Renaissance - Essay Samples And Topic Ideas For Free

The Renaissance was a fervent period of European cultural, artistic, political, and economic “rebirth” following the Middle Ages, roughly spanning the 14th to the 17th century. Essays on the Renaissance can explore the key figures, the groundbreaking art and inventions, and the philosophical and literary movements of the era. Moreover, discussions might delve into the impact of the Renaissance on subsequent historical epochs and its legacy in contemporary culture. A vast selection of complimentary essay illustrations pertaining to Renaissance you can find in Papersowl database. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

Female Beauty in the Renaissance

Throughout millennia, the idea of female beauty has been changed and sculpted more times than one can count. To put things into perspective, blue eyeshadow, bee-hive hairstyles, and being overweight have all been part of the female beauty standards we followed in the past. To go back a few hundred years and examine the Renaissance era, we find rules and regulations of feminine beauty very different from our modern models. The ideal woman of the Renaissance, as described by Petrarch, […]

The Renaissance – Michelangelo

The true work of art is but a shadow of the divine perfection"- Michelangelo (BrainyQuote). The Renaissance, which took place during the early 1300s to 1600s, was a period of big changes in European society where advances in art and literature were made (Esko). It was a time when people began to think of themselves as individuals, with God-given power to shape and control their destiny and environment. In Italy, it was thought as a rebirth of the ideas and […]

The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century

A small amount of people in 1492 could have thought the enormous global process set in motion by the Columbus’s three ships, things such as the Atlantic Slave trade, massive growth of world population, decimation of the native’s in the Americas and the massive growing prominence of Europeans on the World stage. This excursion around the world will serve to briefly review the human saga thus far and to establish the baseline from the transformations of the centuries that follow […]

Renaissance and Reformation

The reason why i'm writing this research paper is to show what The Reformation and The Renaissance is about and why it's important. My essential question is what's the Renaissance and Reformation about. Where i found my answer to that question is my notes that i took in my socials studies class. I know they are accurate because i also did research online and i got my notes from my teacher. While going through all my Renaissance and Reformation notes […]

The Harlem Renaissance in Connection to Duke Ellington

Jazz music was the vital element of this Harlem Renaissance. Two of these most common musicians were Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. The Cotton Club in Harlem was a common hot place for whites trying to love living jazz. The Harlem Renaissance was a vibrant change that affected many areas of social life. This new era was characterized by a sense of pride and a desire to be a part of the American dream. My paper will touch the jazz […]

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Leonardo Da Vinci – Outline

"Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) is known worldwide as one of the greatest masters of the High Renaissance period, hugely influential as an artist and sculptor in the history of European art. Widely considered as one of the greatest polymaths in human history, Leonardo was an inventor, artist, musician, architect, engineer, anatomist, botanist, geologist, historian, and cartographer. Yet his true genius was not as a scientist or an artist, but as a combination of the two: an artist-engineer. ""The artist-engineer is […]

Renaissance Humanism

Abstract The Renaissance was a milestone for Europe to escape the old ideologies from the Medieval with remarkable achievements that have had a great impact on humanity. In this research paper, I will focus on some of the greatest achievements in the Renaissance time thanks to humanism. 1.Concepts 1.1.Renaissance The Renaissance is a period in European history between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the middle ages to modernity. The Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, in […]

The Catholic Reformation and the Baroque Style

With the Counter Reformation, the church dedicated itself against protestants. For this, it took several action such as not allowing more corruption among the members, founded new religious orders to strengthen the institution. Among the cultural manifestations of the Catholic Reformation in Europe was the development of the Baroque style in Art. Ignatius Loyola in the 1530s, he founded the Society of Jesus , which was the most important of the many new monastic orders associated with the Catholic Reformation, […]

What was the Harlem Renaissance?

Where did it begin? How did it change the lives of many African-Americans? In this paper, these questions along with a few other questions that will be answered. You will also be informed of what is known as the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance movement occurred during post-war America at the end of World war 1 to the Great Depression in the 1930s. This movement was made up of a group of African-American writers who produced large quantities of fiction, […]

The Romantic Era and the Renaissance Period

The Italian Renaissance, lasting from the 14th to the 17th centuries, and the Romantic era of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were influential both in the aspects of art and of literature. The Italian Renaissance saw a notable revival of interest in the classical values of ancient Greece and Rome. Having the ability to rely on the political stability and growing prosperity in Italy, the people allowed for the development of new technologies- including the printing press, a […]

How Cadaver Dissection and Artists Impacted the Field of Anatomy

Introduction The Renaissance is a period in European history that spans from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth century. It began as a cultural movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and then spread into the rest of Europe. This time period is best known for its artistic developments and the artists that contributed to it. Perhaps some of the most famous are Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti. In addition to their contributions to the artistic world, artists […]

Narrative Violence in Italian Renaissance Sculpture

The Italian Renaissance is often praised for being the period where humanity returned to reason and ideals from classical antiquity. However, there was a dark underbelly that threaded its way into the images that artists' created: violence. This violence, when depicted in sculpture, used a familiar narrative often depicting the climax of the story, either biblical or mythological. These usually were public art pieces that were influenced by both antiquity and the society that these sculpture were born in. Often […]

Langston Hughes & the Harlem Renaissance

Langston Hughes is and will forever be a prolific play write but that did not come without struggle from his own people his strong ability to work well with others and his strong story telling skills that articulated black life. Langston Hughes was a spokesman at a time where very few black people had a voice very much not so in the public eye and the other black writers disliked Langston because they thought he had a stereotypical view of […]

The Renaissance Movement

The Renaissance is a very well known movement throughout the globe, for artists and non artists. It was a time period right after the Medieval period, and it has contributed so much to the art world. In this essay, we will be talking in detail, about what the Renaissance truly was. To begin, the Renaissance was from the 14th century through the 17th century and began in Italy. There are no well-defined causes for the beginning or end of the […]

An Analysis of the Influence of the Renaissance

Abstract This paper offers an in-depth analysis on the time period known as the Renaissance and how it has influenced society as a whole. The question that prompted this research to take place was “How did the Renaissance change the world of art and the world itself?” To be specific, this paper analyzes a multitude of different disciplines and discusses the impact that the Renaissance had on them. This paper focuses on how Humanism brought us the Renaissance and how […]

“Leonardo Da Vinci – Worlds Biggest Influencers

"Leonardo da vinci was alone one of our worlds biggest influencers. His works and ideas helped shape us to what we are now as well as leave us still amazed at his work. He was a man of many talents. He was talented in many different skill areas. Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, musician, writer, engineer, architect, botanist, anatomist, and an inventor. His work helped change society, as well as his art, including two paintings that remain among […]

The Influence of the Byzantine Empire on the Renaissance

The Byzantine Empire was very important to the Christian Orthodoxy and greatly impacted the Italian painters. When the empire collapsed in 1453, Byzantium was a huge trading domain with the West. The Ottomans took control of Constantinople and began the expanding European war power around the Americas, Africa, India, and many more places. This struck the beginning of the Renaissance and pushed the movement in motion. In this paper, I will be addressing the Byzantine influence on the Renaissance. I […]

The Renaissance – Recognized as being the Core of the Reformation Period

That is, the Renaissance period is responsible for instigating Reformation, where a cause-and-effect relationship was developed between the two. Renaissance was a period of ideologies which would develop an emergence of rational thinking. In turn, this would cause reformers to begin thinking about hegemony under the church and the potential hazard it was bringing to the firm believers. The corrupt ways of the church were damaged because of the thinking of the Renaissance, which is considered a progressive period and […]

Renaissance and Baroque – Likening and Conflicting

Renaissance architecture started in Florence and entailed reawakening of the ancient Roman and Greek elements at around 16th century. Consecutively, Baroque arts, famously identified with the decorated mechanism of skills emerged. Therefore, this paper seeks to draw a comparison between Pazzi's chapel and Cornaro chapel by highlighting the principles of arts of renaissance and baroque. Pazzi's chapel was however reflected as the most furnishing and beautiful artwork standing in the place of rebirth in Florence. Notably, Pazzi hired Filippo to […]

Bank of the Medici Family

This paper will examine how the bank of the Medici family made its way to becoming the most influential and wealthiest financial institution within the Italian Renaissance. In order to comprehensively do so, the writer will first analyze what conditions of the Italian Renaissance allowed such an event to occur and how those conditions were set in the first place. Then, the specific aspects about the Medici family that allowed its bank to become more successful than the others and […]

Baroque and Renaissance

The Renaissance and the Baroque Eras have many similarities and differences, especially in the seven elements of music. On of the main movements in the Renaissance Era was ""The Reformation"" while in the Baroque was ""The Florentine Camerata"" (founders of the Opera). Both of these movements had key points in shaping music and the style of playing complex pieces. During the Renaissance era, the music was sacred and there were 2 major types of music: mass and motet while in […]

Science of the Renaissance

The original thinking of how science worked before was that the elements of fire, water, earth, and air made up matter and would mix and combine to create all things that we can see. The Earth was believed to be the center of space with all the other planets rotating around it, carrying the stars. Humans were believed to be made up of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. These were the four humours. The four humours would determine […]

Music during the Renaissance

Music is the art of combining and balancing sounds of various pitches to produce compositions that express various ideas and emotions. Music has been around for thousands of years. It has just changed and advanced along with the society that surrounds it. As well it has been used to express what is going on in specific regions or eras. For example during the renaissance period music took a big step in change, like a rebirth which is what the renaissance […]

How did Renaissance Advances in Studio Art and Architecture Effect Stage Design

During the Italian Renaissance there were major advances in art, architecture and theatre. Most of this was due to the discovery of perspective but some new discoveries in architecture also had a huge impact on how scenery as well as the theatres themselves were designed. Artists and architects alike decided to take their skills and apply them to the theatre both physically and through sketches and books. Scene designers and architects were able to create realistic depth on the stage […]

An Age of Discovery

The Renaissance, also known as 'An Age of Discovery' started in Italy in the mid-fourteenth century. The Renaissance served as a transition from the middle ages to modernity. The term comes from the French word for 'rebirth', which refers to the cultural, political and scientific development contributed to our society's reformation. The intellectual and educational movement of the Renaissance started because people got tired of the medieval society, otherwise known as the Dark Ages; which was characterized by wars, diseases, […]

The Renaissance Changed the World

The quattrocento was a time of revolution in all aspects of society, especially in the art sphere. The art world witnessed great changes and revolutions which paved the way to a new artic style, the Renaissance, a rebirth of the mentality and practices which people always considered as art and maturity in both the commissions of artworks and the depictions of said commissioned masterpieces for many years. In the heart of Florence, the birthplace of the Renaissance, the Arte di […]

The Renaissance 1400-1600 CE

During the two hundred years between 1400 and 1600, Europe experienced an astonishing revival of drawing, fine art painting, sculpting and architecture, which we now refer to as the Renaissance. It was given this name Renaissance which means rebirth. Some things I like about the art created during the Renaissance was that it focused a lot on the economy of Europe and the events occurring during that time. Many social aspects were incorporated into the style of art and influenced […]

Petrarch in Renaissance

Petrarch's letter about his ascent of Mont Ventoux truly offers little in actual methods of climbing, but more of a complex mental workout. And, although, Petrarch is not the first person to climb a mountain, he has still managed to become the spiritual father of mountaineering as he climbs to the summit and mediates on his experience, and documents it in writing this letter. He expresses, ""My only motive was the wish to see what so great an elevation had […]

Cultural Movement – the Harlem Renaissance

During the 1920s, The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that provided a new way of life for African Americans. The Renaissance, also known as the New Negro Movement, was also a time of intellectual, social, and artistic awakening that was centered in, but not limited to, Harlem, New York. In addition to serving as the movements spiritual home, Harlem also provided the setting and material for literary works of the Renaissance. The literary creations such as poetry, short stories, […]

Christian Humanism: Definition & Role in the Renaissance

Humanists had found the church and ways of Christian life seriously problematic and craved reformation throughout the Catholic Church years prior to the publishing of Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses, “Others found the Church, and the textures of Christian life, seriously problematic, and they helped to give Luther both the intellectual tools with which he set to work and a receptive audience. Some critics of the Church were rooted in the culture of humanism, which spread through northern Europe in the […]

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Essay About Renaissance The Renaissance was a time when old ideas were reincarnated following the Dark Ages. It was an intense period of social, political, and economic rebirth that greatly impacted Europe. The Renaissance affected Europe socially because of its shift from religion to humanism and the growth in women’s rights. The creation and decline of Feudalism and the Magna Carta influenced the Renaissance politically. The Agricultural Revolution and the Crusades impacted the Renaissance economically. The Renaissance had a social effect on Europe. With the start of the Renaissance, religion was no longer at the center of human life, and instead, Greco-Roman and humanism ideas were reintroduced and began to influence the arts and sciences. Leonardo da Vinci, for example, painted and sculpted the human body in a realistic way, which was forbidden before. He also studied the human body to make scientific discoveries, as seen by the famous Vitruvian man. Education was revolutionized in the way that it reinforced humanism. The newly rebirthed ideas enhanced mathematics, philosophy, history, geography. New universities were created that promoted these renewed ideas. These new universities allowed for more people to get an education. The Printing Press also allowed this because it made more information available to more people. In addition, the Renaissance saw the expansion of women’s rights. Books began to be written for women. Education was available to women, and women could now enter the public arena as intellectuals. Some women even contributed to the Renaissance, such as Artemisia Gentileschi who was a famous painter. A political impact was made on Europe during this period as well. The Renaissance saw the start and end of Feudalism in Europe. As invaders, such as the Goths and Vandals, began settling in Europe and the need for protection grew with the arrival of the Vikings from Scandinavia, followed by the Magyars, Feudalism commenced in Europe. In Feudalism, the land was exchanged for military protection, vassals were the tenants of the nobles, and the peasants worked the land in return for military defense. During the Renaissance, Feudalism saw its demise in Europe. This was partly because nobles became weaker and kings repossessed their power, and because a centralized government was established. The Magna Carta was very important to the Renaissance in Europe. It was a famous historical document that established that everyone was subject to the law and it gave rights to individuals, granted justice, and allowed people to have fair trials. The document also limited the power of the monarch, provided written rights, and formed the Parliament, a legislative body. The Renaissance had many economic aspects that influenced Europe. The Agricultural Revolution, for instance, was vital to the Renaissance in Europe. Europeans learned and adapted agricultural techniques and inventions, such as the 3 field system and the moldboard plow, that greatly increased their crop production. By perfecting the 3 field system, land could remain uncultivated every third year, and the moldboard plow was beneficial to the heavy soils of Europe. With the increase of trade production, more people were able to live in Europe and more money could enter Europe, increasing the continent’s economy. The Crusades, a failed attempt to defend the Christian Middle East, ended up bringing Europe into the major world trade circuits. When the knights traveled to the Middle East, they brought back many trading goods and stimulated demand in Europe for foreign products, like silk and spices. The knights brought goods to European markets and Europe became wealthy because of the increase in trade that resulted from the Crusades.  

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The Literature of the Renaissance Period Essay

The period between the mid-fifteenth and early seventeenth centuries is known in the history as the era of the Renaissance. Moreover, the Renaissance is the significant part of the culture and social life in the history of each European country which is characterized by the national peculiarities of the development. In Britain this period began in the sixteenth century, later than in the other European countries.

The main features of the Renaissance culture which also determine the elements of the Renaissance literature are the philosophy of humanism, the secular character of the art pieces, and the orientation on the antique patterns. To focus on the realization of the Renaissance values in the British literature, it is necessary to analyze the features of the works written by Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, and Christopher Marlowe.

The formation of the Renaissance’s values depended on the development of new social relations which was also expressed in the liberation of the personality. That man who was liberated from the medieval class bonds faced the great opportunities of the creative realization in art. The era of humanism began when the spiritual dictatorship of the Church was broken, and the person became the center of the social and artistic interests (Baker and Maley). The man of the Renaissance is characterized by believing in his mind and power.

The world view of the man of the Renaissance is based on the freedom of thoughts and new visions of society and the universe. Moreover, the man of the Renaissance is inclined to combine the real facts with the poetic fiction and express it in different genres with using the elements of the figurative language and wide imagery (Bowers and Keeran). The ideals of the British Renaissance also depend on the works of such famous figures as Francesco Petrarca and Erasmus Roterodamus.

In spite of the orientation of all the Renaissance authors on similar patterns and following the same principles, their works are characterized by a lot of peculiarities and differences. Furthermore, it was a special period in the British literature during which new literature themes, genres, and forms developed with basing on the ideas of humanism and the works of the antique authors (Baker and Maley).

Sir Philip Sidney is one of the most famous poets of the Renaissance period. Nevertheless, he is also known as the author of the pastoral novel The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia which is considered by many critics as the experimental work which determined the beginning of the new age in the literature.

The final version of Sidney’s novel was published in 1590, and it was the presentation of the unique combination of prose, dramaturgy, and poetic works. The language and style of the novel are characterized by pretentiousness, exquisiteness, and the usage of a lot of metaphorical devices. This style became known as ‘euphuistic’, and it was named after the title of the novel written by John Lyly in which all these details were depicted vividly (Bowers and Keeran).

The values of the Renaissance were developed in The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia in a rather specific manner. The rejection of the religious motifs and the concentration on the human’s feelings and emotions determined the peculiarities of the plot of the novel and its genre (Baker and Maley).

The main accent was made on the inner world of the characters, their ideals, visions, and feelings. This novel can be considered as a romantic one in which the relations between the lovers are depicted. They are emphasized by a number of comic and tragic situations.

And all these elements are expressed with the help of the complex metaphorical language which is full of epithets, antitheses, quotations and references to the ancient authors (Hopkins and Steggle). The ‘euphuistic’ style marks the shift from the language of poetry to the language of drama and fiction with the elements of the language and speech typical for the secular society of that period.

The peculiarities of the vivid metaphorical writing style typical for the British literature of the Renaissance were also developed in the works by Edmund Spencer, especially in his The Faerie Queene. The author was working at the poem during the period of 1590-1596, but it was not finished. Today it is one of the most interesting allegorical poems considered by critics as the unique pattern with a lot of specific features.

Paying much attention to such antique ideals as virtue and courage, Spencer develops these motifs combining them with the principles of the heroic legends and novels about King Arthur. It is significant that Spencer concentrates on depicting a definite virtue in each of six books of the poem (Bowers and Keeran).

The allegorical nature of the poem can be explained by the fact that, creating the characters’ images of the fairy-tale world of the knights, the poet was inclined to depict the real people of the historic period. Thus, it was possible to observe the features of Queen Elizabeth in the image of the Faerie Queene, and Prince Arthur had the traits of Elizabeth’s favorite known as the Earl of Leicester (Hopkins and Steggle).

Emphasizing the unique and perfect nature of a human, Spencer creates a wonderful and fantastic world in which the knights defeat dragons and perform numerous feats, and fairies are the embodiment of beauty and perfectness.

Nevertheless, the literature of the Renaissance also concentrated on definite realism and truthfulness. That is why real descriptions of the English nature can be observed among the fabulous and decorative images of the poem.

There were not such vivid descriptions, fantastic and diverse images, flexibility and musicality of the verse, and the richness of the language means in the English poetry earlier. Spencer created a new poetic form while developing this poem. It is a stanza of nine lines with the special rhyme known today as ‘Spencer’s stanza’ (Bowers and Keeran).

If Edmund Spencer influenced a lot of poets of the later periods, Christopher Marlowe is famous for his impact on the works written by William Shakespeare. One of the most well-known plays written by Marlowe was The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus which was first published in 1588.

In this work the rejection of the medieval religious principles and the emphasis on the role of humanism and knowledge in the life of people were accentuated. Marlowe as the creator of the English tragedy of the Renaissance developed the play according to the principles of the antique literature in which he was interested in. The tragedy can be characterized by depicting the emancipation of the individual from the ascetic medieval morality (Baker and Maley).

Christopher Marlowe had his own vision of the role of the Church in society and criticized the religious principles, norms, and ideals. All his opinions on the religious topics were rather skeptic. Nevertheless, the rejection of the religious principles acquires a specific character in his The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus. Doctor Faustus is a tragic titanic character who in his desire to have the unique knowledge rejects the religion and chooses the world of magic (Hopkins and Steggle).

Rejecting the principles of philosophy, law, medicine, and especially theology as a rather false science, Marlowe’s Faustus tries to find the realization of his hopes in the magic which is able to raise him up to the enormous height of the unique knowledge and power. Thus, Faustus as the real man of the Renaissance cannot find the satisfaction of his desire of knowledge in the passive examination of books. His extreme desire and energy made him being involved in the interactions with Mephisto which leads him to death.

Thus, there is a vivid depiction of the tragic destiny of the man of the Renaissance who knows that he has powers and wants to use them in order to create a new reality (Bowers and Keeran). The play is written with using the metaphorical and figurative language in the form where the free verse is combined with the prose.

The ideals of the humanism, the rejection of the religious principles, the orientation on the antique patterns and the secular society were developed as the main values of the Renaissance. These features were characteristic for the literature of all the European countries, but they also acquired definite national elements. The works of Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spencer, and Christopher Marlowe include all the specific details of the Renaissance culture and determine the development of these tendencies in Britain.

Works Cited

Baker, David J., and Wiliam Maley,. British Identities and English Renaissance Literature . USA: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Print.

Bowers, Jennifer, and Peggy Keeran. Literary Research and the British Renaissance and Early Modern Period: Strategies and Sources . USA: Scarecrow Press, 2010. Print.

Hopkins, Lisa, and Matthew Steggle. Renaissance Literature and Culture (Introduction to British Literature and Culture). USA: Continuum, 2007. Print.

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The Renaissance Period and the World Today

The renaissance period.

The renaissance period was a time in history when politics, science, philosophy, and arts came to the forefront. This period began in Italy in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century. During the renaissance period, people valued knowledge and the ability to reason. People were also interested in exploring the world around them and learning about new developments in science and philosophy. In French, Renaissance means ‘rebirth,’ which inaugurated the end of the dark ages and the start of modernity.

Facts, Causes, and Consequences of the Renaissance Period

The renaissance period began in the 14th century and continued through the 17th century. Renaissance is believed to have sprouted from the city-states within the Italian peninsula (Walker). The primary ideologies of this period are believed to have spread across Europe by the 16th century. The prevalence of interactions among different cultures, the emergence of humanism, and the discovery of ancient Roman and Greek texts, crusades, artic, and technological innovations contributed to the emergence of the Renaissance period.

Innovations

Various advances were made in the renaissance time, particularly in publishing and art. The printing press was one of the most significant developments in global history in terms of publication. Johannes Gutenberg, a German blacksmith, goldsmith, and printer, invented the first printing press in the mid-1400s, which immediately impacted Renaissance events (Delbanco). Books and other writings were made before the printing press using labor-intensive and time-consuming methods. The development of the printing press and its widespread use in Europe were crucial to the Renaissance because they made it easier for new ideas and worldviews to spread across the continent. The Renaissance was fundamentally about new ideas overturning ancient beliefs and practices. As a result, the printing press’s creation allowed these new ideas to propagate, enhancing the Renaissance.

The crusades were interactions that took place before the Renaissance, and further, they became an inspiration for the creators of that period. A series of religious battles were fought by Christian crusaders around Europe during the Middle Ages. Beginning in 1095 CE, European knights and noblemen traveled to the Middle East in an attempt to wrest sovereignty of the Holy Land from Muslim rulers who had ruled the region for decades (Barton). Historians debate the precise number, but nine significant crusades led to the spread of ideologies during this period (Barton). The Crusades was a momentous event that substantially impacted the world during the Middle Ages.

Renaissance Art

The Renaissance is likely best remembered today for its famous painters and masterpieces of art. Before the Renaissance, art was far more stylized and concentrated on religious themes than in the Middle Ages. The period’s art depicted humanity and the world more realistically but stylized. On the other hand, European painters were encouraged during the Renaissance to create paintings and sculptures that focused more on the reality of ordinary life and actual people. It was most likely due to humanism’s impact, which aided in the Renaissance’s emergence. In addition, Renaissance artists like Leonardo da Vinci pioneered new abilities and techniques, such as linear perspective, to depict people and the world in novel ways. Therefore, the historical events in the Medical Ages influenced a lot of the art of the Renaissance and inspired many creators and artists.

Consequences of the Renaissance Period

The crusades, for example, brought Christianity, Judaism, and Islam into conflict. People of many faiths traveled great distances to fight over the city of Jerusalem, which each denomination regarded as sacred to its holy history. This collision of religious values resulted in sharing ideas among religious groups, allowing each religious faith’s precepts to grow into new regions. The conflict between these three religions and this world region continues today. Beyond belief, the interaction between various people resulted in dissemination of scientific and philosophical knowledge. After all, these cruel battles and wars, people were urged to find answers to the questions of religion to identify what is right and what is wrong. These aspirations shifted society’s perspective on many cultural and political aspects and stimulated the appearance of an alternative way of thinking and educational development.

Analysis and Discussion of Cultural Artefacts Art by Leonardo da Vinci

Da Vinci employed sketching as part of his creative and scientific process, much of how educated Europe had come to base their thoughts and work on Latin literature. Leonardo’s Vitruvian Man is an excellent example of the blurred borders between art and science. This piece, which was created using ink on paper, displays a naked human male body in two poses that are overlaid over one another. Around the figure, Leonardo scribbled comments linking man’s ideal structure to the architectural regulations outlined by Vitruvius, a Roman architect from the first century. With the apparent exception of mural art, much of Leonardo’s work was modest. The Mona Lisa, for example, is only 77cm by 53 cm in size (about 30 x 21 inches) (Mehra and Hilary). He had a habit of sketching any invention he could think of, setting it out geometrically like an engineering plan. The many human features and illustrations of birds in flight on the pages further demonstrate his appreciation for fine art.

Da Vinci was fascinated with anatomy related to medicine and painting, to the point that he utilized cadavers to teach himself about the many parts of the body ( Fordham University) . Leonardo was, without a doubt, a significant figure of his time, and his skills were not limited only to painting. Nowadays, his impact is still visible to society, and I always find references to his works in the mass media, famous movies, songs, and many others.

The Mona Lisa

In the past, portraits were uncommon; it is not easy to envision a time when only the wealthiest people had their likenesses captured in a culture filled with photographs. Even the wealthy merchants of Renaissance Florence could purchase a portrait, although they would probably only have one painted during their lifetime. An image conveyed more than just likeness; it also gave rank and power. Furthermore, portraits take a long time to paint, and the subject is frequently required for an extended period for the artist to capture the likeness. The Mona Lisa was initially a representation of this sort, but its significance has evolved with time. The portrait has become a Renaissance symbol and the world’s most famous picture. The Mona Lisa is most likely a portrait of a Florentine merchant’s wife, and her look is directed toward her husband (Innocenzi). The smile depicted in the picture of Mona Lisa has significantly influenced individuals in writing, painting, and singing.

I have always been fascinated by the painting since there is a lot of mystery around the woman portrayed in the picture, and there are even more theories about her smile. Once, my friends and I had a massive debate on the topic, sharing our ideas and speculations we had heard before and could hardly agree on the same opinion about it. I believe that she represents certain wisdom, and the smile indicates that Mona Lisa probably knows something that others do not, which is amusing to her.

The portrait stayed in France after Leonardo’s death in 1519, where he spent the rest of his life. Before it became a regular part of the exhibition in the Louvre, until 1797, the painting belonged to the personal collection of the royal family (Godelier and Scott). The Mona Lisa was relatively obscure outside the art community at the beginning of the twentieth century. The picture became well-known after a robbery in 1911. Vincenzo Peruggia, an Italian native, thieved the piece of art from the gallery to restore it to his homeland. He submitted the artwork to the director of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence after hiding it in his flat for two years, and it was displayed in the museum for two weeks. Peruggia was sentenced to six months in prison when the Mona Lisa was eventually restored to the Louvre.

The theft occurrence brought the previously unnoticed picture into the spotlight, motivating people to value it as a work of High Renaissance portraiture. Since then, the Mona Lisa has been subjected to acts of vandalism which have only added to its legend. The essential motif of Leonardo’s portrait is the impression of happiness, and it is this idea that makes the piece so ideal. The landscape’s natural beauty is also essential, while warm colors dominate the center distance, on par with the sitter’s chest. This painting was one of the first portraits of a person sitting in front of a fictional landscape (Innocenzi). Da Vinci managed to portray the mystery and ambiguity in his painting compared to other artists, who expressed their ideas more plainly and concretely.

Madonna Litta

The Litta Madonna is a highly famous painting with some controversies around it. It portrays Virgin Mary holding the newborn Christ, who has a goldfish in his hands. There are a lot of dark colors and tones, which is the typical tendency of the High Renaissance that aims to create a specific atmosphere in the artwork. Although the painting is highly recognized worldwide, some people and historical experts believe that Leonardo did not make The Litta Madonna. There is a theory that Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio was the original painter and Da Vinci only contributed very little to their work (Ethier). The Madonna’s head and baby are depicted in several of Leonardo’s preliminary works, leading historians to conclude that he composed the picture (Nesci et al.). The Madonna’s head is tilted, and there are no halos, both of which were quite popular in Leonardo’s art.

Some experts consider the possibility that Da Vinci took part only in painting the head of the Virgin Mary, and other work was done under the master’s supervision by Boltraffio or d’Oggiono. The Mary breastfeeding Baby Jesus perfectly exemplifies motherly love. Madonna Lactans (Nursing Madonna) is the name given to this topic. From the 12th century until the Council of Trent forbade nudity in religious art in the middle of the 16th century, Madonna Lactans was the subject of many paintings (Ethier). As a result, the preferences of Mary’s nature are portrayed in the art created to honor her. The works’ methods of expressing devotion and power refer to an inner strength which is a part of the image that represents an ideal female figure and the most appropriate role for her in the world ( Fordham University) . Subservience philosophies are also prevalent in her photographs. Leonardo da Vinci develops this topic by ‘bringing to life’ the Madonna Litta, which compositional structure is triangular, displaying both stability and unity.

Relevance of the Renaissance Art and Period to the Experience of the Present

The Renaissance period is widely expressed through art; during this period, art began to be regarded as a field of knowledge in and of itself, capable of presenting representations of God, his works, and insights into man’s place in the universe. Painting became a science, a tool for studying nature, and a record of discoveries in the hands of men like Leonardo da Vinci. Art was to be founded on observation of the visible world and practiced using mathematical principles of balance, harmony, and perspective that had been created at the time. With the fall of Rome in 1527, the Renaissance as a unified historical period came to an end (Warren). Mannerism emerged in the late 16th century due to tensions between the Christian religion and Classical humanism (Warren). However, Renaissance-inspired works of art continue to inspire artists today in different parts of the world.

The Renaissance was a pivotal period in the history of Europe, lasting from the 14th through the 17th centuries. The Middle Ages in Europe preceded it, and it finally led to the crucial events of the Age of Enlightenment. The Rebirth is significant in history because it ushered in a dramatic European thought and worldview shift. The Renaissance saw astronomers alter our understanding of our location in the solar system and the cosmos. Writers and academics introduced us to fresh perspectives on the human condition, the individual, and the community. Artists developed new ways of expressing themselves, while builders incorporated classical elements into modern churches, palaces, and public structures. Science leaped forward in terms of algebra and experimental philosophy, leading to technological breakthroughs in different fields. The Renaissance period brought overall stability to Europe and new ideas that shaped the world. The region remains a crucial beacon of great culture, education, and economic stability, bringing more enlightenment through the renaissance period.

The Renaissance is marked as a revolutionary era in human history because of the completely new and innovative changes it brought to the different social and cultural aspects. For instance, it stimulated the growth of scientific innovations, economic elements, and the framework of society. Moreover, the impact of the Renesaine is still visible these days, and such details as the decline of monarchy are also a result of this period’s influence. However, the renaissance period saw the development of the merchant class. Earlier, agriculture had developed to become the mainstay of power and wealth. The situation quickly changed as farmers saw it as less lucrative and moved to the cities, searching for new occupations.

To get a job, people had to know the basics of literacy and arithmetic so that they could read, write and perform calculations. The situation exposed the need for education; hence emerging merchants increasingly saw the need to develop schools and universities for their children. As the merchant class further increased, the group obtained more wealth which led to the development of power among merchants. Political life experienced specific reconstructions due to the shift in the prevailing and merchant classes. These changes within the merchant class have also resulted in the development of a free-trade system. Due to the renaissance period, we can gain wealth and ascend to power in the political and business world.

Works Cited

Barton, Thomas W. Victory’s Shadow: Conquest and Governance in Medieval Catalonia . Cornell University Press, 2019.

Delbanco, Nicholas. Why Writing Matters . Yale University Press, 2020.

Ethier, Mary. “Rose O’Neill’s Sweet Monsters: An Exploration in Motherhood and Romantic Love in Early 20th Century America.” Rose O’Neill’s Sweet Monsters: an Exploration in Motherhood and Romantic Love in Early 20th Century America , 2021.

Godelier, Maurice, and Nora Scott. The Imagined, the Imaginary, and the Symbolic . Verso, 2020.

Innocenzi, Plinio. “A Friend, an Enigmatic Portrait, and Two Duchesses.” The Innovators Behind Leonardo , 2018, pp. 207–229.

“Medieval Sourcebook: Giorgio Vasari: Life of Leonardo da Vinci 1550” . Fordham University .

Mehra, Mandeep R., and Hilary R. Campbell. “The Mona Lisa decrypted: the allure of an imperfect reality.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings . Vol. 93. No. 9. Elsevier, 2018.

Warren, Mercy Otis. The Sack of Rome . Good Press, 2021.

Walker, Kyle. “The Renaissance.” The Laws of Yesterday’s Wars , 2021, pp. 127–149. Web.

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