it gets stuck against the edge of a continental plate for a while, when stresses build up, then the locked zone gives way. Parts of the ocean floor then snap upward and other areas sink downward. In the instant after the quake, the sea surface shape resembles the contours of the seafloor.
But then gravity acts to return the sea surface to its original shape. The ripples then race outward and a tsunami is caused. Killer tsunamis have been generated by subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia in the past. There were 17 tsunamis in the Pacific from 1992 to 1996 which resulted in 1,700 deaths.
During a submarine landslide, the equilibrium sea-level is altered by sediment moving along the floor of the sea. Gravitational forces then propagate a tsunami. Again, a marine volcanic eruption can generate an impulsive force that displaces the water column and gives birth to a tsunami. Above water landslides and objects in space are capable of disturbing the water when the falling debris, like meteorites, displace the water from its equilibrium position.
As a tsunami leaves deep waters and propagates into the shallow waters, it transforms. This is because as the depth of the water decreases, the speed of the tsunami reduces. But the change of total energy of the tsunami remains constant. With decrease in speed, height of the tsunami wave grows. A tsunami which was imperceptible in deep water may grow to many metres high and this is called the ‘shoaling’ effect.
Tsunami attacks can come in different forms depending upon the geometry of the seafloor warping that first caused the waves. Sometimes, the sea seems to at first draw a breath but then this withdrawal is followed by arrival of the crest of a tsunami wave. Tsunamis have been known to occur suddenly without warning.
The water level on the shore rises to many metres: more than 15 m for tsunamis originating at a distance and over 30 metres for tsunamis that originate near the earthquake’s epicentre. Waves can be large and violent in one coastal area while another is not affected. Areas can be flooded inland to 305 metres or more; when tsunami waves retreat, they carry things and people out to sea. Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level of 30 metres.
The size of the tsunami waves is determined by the quantum of deformation of the sea floor. Greater the vertical displacement, greater will be the wave size. For tsunamis to occur, earthquakes must happen underneath or near the ocean. They must be large and create movements in the ocean floor. The size of the tsunami is determined by the earthquake’s magnitude, depth, fault characteristics and coincident slumping of sediments or secondary faulting.
Subduction zones off Chile, Nicaragua, Mexico and Indonesia have created killer tsunamis. The Pacific among the oceans has witnessed most number of tsunamis (over 790 since 1990).
One of the deadliest tsunamis occurred in Asia on December 26, 2005. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Somalia bore the brunt of the disaster that killed over 55,000 people.
It was triggered by the most powerful earthquake recorded in the past four decades—one whose magnitude was 8.9 on the Richter scale. A tsunami with a magnitude 9.2 temblor struck Alaska in 1964.
Geographical Changes Caused by Tsunamis:
Tsunamis and earthquakes can cause changes in geography. The December 26 earthquake and tsunami shifted the North Pole by 2.5 cm in the direction of 145 degrees East longitude and reduced the length of the day by 2.68 microseconds. This in turn affected the velocity of earth’s rotation and the Coriolis force which plays a strong role in weather patterns.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands may have moved by about 1.25 m owing to the impact of the colossal earthquake and the tsunami.
The warning of an oncoming tsunami cannot be obtained by merely detecting an earthquake in the seas; it involves a number of complex steps which have to be completed in a systematic and quick fashion. It was in 1965, that the international warning system was started.
It is administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The member states of the NOAA include the major Pacific Rim countries in North America, Asia and South America, Pacific Islands, Australia and New Zealand. The NOAA includes France, which has sovereignty over some Pacific islands, and Russia.
Computer systems at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre (PTWC) in Hawaii monitor data from seismic stations in the USA and elsewhere warning is issued when an earthquake is shallow, located under the sea or close to it and has a magnitude that is more than a pre-determined threshold.
The NOAA has developed the ‘Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis’ (DART) gauge. Each gauge has a very sensitive pressure recorder on the sea floor in which can detect the change in the height of the ocean it even if it is by just one cm. The data is transmitted acoustically to a surface buoy which then relays it over satellite to the warning centre. There are seven DART gauges deployed at present and four more are being planned.
PTWC has improved its performance rapidly as high-quality seismic data has been made available to it. The time it needed to issue a warning has fallen from up to 90 minutes some six years ago to 25 minutes or even less today.
The Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) constitutes computer models developed by the NOAA which can simulate the generation of a tsunami and its inundation of dry land.
The Indian Ocean is not prone to tsunamis. Only two have occurred in this ocean including one on December 26, 2004. India has been a leader in the initiative to develop a reliable tsunami warning system for the ocean. It has decided to set up a sophisticated system for detecting deep sea movements and develop a network with the countries in the Indian Ocean region for sharing information on tsunamis.
The Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting System (DOARS) will be set up six kilometers deep under the sea. It will have pressure sensors to detect the water movement. The sensors will be linked to the satellite that will relay information to the earth station. Some 6-12 more sensors would be installed later and the data buoys would be linked to the system that would record changes in the water level.
The Indian government plans to set up a network with Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand which would calculate the magnitude and intensity of tsunamis from the data available to it. DART-type gauges will be installed by the government and it will join 26 countries in a network that warn each other about tsunamis.
A state-of-the-art National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, which has the capability to detect earthquakes of more than 6 magnitude in the Indian Ocean was inaugurated in 2007 in India. Set up by the Ministry of Earth Sciences in the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the 125-crore tsunami warning system would take 30 minutes to analyse the seismic data following an earthquake. The system comprises a real-time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders (BPRs), and 30 tide gauges to detect tsunamigenic earthquakes and monitor tsunamis.
Disaster Management and Planning :
Many regions in India are highly vulnerable to natural and other disasters on account of geological conditions. Disaster management has therefore emerged as a high priority. Going beyond the historical focus on relief and rehabilitation after the catastrophe, there is a need to look ahead and plan for disaster preparedness and mitigation. So, the development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness as well as mitigation to ensure that periodic shocks to development efforts are minimised.
About 60 per cent of the landmass in India is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8 per cent is prone to floods. Of the nearly 7,500 km long coastline, more than 5,500 km is prone to cyclones. Around 68 per cent area is also susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks.
However, India’s commitment to mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the process of development planning at all levels so as to achieve sustainable development is yet to be carried forward across sectors through actionable programmes for achieving the desired result.
Tenth Five Year Plan Strategy and Approach :
The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) recognised disaster management as a development issue for the first time. It was prepared in the backdrop of the Orissa super cyclone (1999) and the massive Gujarat earthquake (2001). Later the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean which devastated coastal communities in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Puducherry and Andaman in 2004 became the tipping point for initiating a series of steps by the government. India became one of the first countries to declare a national commitment to set up appropriate institutional mechanisms for more effective disaster management at the national, state and district levels. The Disaster Management Bill was subsequently adopted unanimously.
The Plan devoted a separate article to disaster management and made a number of important prescriptions to mainstream disaster risk reduction into the process of development. The prescriptions were broadly divided into three categories:
I. Policy guidelines at macro level to inform and guide the preparation and implementation of development plans-across sectors.
II. Operational guidelines for integrating disaster management practices into development plans and programmes, and
III. Specific developmental schemes for prevention and mitigation of disasters.
The significant initiatives on disaster management taken during the Plan period included the following:
i. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 was enacted for establishing requisite institutional mechanisms for drawing up and monitoring the implementation of disaster management plans, and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated, and prompt response to any disaster situation.
ii. Setting up of the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) as an apex body responsible for laying down of policies, plans and guidelines on disaster management so as to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
iii. The guidelines on management of earthquake, chemical disasters, and chemical (industrial) disasters were finalised during the Plan period.
iv. Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Mizoram, Puducherry, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh have constituted State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs). The other states and UTs are in the process of constituting the same.
v. An eight battalion-strong National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) was set up comprising 144 specialised response teams on various types of disasters of which around 72 are for nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) disasters.
vi. Revamping of the civil defence set-up to strengthen local efforts for disaster preparedness and effective response. Fire services also strengthened and modernised to a multi-hazard response force.
vii. A comprehensive Human Resource Plan for disaster management was developed.
viii. Inclusion of disaster management in the curriculum of middle and secondary school education. The subject has also been included in the post-induction and in-service training of civil and police officers. Modules have also been identified to include disaster management aspects in the course curriculum for engineering, architecture, and medical degrees.
ix. The National Institute for Disaster Management (NIDM) was established as the apex training institute for disaster management in India.
x. Model-building by-laws for town and country planning legislations, land use zonation, development control legislations were finalised.
xi. The Bureau of Indian Standards issued building codes for construction of different types of buildings in different seismic zones in India. The National Building Code was also revised, taking into consideration the natural hazards and risks of various regions of India.
xii. Implementation of the National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management to train 10,000 engineers and 10,000 architects on safe construction techniques and architectural practices.
xiii. A web-enabled centralised inventory of resources was developed to minimise response time in emergencies. Over 1, 10,000 records from 600 districts have already been uploaded.
xiv. Sale construction practices and “dos” and “don’ts” for various hazards were also disseminated for creating public awareness.
Eleventh Plan Strategies and Initiatives :
The Eleventh Plan (2008-2013) aims at consolidating the entire process of disaster management by giving impetus to projects and programmes that develop and nurture the culture of safety and integration of disaster prevention and mitigation into the development process. To assist the Planning Commission in appraisal of projects, broad and generic guidelines which are not disaster or theme specific have to be adopted.
Conceptualisation of hazard scenarios and associated vulnerability and risk assessments in a given situation will necessarily have to depend on available maps, master plans and building and land use regulations, National Building Code of India, and the various Safety Standards and Codes of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The guidelines will cover the following aspects in the Eleventh Plan:
i. Multi-hazard prone area/district recognised by the NDMA will be reported in the revised National Building Code of India of the Bureau of Indian Standards.
ii. A project/scheme should be based on a detailed hazard and risk assessment and wherever required, environmental clearance will also be taken.
iii. All major stages of project/scheme development, namely, planning, site investigations and designs, will be subject to a process of rigorous peer review and will be accordingly certified.
iv. All schemes for generating basic input data for hazard and vulnerability impact analysis to be made operational.
v. Mainstreaming disaster reduction into already approved projects in sectors of education, housing, infrastructure, urban development, and the like. Design of school buildings under the programme would include hazard resistant features, in multi-hazard prone (earthquake, cyclone, flood), high-risk areas. Similarly, existing infrastructure like bridges and roads will also be strengthened and upgraded to mitigate disaster at a subsequent stage.
Outside the framework of Plan schemes, many innovative measures will also be adopted to encourage disaster risk reduction measures in the corporate sector, non-government organisations, and among individuals.
Fiscal measures like rebates on income and property tax for retrofitting unsafe buildings, compulsory risk insurance for bank loan on all types of properties will also be introduced to mobilise resources for safe construction and retrofitting of existing constructions in all disaster prone areas. Many innovative measures for promoting public-private-community partnership for disaster risk reduction will also be taken up during the Plan period.
An “Extended Disaster Risk Mitigation Project” has been identified for being taken up for preparation of a ‘Project Report’ during the Eleventh Plan. This will be supplemented by activities under various other national/state level mitigation projects.
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Essay on Disaster Management
- Updated on
- May 10, 2023
Disaster Management has been essentially included in the study curriculums of secondary education. Whether it is natural or man-made, disasters can wreak havoc on our surroundings and cost human lives as well. To familiarise students with efficiently preventing and ensuring the safety of living beings and our environment from unprecedented events, the study of Disaster Management has been included as an important part of the Geography class 10 syllabus. This blog aims to focus on imparting how you can draft a well-written essay on Disaster Management.
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To begin with your essay on Disaster Management, the most important thing is to comprehend this concept as well as what it aims to facilitate. In simple terms, Disaster Management is termed as the management and utilisation of resources as well as responsibilities to tackle different emergencies, be it man-made disasters or natural ones. It concentrates on preparing human beings for a varied range of calamities and helping them respond in a better way as well as ensure recovery thus lessening their overall impact.
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Before drafting your essay on Disaster Management, another thing you need to ensure is familiarising yourself with the structure of essay writing. To help you understand the do’s and don’ts, we have listed down some of the major things you need to keep in mind.
- Research thoroughly about your topic. For example, while writing an essay on Disaster Management, explore the recent happenings and mention them to provide the reader with a view into your understanding of this concept.
- Create important pointers while researching that you can further incorporate into your essay.
- Don’t mug up the definitions but comprehend them through examples.
- Use transitions between paragraphs to keep a coherent flow for the reader as a long paragraph might seem too lengthy and segregating your introduction and conclusion can provide a better structure.
- Quote important examples not only in your introduction but also in the following paragraphs where you detail the given topic.
- Revise and add finishing touches once you have completed the essay to locate any grammatical errors as well as other mistakes.
Now that you are aware of the key elements of writing an essay on Disaster Management, take a look at the format of essay writing first:
Introduction (30-40 words)
Begin with defining your topic explained in simple terms. For Disaster Management, You can make it more interesting by adding a question or a recent instance. The introduction should be understandable aiming to become more specific in the subsequent paragraphs.
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Body of Content (80 words)
Also termed as the thesis statement , the content after the introduction should explain your given topic in detail. It should contain the maximum content out of the whole format because it needs to be detailed. For Disaster Management, you can delve deeper into its process, how it is carried out for different situations as well as prevention and protection.
Conclusion (30-40 words)
This section should mainly wrap up what you have described in the above paragraphs. For an essay on Disaster Management, you can focus on summing it up by writing its aim, types and purposes briefly.
Disaster can be simply termed as a sudden incident or happening which can be either natural or man-made and can potentially cause damage to the surroundings or loss of human life. To facilitate preparedness and better responsiveness to unforeseen events which can harm human beings and the environment, Disaster Management came into the picture.
Disaster Management aims to lessen the impact of natural and man-made calamities by designing and planning efficient ways to tackle them. It centrally comprises ensuring better control of the situation, its immediate evaluation, calling up required medical aids and transports, supplying drinking and food sources, among others and during this whole process, protecting the surroundings from more harm and keeping the lawfulness. The importance of Disaster Management has further increased in the contemporary scenario with the prevalent climate change and some of its latest examples include the unprecedented Australian wildfires.
Thus, the planet is getting bogged down by infinite technological devices, and their possible effects on the climate and the environment are inescapable. This has led to Disaster Management becoming the need of the hour as every country is aiming to become efficient and prepared to face both natural and man-made calamities.
Since the dawn of time, disasters, whether natural or man-made, have been a part of man’s evolution. Tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes, floods, accidents, plane crashes, forest fires, chemical disasters, and other natural disasters frequently strike without notice, leading to massive loss of life and property. Disaster management refers to the strategies and actions put in place to lessen and prevent the effects of a disaster.
The word “disaster management” refers to all aspects of catastrophe mitigation, including preventive and protective measures, preparedness, and relief activities. The disaster management process can be separated into two phases: pre-disaster planning and post-disaster recovery. This encompasses measures such as prevention, mitigation, and preparedness aimed at minimising human and property losses as a result of a possible danger.
The second category is activity post-disaster recovery in which response, rehabilitation, and reconstruction are all included. Search and rescue evacuation, meeting the victims’ basic needs, and rapid medical support from regional, national, and international authorities were all part of the response phase. The immediate purpose of the recovery phase is to restore some degree of normalcy to the afflicted areas. In resource-scarce countries, ex-ante risk mitigation investment in development planning is critical for decreasing disaster damage. It would be prudent to go from a risk-blind to a risk-informed investment decision.
We cannot prevent disasters, but we can reduce their severity and arm ourselves with knowledge so that too many lives are spared.
The globe is plagued with disasters, some of which are terrible and others that are controllable. Natural calamities, for example, are sudden occurrences that wreak significant devastation to lives and property. Disasters can occur either naturally or are man-made. To repair the damage caused by these disasters, emergency management is required. Through a disaster management procedure, the damage is contained and the hazards of the event are controlled. The procedure is aimed at averting disasters and reducing the effects of those that are unavoidable. Floods, droughts, landslides, and earthquakes are all threats to India. The Indian government’s disaster management measures have vastly improved over time.
The Process of Disaster Management:
The disaster management process is split into four stages. The first phase is mitigation, which involves reducing the likelihood of a disaster or its negative consequences. Public education on the nature of the calamity and how people may prepare to protect themselves, as well as structural construction projects, are among the actions. These projects are intended at reducing the number of people killed and property destroyed in the event of a disaster.
Preparedness is the second phase of disaster management, and it aims to improve government-led preparedness to deal with emergencies. The majority of the preparations are aimed toward life-saving activities. Plan writing, communication system development, public education, and drills are all part of the preparation process. The disaster management team implements measures to keep people alive and limit the number of people affected in the third phase, reaction. Transport, shelter, and food are provided to the afflicted population as part of the response. Repairs are being made, and temporary solutions, such as temporary housing for the impacted population, are being sought.
Recovery is the ultimate stage of disaster management. This normally happens after the tragedy has subsided and the harm has been done. During the recovery process, the team works to restore people’s livelihoods and infrastructure. Short-term or long-term recovery is possible. The goal is to return the affected population to a normal or better way of life. During public education, the importance of health safety is highlighted. The recovery phase allows catastrophe management to move forward with long-term solutions.
Disaster Management Challenges:
The management of disasters is a difficult task, and there are certain flaws to be found. Since the individual dangers and disasters in some countries are not well understood, the government is unable to deploy disaster management in the event of an unforeseen disaster. There’s also the issue of a country’s technical and framework capabilities being insufficient. Government support is required for disaster management frameworks. Due to the generally large population, the disaster management approach includes public education, but there is no psychological counselling for individuals. People are more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder and psychiatric illnesses.
Disaster management is a very important activity that countries should embrace to prevent disasters and lessen the negative consequences of disasters. However, disaster management has limitations that restrict the techniques’ ability to be implemented successfully.
Disasters can cause chaos, mass death of humans and animals, and a rise in crime rates. Disasters are unfavourable events that cause widespread anxiety and terror. They also make it difficult for society to respond to its causes.
Natural or man-made disasters can emerge. In both circumstances, they have the potential to cause significant loss of life and property. A combination of man-made and natural disasters can occur in severe circumstances. For example, violent conflicts and food scarcity. As a result, disaster management is required to limit or prevent massive loss and damage.
Disaster management includes disaster avoidance, disaster awareness, and disaster planning. These ideas will be discussed further down.
Prevention of Disaster:
Countries all across the world have taken precautions to prevent diseases or viruses from spreading. These initiatives include the funding of research into natural disaster aversion. Other sources of revenue include food distribution, healthcare services, and so on. In Africa and the Middle East, the latter is commonly used in economically challenged areas.
Improved scientific research has also made it feasible to predict potential natural disasters. For example, equipment to detect earthquakes and tsunamis has been developed. As a result, more people are concerned about the environment. In this sense, consciousness translates to a reduction in all forms of pollution in the environment.
Disaster Awareness :
Another strategy to minimise the excesses of widespread epidemics is to raise disaster awareness. Members of the public must be made aware of the importance of maintaining peace, de-escalating dangerous circumstances, and prioritising safety in the face of any possible tragedy.
The goal of disaster management is to reduce human death and suffering. The impact of disasters can be reduced if all of these factors are successfully managed. As a result, the necessity of disaster management cannot be emphasised.
The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the main agency charged with establishing rules and guidelines for disaster management in order to ensure prompt and effective disaster response. There is also a separate fund for mitigation called the “national disaster management fund” (NDMF). Functions performed by this agency are:
- Formation of policies for disaster management
- Approval of the strategies made up for disaster mitigation
- Formation of revenue or funds for disaster mitigation
- Managing multiple programmes and disseminating instructions.
The disaster has had both direct and indirect repercussions on human life, both of which have been deadly devastating and detrimental. There have been fatalities as well as stock losses. Natural disasters are unavoidable; even if we have mechanisms in place to predict or forecast them, we cannot prevent them from occurring. While preparing plans for our disaster management, the best that can be done is to prevent behaviours that are detrimental to the environment and lead to environmental deterioration. When a disaster strikes, it causes widespread devastation and loss of life. In the event of a disaster such as earthquakes, floods, or other natural disasters, a large number of people are displaced, and a large number of people die as a result of the disaster. This is when the true emergency begins by providing first aid to the injured, as well as rescue and relief efforts for the victims. To limit the risk of human life, everyone must participate actively in disaster management. When a crisis happens, the appropriate disaster management team can seize over as soon as possible.
Also Read: Career in Ecology and Environment
The 4 phases of disaster management are Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery.
The 3 types of disasters are natural, man-made, and hybrid disasters.
On 23 December 2005, the Government of India enacted the Disaster Management Act
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Disaster Management Essay
Essay on Disaster Management
Disaster Management is the arrangement and management of the resources following a disaster, be it natural or man-made. There are so many organizations who are dealing with various types of disastrous situations from the humanitarian aspect. Some disasters are just the consequences of human hazards and some are caused by natural calamity. However, we can prevent them by taking the necessary emergency measures to save and preserve lives. As natural disasters cannot be predicted, they can take place anywhere at any time.
Vedantu has provided an essay on Disaster management on this page. Students who have received an assignment to write an essay on Disaster Management or preparing an essay for examination can refer to this page to understand the pattern. Any student or parent can directly visit Vedantu site or download the app on the phone to get access to the study materials.
Disaster Management’ is the simple term of management which embraces loads of disaster-related activities. Disaster occurs frequently in some parts of the world. Japan is the best example of it. Japanese people are annoyed on Tsunamis and earthquakes. The local scene is not much different from the global one. No one could forget the cyclone in Orissa, Earthquake in Gujarat or even the Mumbai Terrorist Attack.
Natural and man-made are the two categories of the disaster. Natural disasters are those which occurred due to sudden changes in the environment or topography causing uncountable human as well as economic loss. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and cloudbursts are few of the natural disasters. Manual intentional made disasters are man-made disasters. For example, Gas leakage, terrorist attacks, fire, oil spills. Man-made disasters are the result of human intentions or might be because of workmanship or technical errors. The count of man-made and natural disasters is rising rapidly.
Here are a few things which will help us to deal with earthquakes. The significant information about Natural calamities is predicted easier and is being shared within the public by the central bureau. Furthermore, earthquake-resistant structures are constructed considering, ‘Precaution is Better Than Cure’. Reflexes are made so strong that cover of solid platforms such as a table and chair should be taken as soon as the danger is sensible while the cover of trees, electric poles or buildings is avoided as far as possible. Keep in touch with local news during heavy rainy days. Any flood is preceded with significant time. Making proper use of divine buffer time for safety is advisable. Strategically planning of water reservoirs, land uses, tree plantation, rainwater harvesting techniques help us increase immunity power to fight against the drought.
National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), American Red Cross, Federal Emergency Management Agency, International Association of Emergency Managers etc. are the best disaster management authorities. NDMA is a core body which obeys the law of Disaster Management. The reputed disaster managers are stuck in finding plans for rescuing from the loss of disaster. Moreover, to counteract the effect of disaster Rajya Sabha passed the ‘Disaster Management Act’ on 23 December 2005 which includes 11 chapters and 79 sections in it. Honourable Prime Minister of India Mr Narendra Modi holds the position of chairman of it.
Youngsters should motivate themselves to learn and practice plenty of disaster management techniques and arrange the camps regarding it. Today, everyone is fighting against one of the breathtaking disasters named COVID-19 which is as big as fighting in world war. Avoiding the crowd, wearing the mask are the basic precautions suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) during this period of fighting. This disease spreads mostly amongst the people who come in close contact with the infected one. So, it's suggested to keep a safe distance of around 3 meters within the others. This is being termed as ‘Social Distancing’. Nature is not cruel nor is it human. Just small management skills help us withstand before, in and after disasters. Uncountable suggestions and instructions in disaster management but few which apply every time must be followed.
Stages of Disaster Management
With proper implementation and structured action, we can prevent or lessen the impact of natural or man-made disasters. There are certain stages involving the cycle for disaster management plan which incorporates policies and emergency responses required for a prospectively complete recovery. The stages are –
The most preferred way to deal with disasters is to be proactive in their prevention rather than rushing later for their cure. This implies recognition of potential hazards and working towards infrastructure to mitigate their impact. This stage in the management cycle involves setting up permanent measures to minimize disaster risk.
Setting up an evacuation plan in a school, training the teachers to lead the students towards safe structures in the event of earthquake, tornado or fire, planning a strong base for high raised sky-scrapers to prepare for earthquakes and designing a city in such a manner that reduces the risk of flooding are some examples of measures takes for disaster prevention.
Mitigation is the first and the foremost attempt to save human lives during the time of disaster or their recovery from the aftermath. The measures which are taken can be both structural and non-structural.
Structural mitigation measures could include transforming the physical characteristics of a building or the surroundings to curb the effect, for example, clearing out of the trees around your house, ensuring that storms don’t knock down the trees and send them crashing into the house. Non-structural measures could include amending the building or locality codes to enhance safety and prevent disasters.
Preparedness is a process that involves a social community where the trained, or the head of the community, businesses and institutions demonstrate the plan of action which is supposed to be executed during the event of a disaster. It is an ongoing continuous process with anticipation of a calamity, which involves training, evaluating and taking corrective action with the highest level of alertness. Some examples of such prevention measures are fire drills, shooter drills and evacuation rehearsals.
The response is the action taken after the disaster has occurred to retrieve some life from it. It includes short-term and long-term responses. In ideal situations, the disaster-management leader will coordinate the use of resources in the restoration process and minimize the risk of further property damage.
During this stage, the area of the calamity is cleared if it poses any further threat to human as well as environmental life. For example, evacuation of the city of Chernobyl, Ukraine, is a responsive action against a disaster.
The fifth and last stage in the process of the disaster management plan is the recovery stage. This can sometimes take years or decades to happen. The larger mass of a city is also sometimes part of the recovery from a disaster. The greatest and the most infamous example of this is the Hiroshima and Nagasaki nuclear attacks on Japan, it took the people of those cities years and decades to recover from that man-made calamity.
It took years of effort to stabilize the area and restore essential community or individual functions. The recovery stage prioritizes the basic essential needs of human survival like food, drinkable water, utilities, transportation and healthcare over less-essential services. Eventually, this stage is all about coordinating with individuals, communities and businesses to help each other to restore a normal or a new normal, as in the case of Covid-19.
How to Act as a Responsible Person During a Time of Disaster?
Some people have more experience than others with managing natural or man-made disasters and their prevention of them. Although this is that subject of life which should be studied and implemented by every business or community. As it is said rightly, “prevention is better than cure”, and any organization or an individual or a community can be hit by a disaster sooner or later, whether it's something as minor as a prolonged power cut or a life-threatening hurricane or an earthquake. Usually, the pandemics train us, as a social and political community, to deal with natural calamities and compel the organizations responsible for it, to build an infrastructure for its prevention.
To act responsibly and pro-actively during the event of a disaster, we have got to be prepared and equipped as a nation, individually and as a social community. To be well-educated and read with the aspects of disaster management is to be responsible for the handling of it.
FAQs on Disaster Management Essay
1. What is Disaster Management?
In simpler words, disaster management can be defined as the arrangement of resources and precautions to deal with all humanitarian aspects during an emergency. Disasters are the consequences of natural or human hazards. Earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes are some of the deadliest natural disasters to name a few. Examples of man-made disasters are bomb blast, radiations, transport accidents, terrorist attacks etc.
2. What is the Main Aim of Disaster Management?
The main aim of disaster management is prevention, rescue and recovery from the trauma, and development.
3. How to Write an Essay on Disaster Management?
Disaster management refers to the response to an emergency situation to make it as normal as possible. While writing an essay on Disaster Management, you can start with an introduction, then go on with the definition, the types of disaster management, a little in-depth explanation along with examples, and finish it off with a conclusion.
4. Can I Get a Sample Essay on Disaster Management from Vedantu?
Yes, the essay mentioned on this page is about Disaster Management. This essay has been written by the experts of Vedantu keeping the understanding ability of the students of each class.
5. What are the career opportunities in the field of Disaster management?
People looking for career opportunities in the field of disaster management have many pathways to approach it. Some examples of the jobs relating to this line of work are crisis-management leader, disaster-assistance specialist and emergency-planning coordinator. These are the roles which call for varying levels of responsibility in preparing a city or a company for catastrophic events. The job roles can be approached with earning a master’s degree in emergency and crisis management.