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CBSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Questions and Answers for 2023

Cbse class 10 biology chapter 6 life processes important questions and answers : various important question and answers of chapter life processes from cbse class 10 science for board examination 2022-23. prior to the pandemic, life processes was the sixth chapter in the prescribed syllabus. now, with the latest curriculum update, it has come up as the fifth chapter..

Pragya Sagar

CBSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Questions and Answers: In this article, we will cover the important question and answers of Chapter Life Processes from CBSE Class 10 Science. This chapter comes under the Theme: The World of the Living within Unit II: World of Living.

Prior to the pandemic, Life Processes was the sixth chapter in the prescribed syllabus. Now, with the latest curriculum update, it has come up as the fifth chapter.

Chapter 5 Life processes covers the following:  ‘Living Being’, Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

CBSE Class 10 Biology Life Processes Important Questions

Multiple choice questions.

  • The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in

(a) cytoplasm. 

(b) mitochondria. 

(c) chloroplast. 

  • In which of the following groups of organisms, food materials are broken down outside the body and absorbed?

(a) Mushroom, green plants, Amoeba

(b) Yeast, mushroom, bread mould

(c) Paramecium, Amoeba, Cuscuta

  • Which of the following statements about the autotrophs is incorrect?

(a) They synthesise carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll

(b) They store carbohydrates in the form of starch

(c) They convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates in the absence of sunlight

  • The opening and closing of the stomatal pore depends upon

(b) Temperature

(c) water in the guard cells

  • Choose the correct path of urine in our body

(a) kidney →ureter →urethra →urinary bladder

(b) kidney →urinary bladder →urethra →ureter

(c) kidney →ureters →urinary bladder →urethra

  • Which of the equations show correct conversion of CO2 and H2O into carbohydrates in plants?

equations for mcq of important questions in cbse class 10 science biology

  • In normal expiration, the diaphragm is

(a) Arched 

(b) Flattened 

(c) Perforated 

  • How is food transported from phloem to the tissues according to plants’ needs?

(a) food is transported along with the water in the plant’s body.

(b)food is transported in only one direction like water in the plant body through xylem.

(c) food is transported from a region with low concentration to higher concentration.

  • The correct pathway of blood in circulatory system is

(a) atria → ventricles → arteries → veins

(b) ventricles → atria → veins → arteries

(c) ventricles → veins → arteries → atria

  • Which of the following events in the mouth cavity will be affected if salivary amylase is lacking in the saliva?

(a) Starch breaking down into sugars.

(b)Proteins breaking down into amino acids.

(c) Absorption of vitamins.

  • Full form of ATP?

(a) Adenosine Triphosphate 

(b) Adenosine Tetraphosphate

(c) Adenine Triphosphate 

  • Name the substances whose build up in the muscles during vigorous physical exercise may cause cramps?

(a) Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy

(b) Lactic acid + Energy

(c) Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

(d) Pyruvate

13.Why blood is red?

(a) due to presence of oxygen 

(b) due to presence of haemoglobin

(c) due to presence of CO2 

  • Single circulation, i.e., blood flows through the heart only once during one cycle of passage through the body, is exhibited by which of the following:

(a) hyla, rana, draco

(b) whale, dolphin, turtle

(c) labeo, chameleon, salamander

  • The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires

(a) carbon dioxide and water.

(b) chlorophyll. 

(c) sunlight. 

  • Identify the correct path of urine in the human body.

(a) Kidney → urinary bladder → urethra → ureter

(b) Urinary bladder → ureter → kidney → urethra

(c) Kidney → ureter → urethra → urinary bladder

  • Chyme is ____.

(a) Digestive enzyme secreted by stomach. 

(b) Hormone secreted by islets of Pancreas

(c) food which enters into the intestine from the stomach. 

  • Water absorption in plants can be increased by keeping the potted plants:

(a) in the shade

(b) in dim light

(c) under the fan

  • Which is the correct sequence of parts in the human alimentary canal?

(a) Mouth →stomach →small intestine →oesophagus →large intestine

(b) Mouth →oesophagus →stomach →large intestine →small intestine

(c) Mouth →stomach →oesophagus →small intestine →large intestine

  • Coagulation of blood in a cut or wound is brought about by:

ASSERTION AND REASON QUESTIONS

Following questions consist of two statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Answer these questions selecting the appropriate option given below:

(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.

(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.

(c) A is true but R is false.

(d) A is false but R is true.

1 Assertion (A): Diffusion does not meet high energy requirements of multi-cellular organisms

Reason (R) : Diffusion is a fast process but occurs at the surface of the body.

2 Assertion (A): Kidneys perform a dual function in our body.

Reason (R): Selective reabsorption occurs in the glomerulus.

3 Assertion (A): Mammals has double circulation.

Reason: Higher energy need due to endothermy (warm blooded).

4 Assertion (A): The purpose of making urine is to filter out undigested food from intestine

Reason (R): Kidneys filter the waste and produce urine

5 Assertion (A): Arteries always carry oxygenated blood.

Reason (R): Arteries transport blood from the heart to different parts of the body.

6 Assertion (A): The inner lining of the small intestine has numerous finger-like projections called villi.

Reason (R) : The villi increase the surface area for absorption.

7 Assertion (A) : Photosynthesis takes place in green parts of the plants.

Reason (R) : Photosynthesis always takes place in leaves.

8 Assertion (A) : Ureters are the tubes which carry urine from kidneys to the bladder.

Reason (R): Urine is stored in the urethra.

9 Assertion (A): Tracheal cartilage is present in the throat.

Reason  (R): The larynx plays an important role in human speech.

10 Assertion (A): During transpiration the evaporating water carries away heat energy.

Reason (R): Due to water loss the osmotic pressure inside leaves increases.

11 Assertion (A): In a healthy adult, the initial filtrate in the kidneys is about 180 L daily, but the actual volume excreted is only a litre a day.

CASE STUDY QUESTIONS

  • Organisms which derive nutrition from plants and animals without killing them.
  • Saprophytes
  • Heterotrophs
  • Pseudopodia
  • Food vacuole
  • Bread mould
  • Parasitic nutrition
  • Holozoic nutrition
  • Saprophytic nutrition
  • Production of simple sugar from inorganic compounds
  • Utilisation of chemical energy to prepare food
  • Utilisation of energy obtained by plants
  • All of these
  • Which life process is depicted by the above passage?

(a) Respiration 

(b) Digestion 

(c) Nutrition 

  • Lack of oxygen in muscles often leads to cramps due to

(a) Conversion of pyruvate to ethanol 

(b) Conversion of glucose to pyruvate

(c) Conversion of pyruvate to glucose 

  • Lactic acid is produced by ________ respiration in yeast.

(a) aerobic 

(b) anaerobic 

(c) oxidative 

  • Why there is an increase in lactic acid concentration in the blood at the beginning of the exercise?

(a) Lack of oxygen 

(b) Excess of oxygen 

(c) Lack of carbon dioxide 

  • What else can be done for quick relief from muscular cramps ?

(a) Massage 

(b) by applying heating pad or an ice pack 

(c) painkillers 

(d) all of these

(c) Transportation 

  • Name the blood pumping organ.

(a) Lungs 

(b) Heart 

(c) Kidney 

  • Oxygenated blood from lungs enters the left atrium through ...........

(a) Vena cava 

(b) Pulmonary artery 

(c) Pulmonary vein 

  • Deoxygenated blood leaves through the right ventricle through ..........
  • Which of the following statements is true about the heart?

(i) It is a hollow muscular organ.

(ii) It is a four chambered having three atria and one ventricle.

(iii) It has different chambers to prevent the oxygen - rich blood from mixing with the blood containing carbon dioxide.

(iv) Arteries always carry blood away from the heart.

(a) (i) and (ii) 

(b) (ii) and (iii) 

(c) (i), (ii) and (iii) 

(d) (i), (iii) and (iv) 

  • Which type of organism is Amoeba? 

(a) Unicellular 

(b) Microscopic 

(c) Multicellular 

  • What are the temporary projections made in amoeba called ?

(a) walking legs 

(b) limbs 

(c) Pseudopodia 

  • What type of nutrition is followed by amoeba?

(a) Parasitic 

(b) Holozoic 

(c) Saprotrophic 

  • The process of throwing out of undigested food in Amoeba is called

(a) Egestion 

  • Give an example of an organism which follows the same mode of nutrition in amoeba.

(a) Vertebrates 

(b) Fungi 

(c) Tapeworm 

(d) Cuscata plants

  • The following substances are the excretory products in animals. Choose the least toxic form.
  • Distal convoluted tubule
  • proximal convoluted tubule
  • Bowman’s capsule space
  • loop of Henle

3. The outline of principal events of urination is given below in random order.

I) stretch receptors on the wall of urinary bladder send signals to the CNS.

II) The bladder fills with urine and become distended.

III) Micturition (voiding out urine)

IV) CNS passes on motor messages to initiate the contraction of smooth muscles of bladder and simultaneous relaxation of urethral sphincter.

  • I → II → III→ IV
  • IV → III → II→ I
  • II → I→ IV → III
  • III → II→ I→ IV
  • Ultrafiltration, reabsorption, secretion.
  • Secretion, osmosis, ultrafiltration and reabsorption.
  • Only filtration and absorption.
  • Only osmosis and secretion.

VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

  • Name one accessory pigment and one essential pigment in photosynthetic plants.
  • What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?
  • Name the intermediate and the end products of glucose breakdown in aerobic respiration.
  • What is villi? What are its functions?
  • (i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the process of photosynthesis,
  • Give one reason why multicellular organisms require special organs for exchange of gases between their body and their environment.
  • State two differences between arteries and veins.

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

  • Draw a neat labelled diagram of the structure of a chloroplast.
  • Explain the process of nutrition in Amoeba.
  • Draw a diagram of human excretory system
  • (a) “The breathing cycle is rhythmic whereas exchange of gases is a continuous process”. Justify this statement.

(b) What happens if the conducting tubes of the circulatory system develop a leak? State in brief, how could this be avoided?

c) How does the opening and closing of stomata take place?

LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS

  • State the role of the following in human digestive system :
  • List the three steps in photosynthesis.
  • What is the significance of Small Intestine in our body? (Any 3 points)
  • (a) Explain how does the exchange of gases occur in plants across the surface of stems, roots and leaves.

(b) How are water and minerals transported in plants?

  • List any 3 functions of the major circulatory fluid of our body.

Ans. Accessory pigment – Carotene/Xanthophyll

Ans. Adaptation of terrestrial organism over aquatic organism for efficient uptake of oxygen from air –

(i) Increased respiratory surface area.

(ii) Very fine and delicate surface for easy exchange of oxygen and carbon – dioxide.

(iii) Placement of respiratory surface within the body for protection

(ii) When do the desert plants take up carbon dioxide and perform photosynthesis ?

Ans.(i) Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation. The overall balanced equation is

6CO2​ + 12H2​O — Sunlight & Chlorophyll​ —> C6​H12​O6​ + 6H2​O + 6O2​

(ii) Desert plants open up their stomata during night and take in CO2. Stomata remains close during the day time to prevent the loss of water by i transpiration. They store the CO2 in their cells until the sun comes out and they can carry on with photosynthesis during the day time.

6. Give one reason why multicellular organisms require special organs for exchange of gases between their body and their environment.

Ans. Arteries: Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart except pulmonary artery. These are thick-walled, highly muscular except arteries of cranium and vertebral column. Valves are absent. Blood in arteries moves with pressure.

Structure of chloroplast biology chapter 6 impprtant question cbse class 10

2. Explain the process of nutrition in Amoeba.

Answer: Amoeba ingests food particles with the help of its pseudopodia. The ingested food particle or phagosome fuses with lysosome to form food vacuole. The digested food passes out of the vacuole into cytoplasm. The undigested matter is thrown out.

nutrition in amobea cbse class 10 science important question

3. Draw a diagram of human urinary system

diagram of human urinary system

4. (a) “The breathing cycle is rhythmic whereas exchange of gases is a continuous process”. Justify this statement.

Answer: (a) The breathing cycle involves inhalation and exhalation of air due to alternate expansion and contraction of thoracic cavity. Thus it is a rhythmic process. But exchange of gases is a continuous process as it takes place between the blood and each and every cell, by diffusion. 

(b)The circulatory system will become inefficient if it develops a leak. This could be avoided by maintaining a normal blood pressure.

(c) When water flows into the guard cells, the guard cells swell and the stomatal pore opens up. When water moves out the guard cells shrinks and the stomatal pore closes.

5. Name the respiratory organs of (i) fish (ii) mosquito (iii) earthworm.

(I) Digestive enzymes (II) Hydrochloric acid  (III) villi

Answer: Digestive enzymes – Foods need to be broken into their small or simpler molecules so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream. However, the physical breakdown of food is not enough. Enzymes are hence needed for the chemical breakdown of food and speeding up the digestive process. The products of digestion can hence be small enough to be absorbed.

Hydrochloric acid – Hydro chloric acid helps to kill the germs which might have entered in to the system through food. It creates acidic medium for the pepsin to act on food to breakdown proteins.

Answer: (i) Absorption of sun’s energy by Chlorophyll

(ii)Conversion of light energy into chemical energy; and, splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen using the light energy.

Answer: Significance of SI:

(i) The secretions of liver and pancreas are brought to the duodenum of SI. The hepatic duct from liver and the pancreatic duct from pancreas join forming hepato- pancreatic duct bring the secretions of both glands to duodenum where these help in digestion of food.

(ii)There are some intestinal glands also in the first part of SI, which also secrete enzymes. The process of digestion of food is completed here.

(iii) The fine finger-like structures called “Intestinal Villi” increase the surface area for absorption of digestive end products.

(iv) The length of the SI ensures that food remains in it for a long time as it travels through SI, thereby making it possible for maximum amount of nutrients to be absorbed.

4. (a) Explain how does the exchange of gases occur in plants across the surface of stems, roots and leaves.

Answer. (a) In plants, there are tiny pores called stomata on leaves and lenticels in stem which facilitate the exchange of gases. CO2 is taken in and O2 given out (during photosynthesis) and vice- versa during respiration.

(b) Mechanism of Transport of Water and Minerals in a Plant

Answer: (i) Transport of O2 (from lungs to different parts of the body) and CO2 (from tissues/ organs, back to lungs).

(ii)Transport of digested food (glucose, amino acids, etc.) from Small Intestine to various parts of the body.

(iii) Transport hormones from their site of production (endocrine organs) to the site of action (target organs or tissues in different parts of the body).

(iv) Carry nitrogenous wastes of metabolism from various tissues/ organs, to kidneys, to be removed as urine.

(v)Harmful substances or toxins are transported to the liver for detoxification.

(vi) Antibodies produced by the leucocytes provide immunity to the body.

Biology is a subject liked by many students in CBSE Secondary level and these students often opt for Biology in senior secondary level and university level to make exceptional careers in the field of Medicine, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Pharmacy, Theoretical Biology, Microbiology and so on. 

So students should prepare well for the paper with the help of these important questions and answers. Beside these, students should refer to the sample paper for CBSE Class 10 Science to understand the various types of questions that could be asked from each chapter.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

Chapter 6 Life Processes Class 10 NCERT Solutions

Ncert solutions for class 10 science chapters:, how does amoeba engulf its food, which part of the roots is involved in exchange of respiratory gases, define photolysis., what are chemotrophs, what is the mode of nutrition in fungi, contact form.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Life Processes

Dipen

  • 16th December 2023

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Life Processes latest edition includes answers of intext & exercise questions. All these NCERT solutions are prepared by expert teachers with detailed explanations of every important topic. It is important for the students to go through these NCERT solutions to get knowledge of the type of question asked on the Life Processes chapter.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Intext Questions

Page Number: 81

Question 1: Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?

Answer: In multi-cellular organisms, all the cells may not be in direct contact with the surrounding environment. Thus, simple diffusion will not meet the requirements of all the cells.

Question 2: What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?

Answer: Any visible movement such as walking, breathing, or growing is generally used to decide whether something is alive or not. However, a living organism can also have movements, which are not visible to the naked eye. Therefore, the presence of molecular movement inside the organisms used to decide whether something is alive or not. 

Question 3:  What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?

Answer: An organism uses outside raw materials mostly in the form of food (Since life on earth depends on carbon-based molecules, most of these food sources are also carbon-based) and oxygen. The raw materials required by an organism can be quite varied depending on the complexity of the organism and its environment.

Question 4:  What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?

Answer: Life processes such as nutrition, respiration, transportation, excretion, etc. are essential for maintaining life.

Page Number: 87

Question 1:  What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?

Question 2:  Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?

Answer: The following raw materials are required for photosynthesis:

  • The raw material CO 2 enters from the atmosphere through stomata.
  • Water is absorbed from the soil by the plant roots.
  • Sunlight, an important component to manufacture food, is absorbed by the chlorophyll and other green parts of the plants. 

Question 3: What is the role of the acid in our stomach?

Answer: Role of the acid (HCl) in our stomach

  • Kills germs present in the food.
  • Makes the food acidic, so that pepsin can digest protein.

The acid in our stomach, primarily hydrochloric acid, plays several important roles:

  • Digestion : It helps in the digestion of food, especially proteins, by breaking them down into smaller, more easily absorbed molecules.
  • Killing Germs : The acidic environment kills most of the bacteria and other germs that enter the stomach with food, helping to prevent infections.
  • Activating Enzymes : The acid activates an enzyme called pepsin, which further aids in protein digestion.
  • Absorption of Nutrients : It helps in the absorption of certain essential nutrients, like Vitamin B12.

Overall, stomach acid is crucial for proper digestion and protecting the body from harmful pathogens.

Question 4:  What is the function of digestive enzymes?

Answer: Digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, pepsin, trypsin, etc. help in the breaking down of complex food particles into simple ones. These simple particles can be easily absorbed by the blood and thus transported to all the cells of the body.

Question 5: How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?

Answer: The small intestine has millions of tiny finger-like projections called villi. These villi increase the surface area for food absorption. Within these villi, many blood vessels are present that absorb the digested food and carry it to the bloodstream. From the bloodstream, the absorbed food is delivered to each and every cell of the body.

Page Number: 91

Question 1: What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?

Answer: Since the amount of dissolved oxygen is fairly low compared to the amount of oxygen in the air, the rate of breathing in aquatic organisms is much faster than that seen in terrestrial organisms. Therefore, unlike aquatic animals, terrestrial animals do not have to show various adaptations for better gaseous exchange.

Question 2: What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms?

Answer: Glucose is first broken down in the cell cytoplasm into three carbon molecule called pyruvate. Pyruvate is further broken down in the following ways to provide energy:

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes image 1 intext question 2

Question 3: How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?

Answer: Haemoglobin transports oxygen molecule to all the body cells for cellular respiration. The haemoglobin pigment present in the blood gets attached to O 2 molecules that are obtained from breathing. It thus forms oxyhaemoglobin and the blood becomes oxygenated. This oxygenated blood is then distributed to all the body cells by the heart. After giving away O 2 to the body cells, blood takes CO 2 which is the end product of cellular respiration. Now the blood becomes deoxygenated. Since haemoglobin pigment has less affinity for CO 2 , CO 2 is mainly transported in the dissolved form. This de-oxygenated blood gives CO 2 to lung alveoli and takes O 2 in return.

Question 4: How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximise the area for exchange of gases?

Answer: The exchange of gases takes place between the blood capillaries that surround the alveoli and the gases present in the alveoli. Thus, alveoli are the site for the exchange of gases. The lungs get filled up with air during the process of inhalation as ribs are lifted up and the diaphragm is flattened. The air that is rushed inside the lungs fills the numerous alveoli present in the lungs. Each lung contains 300-350 million alveoli. These numerous alveoli increase the surface area for gaseous exchange making the process of respiration more efficient.

Page Number: 96

Question 1: What are the components of the transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components?

Answer: The main components of the transport system in human beings are the heart, blood, and blood vessels.

Heart pumps oxygenated blood throughout the body. It receives deoxygenated blood from the various body parts and sends this impure blood to the lungs for oxygenation.

Blood is a fluid connective tissue, it helps in the transport of oxygen, nutrients, CO 2 , and nitrogenous wastes.

Blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) carry blood either away from the heart to various organs or from various organs back to the heart.

Question 2: Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?

Answer: Warm-blooded animals such as birds and mammals maintain a constant body temperature by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment and by warming their bodies when they are in a cooler environment. Hence, these animals require more oxygen (O 2 ) for more cellular respiration so that they can produce more energy to maintain their body temperature. Thus, it is necessary for them to separate oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood, so that their circulatory system is more efficient and can maintain their constant body temperature.

Question 3: What are the components of the transport system in highly organized plants?

Answer: In highly organized plants, there are two different types of conducting tissues − xylem and phloem. 

Xylem : Responsible for transporting water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant. It’s like the plant’s water pipeline.

Phloem : Carries sugars and other organic nutrients made in the leaves to different parts of the plant. It’s like the plant’s food distribution network.

These two systems work together to ensure that water, nutrients, and food are efficiently transported throughout the plant.

Question 4: How are water and minerals transported in plants?

Answer: The components of xylem tissue (tracheids and vessels) of roots, stems and leaves are interconnected to form a continuous system of water-conducting channels that reaches all parts of the plant. Transpiration creates a suction pressure, as a result of which water is forced into the xylem cells of the roots. Then there is a steady movement of water from the root xylem to all the plant parts through the interconnected water-conducting channels.

Question 5: How is food transported in plants?

Answer: Phloem transports food materials from the leaves to different parts of the plant body. The transportation of food in phloem is achieved by utilizing energy from ATP. As a result of this, the osmotic pressure in the tissue increases causing water to move into it. This pressure moves the material in the phloem to the tissues which have less pressure. This is helpful in moving materials according to the needs of the plant. For example, the food material, such as sucrose, is transported into the phloem tissue using ATP energy.

Page Number: 98

Question 1: Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.

Answer: Nephrons are the basic filtering units of kidneys. Each kidney possesses a large number of nephrons, approximately 1-1.5 million. The main components of the nephron are glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, and a long renal tubule.

Functioning of a nephron:

  •  capillaries associated with glomerulus.
  • The water and solute are transferred to the nephron at Bowman’s capsule. In the proximal tubule, some substances such as amino acids, glucose, and salts are selectively reabsorbed and unwanted molecules are added in the urine.
  • The filtrate then moves down into the loop of Henle, where more water is absorbed.
  • From here, the filtrate moves upwards into the distal tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Collecting duct collects urine from many nephrons.
  • The urine formed in each kidney enters a long tube called ureter. From ureter, it gets transported to the urinary bladder and then into the urethra.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes image 2 intext question 1

Question 2: What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?

Answer: Plants use completely different strategies for excretion than those animals. They can get rid of excess water by transpiration. For other wastes, plants use the fact that many of their tissues consist of dead cells, and that they can even lose some parts such as leaves. Many plant waste products are stored in cellular vacuoles. Waste products may be stored in leaves that fall off. Other waste products are stored as resins and gums, especially in old xylem. Plants also excrete some waste substances into the soil around them.

Question 3: How is the amount of urine produced regulated?

Answer: The amount of urine produced is regulated mainly by the hormone ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) which controls how much water the kidneys reabsorb. More ADH means less urine is produced, and less ADH means more urine. Other factors like fluid intake, salt levels, and kidney function also play a role.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Exercise Questions

Question 1: The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for

(a) nutrition. (b) respiration. (c) excretion. (d) transportation.

Answer: (c) excretion.

Question 2: The xylem in plants are responsible for

(a) transport of water. (b) transport of food. (c) Transport of amino acids. (d) Transport oxygen.

Answer: (a) transport of water.

Question 3: The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires

(a) carbon dioxide and water (b) chlorophyll. (c) sunlight. (d) all of the above.

Answer: (c) sunlight.

Question 4: The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water and energy takes place in

(a) cytoplasm. (b) mitochondria. (c) chloroplast. (d) nucleus.

Answer: (b) mitochondria.

Question 5:  How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this process take place?

Answer: Fats are digested primarily in the small intestine where they get the secretions in the form of bile juice and pancreatic juice respectively from the liver and the pancreas. This process involves:

  • Emulsification : Bile, produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, breaks down large fat globules into smaller ones, making them easier to digest.
  • Enzymatic Digestion : Enzymes from the pancreas, particularly lipase, break these smaller fat globules into fatty acids and glycerol.

This digestion allows fats to be absorbed into the body for use as energy or storage.

Question 6: What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food? 

Answer: Saliva is secreted by the salivary glands, located under the tongue. It makes the food soft for easy swallowing. It contains a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase, which breaks down starch into sugar. 

Question 7: What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its byproducts? 

Answer: Autotrophic nutrition takes place through the process of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll pigment, and sunlight are the necessary conditions required for autotrophic nutrition. Carbohydrates (food) and O 2 are the byproducts of photosynthesis.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes image 3 exercise question 7

Question 8:  What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration. 

Answer: Difference between Aerobic respiration and Anaerobic respiration:

Question 9: How are the alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases?

Answer: The alveoli are the small balloon-like structures present in the lungs. The walls of the alveoli consist of an extensive network of blood vessels. Each lung contains 300−350 million alveoli, making it a total of approximately 700 million in both lungs. The alveolar surface when spread out covers about 80 m 2 area. This large surface area makes the gaseous exchange more efficient.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes image 4 exercise question 9

Question 10: What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies?

Answer: Haemoglobin is the respiratory pigment that transports oxygen to the body cells for cellular respiration. A deficiency of haemoglobin in the body can lead to anemia. This condition can cause symptoms like tiredness, weakness, shortness of breath, and paleness because hemoglobin is essential for carrying oxygen in the blood. Without enough of it, the body’s organs and tissues don’t get enough oxygen to work effectively.

Question 11: Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary?

Answer: Because both oxygen and carbon dioxide have to be transported by the blood, the heart has different chambers to prevent the oxygen-rich blood from mixing with the blood containing carbon dioxide. The human heart is divided into four chambers − the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium and the left ventricle.

Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs comes to the thin-walled upper chamber of the heart on the left, the left atrium. The left atrium relaxes when it is collecting this blood. It then contracts, while the next chamber, the left ventricle, expands, so that the blood is transferred to it. When the muscular left ventricle contracts in its turn, the blood is pumped out to the body.

De-oxygenated blood comes from the body to the upper chamber on the right, the right atrium, as it expands. As the right atrium contracts, the corresponding lower chamber, the right ventricle, dilates. This transfers blood to the right ventricle, which in turn pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation. During this process blood goes twice through the heart. That’s why it is known as double circulation.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes image 5 exercise question 11

Double Circulation is necessary:   The separation of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood allows a more efficient supply of oxygen to the body cells. This efficient system of oxygen supply is very useful in warm-blooded animals such as human beings. As we know, warm blooded animals have to maintain a constant body temperature by cooling themselves when they are in a hotter environment and by warming their bodies when they are in a cooler environment. Hence, they require more O 2 for more respiration so that they can produce more energy to maintain their body temperature.

Thus, the circulatory system of humans is more efficient because of the double circulatory heart.

Question 12:  What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?

Answer: Difference between Xylem and Phloem:

Question 13:  Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning.

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short answer questions life processes class 10

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions and Answers

Important Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes covers each topic of the chapter. These questions aim at providing a better understanding of the chapter to the students and can be downloaded in PDF format. These important question bank help students in clearing their doubts so that they can score well in the exam.

While preparing for exams, students should practise these important questions of Class 10 Science to understand the concepts better. Solving important questions of Class 10 Science Chapter 6 will teach students time management skills and enhance their problem-solving skills. Also, students may come across a few of these questions in the board exam.

Important Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 – PDF

1. How do autotrophs obtain CO 2 and N 2 to make their food?

Answer: Autotrophs have the ability to make their own food by the process of photosynthesis. Autotrophs are also known as producers. They obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the stomata. Nitrogen, an essential element in synthesis of proteins is taken up from the soil and is converted to N 2 by root nodules.

2. Name the tissue which transports (a) Soluble products of photosynthesis in plants (b) Water and minerals in plants.

Answer: (a) Phloem vessels transports soluble products of photosynthesis i.e., sucrose to plant’s growing and storage regions.

(b) Xylem transports water and minerals in plants from roots up to the stem to the leaves.

3. Name the largest: (a) Artery (b) Vein in our body.

Answer: The largest artery in the body is Aorta that pumps blood into the body. The largest vein in the body is Vena Cava (Inferior/Superior) that returns blood to the heart.

4. What is the function of (a) Platelets (b) Haemoglobin in our body?

Answer: (a) Platelets- Platelets are cell fragments formed in the bone marrow. They are also called thrombocytes. Platelets carry blood coagulation factors on their surfaces, hence have a major role in initiating blood clotting. They are also involved in maintaining homeostasis.

(b) Haemoglobin – Haemoglobin is a special protein found in the red blood cells that imparts red colour to the blood. It picks up oxygen from lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin and delivers it to the tissues. It maintains blood pH to tolerable limits.

5. What will happen to a plant if its xylem is removed?

Answer: Xylem transports water and minerals in plants from roots up to the stem to the leaves. If Xylem is removed from a plant, the plant will not be able to transport water to leaves and stems and thus the plant will ultimately die.

6. Define transpiration. Give its role in the plants.

Answer: Transpiration is a process in which plants release water vapor. A part of water that plants get is used to prepare their food and store in different parts of the plant. The remaining amount of water is released by plants in the form of water vapor in air. This process of releasing water vapor by plants into the air is called transpiration.

Transpiration has the following roles in plants- it cools the plant, maintain water cycle, allows absorption of water and minerals from soil and its transport in plants, allows diffusion of carbon dioxide from air for photosynthesis.

7. What disadvantage (if any) would be there, if the human RBCs become biconvex instead of their normal biconcave shape?

Answer: If the human RBC’s become biconvex instead of their normal biconcave shape, the surface area of RBC’s will decrease and they will not be able to deliver the amount of oxygen they normally do because they will not accommodate enough haemoglobin to do so.

8. What is the function of pancreas in the human digestive system?

Answer: Pancreas secrete insulin, glucagon and pancreatic juice. Insulin and glucagon function to control the blood sugar levels of our body. The pancreatic enzymes help in digestion of protein, fat and carbohydrates present in the food.

9. Where does digestion of fat take place in our body?

Answer: Digestion of fat takes place in the small intestine. Bile emulsifies fats and breaks them into smaller fat globules. Lipase secreted from the pancreas split fat into fatty acids and glycerol.

10. What is the function of digestive enzymes?

Answer: The digestive enzymes assist in digestion and absorption of nutrients in the small intestine. In the process of digestion, the salivary gland produces saliva in the mouth which digests the starch in food to make food soluble and smooth. Pancreas secrete insulin, glucagon and pancreatic juice. The pancreatic enzymes help in digestion of protein, fat and carbohydrates present in the food. Liver produces bile salts which breakdown lipids to fatty acids.

11. What is meant by breathing? What happens to the rate of breathing during vigorous exercise and why?

Answer: Breathing is the act of moving air in and out of your lungs, as the diaphragm muscles moves up and down in the chest. Breathing in is called inhalation. Breathing out is called exhalation.

During vigorous exercise the rate of breathing increases than the normal rate because more oxygen is needed for more energy and carbon dioxide produced in the respiratory cells of the muscles. The increased production of carbon dioxide increases the rate of breathing and thus oxygen is quickly supplied to the body cells and carbon dioxide is rapidly removed from lungs.

12. Name four chambers of human heart. State one function of each chamber in a tabular form.

Answer: The four chambers of heart are Right atrium, Left atrium, Right Ventricle and Left ventricle.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Question 12

13. Give one structural and functional difference between an artery and a vein.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Question 13

14. What is meant by blood pressure? How systolic pressure differs from diastolic pressure?

Answer: Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood against the wall of blood vessels while circulating. It is also called arterial blood pressure. Systolic and Diastolic pressure are the 2 parameters used to represent the blood pressure.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Question 14

15. Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

16. Name the end products formed during: (i) Oxidation of glucose in the muscles (ii) Oxidation of glucose in body cells (iii) Breakdown of glucose anaerobically.

Answer: (a) Oxidation of glucose in the muscles occur in the absence of oxygen. The end products formed are lactic acid and ATP.

(b) Oxidation of glucose in body cells occur in the mitochondria in presence of oxygen. The end products are carbon dioxide, water and ATP.

(c) Breakdown of glucose anaerobically in yeast produces Ethanol, carbon dioxide and ATP.

17. Give only the function of the following (a) Stomatal pore (b) Guard cell.

Answer: (a) Stomatal pore- It allows carbon dioxide to diffuse into leaf for photosynthesis. Water vapour and oxygen leave the leaf through the stomatal pores.

(b) Guard cell- Guard cell facilitate gas exchange into and out of the plant by closing and opening the stomatal pore.

18. What is the role of: (a) Bile (b) Lipase (c) Salivary amylase (d) Trypsin?

Answer: (a) Bile- bile which is produced by liver helps in breaking down lipids to fatty acids (in small intestine).

(b) Lipase-Lipase breaks down dietary fats to fatty acids and glycerol. It is secreted by pancreas in our digestive tract.

(c) Salivary amylase- It is secreted by the salivary gland and it acts on starch present in the food and breaks it down into smaller carbohydrate molecules.

(d) Trypsin-Trypsin secreted by the pancreas, hydrolyses more protein present in food that isn’t broken down by pepsin earlier.

19. What would be the consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies?

Answer: Haemoglobin picks up oxygen from lungs to form oxyhaemoglobin and delivers it to the body tissues. Its deficiency in our bodies will lead to anaemia. This is because the body cells will not receive sufficient oxygen due to deficiency of haemoglobin and thus the body will suffer with anaemia, facing nausea, dizziness, headache, fatigue etc.

20. What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition? What are its by-products?

Answer: Autotrophs are producers that make their own food by the process of photosynthesis. The necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition, i.e., to make food are the presence of chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. Glucose produced during photosynthesis is converted to starch and stored as food. The by-products of photosynthesis are oxygen and water.

21. Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary?

Answer: Double circulation is the process of blood flow through heart twice. Deoxygenated blood from body is returned to heart from where it is pumped to lungs. Lungs purify the blood and the oxygenated blood from the lungs return back to heart and is pumped to the body via aorta.

Double circulation is necessary because it separates the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, makes the circulatory system more efficient, maintains constant body temperature, increased pressure of blood flow, quick supply of oxygen etc.

22. What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?

Answer: Xylem transports water and minerals in plants from roots up to the stem to the leaves. Phloem vessels transports soluble products of photosynthesis i.e., sucrose to plant’s growing and storage regions.

23. Draw a labelled diagram of sectional view of human heart of human digestive system.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Question 23

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Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Please refer to Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions given below. These solved questions for Life Processes have been prepared based on the latest CBSE, NCERT and KVS syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. We have provided  important examination questions for Class 10 Science  all chapters.

Class 10 Science   Life Processes   Important Questions

Very Short Answer Type Questions :

Question. What are the raw materials for photosynthesis. How are they obtained by a plant?  Answer : CO 2 and water are needed for the photosynthesis. CO2 enters the leaf through stoma present on its surface. These pores open in day time in most of plants though in desert plants they open at night to reduce the loss of water. Water is absorbed by roots from the soil along with other materials like nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and magnesium.

Question. How do autotrophs obtain CO 2 and N 2 to make their food? Answer :  CO 2 from environment/atmosphere through diffusion/stomata. Nitrogen from soil/environment in inorganic (nitrates) or organic form.

Question. What is the meaning of variegated leaf? Answer : Variegated leaf means leaf with some green and some non-green part.

Question. Define the term ‘ translocation’.  Answer : Transport of food from leaves to other parts of the plant is called translocation.

Question. Why is respiration considered an exothermic process? Answer :  Respiration is considered an exothermic process due to breaking down of glucose/food in the presence of oxygen with release of energy.

Question. What is breathing? Answer : The mechanism by which organisms intake oxygen from the environment and release carbon dioxide is called breathing.

Question. Mention two ways in which food gets oxidized in organisms.  Answer : Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.

Question. What role do digestive enzymes play in the alimentary canal?  Answer : Digestive enzymes break down complex molecules of food into simpler ones so that they can be absorbed by blood.

Question. Which enzyme is present in human saliva? Answer :  Salivary amylase or ptyalin.

Question. What are the end products of photosynthesis? Answer :  Glucose, oxygen and water.

Question. Give two examples of variegated leaves. Answer : Crotons, money plant.

Question. How do autotrophs obtain CO 2 and N 2 to make their food? Answer: Green plants take carbon dioxide (for carbohydrates) required for photosynthesis directly from atmospheric air and nitrogen (for proteins) in the form of soluble nitrogen compounds present in the soil.

Question. Name the green dot like structures in some cells observed by a student when a leaf peel was viewed under a microscope. What is this green colour due to?  Answer: The green colour of the leaves of the plant is due to the presence of tiny green coloured organelles called chloroplasts which contain green pigment chlorophyll.

Question. Name the intermediate and the end products of glucose breakdown in aerobic respiration. Answer: The intermediate product of glucose breakdown in aerobic respiration is pyruvate whereas the end products are carbon dioxide and water.

Question. Where does digestion of fats take place in our body?  Answer: Digestion of fats takes place in small intestine.

Question. Name the tissue which transports soluble products of photosynthesis in a plant. Answer: The phloem is a vascular tissue that transports soluble products of photosynthesis (food or sugar) to all the parts of plants.

Short Answer Type Questions :

Question. (a) Draw a diagram of human alimentary canal and label on it: oesophagus, gall bladder, liver and pancreas. (b) Explain the statement, ‘bile does not contain any enzyme but it is essential for digestion.’  Answer:  (a) The diagram labelled of human alimentary canal is as follows:     

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

(b) Bile is a dark green to yellowish brown fluuid secreted by liver and stored as well as concentrated in the gall bladder. Bile does not contain any digestive enzymes like other secretions from gastrointestinal tract instead has salts which emulsify fats (that are in the form of complicated triglycerol) and breaks it down into small fat droplets that can easily be acted upon by fat digesting enzymes. This is actually a detergent like action of bile. Therefore, bile is essential for digestion though it does not contain any digestive enzyme.

Question. (a) Draw the structure of a nephron and label the following on it: glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, renal artery, collecting duct. (b) What happens to glucose that enters the nephron along with filtrate? Answer:  (a) The structure of a nephron is as follows: (b) Glomerular filltrate present in Bowman’s capsule contains glucose. This filltrate when enters proximal convoluted tubule of kidney then, much of it is reabsorbed back here (65%). Glucose is almost completely reabsorbed in the kidney tubule and is not excreted out.

Question. What is sequence of steps in photosynthesis? How is it different in desert plants and those in temperate regions? Answer :  Chloroplast (chlorophyll), on exposure to light energy, becomes activated by absorbing light energy, and splits water (photolysis of water) to oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen reduces CO2, and synthesizes glucose. In plants of temperate regions, stomata open during day to take in CO2 and release O2. Desert plants open stomata at night to check excessive loss of water hence sequence of steps of photosynthesis are slightly different. These plants take up carbon dioxide at night and prepare an intermediate which is acted upon by the energy absorbed by the chlorophyll during the day.

Question. Design an activity to show that CO2 is produced during breathing.  Answer :  Materials Required: Two test tubes, a cork with two holes, two glass tubes bent at right angle, syringe, lime water Ca(OH)2. Procedure : a. Take some freshly prepared lime water, Ca(OH)2 in two test tubes, b. Fit cork with two holes in test tubes A and B. c. Fix two glass tubes in this cork of test tube A as shown in the figure. d. Exhale air into the tube and record your observations. e. Pass air by the syringe through the lime water contained in test tube B and record your observations.   (Image 64)

Observation: Lime water turns milky sooner in test tube A than in test tube B. Conclusion a. The exhaled air contains lot of CO2 which turns lime water milky. b. This proves that CO2 gas is exhaled out by humans during respiration.

Question. What is the composition of urine? Are glucose and proteins normally present in urine? Why? How is volume of urine regulated?  Answer : The urine contains mainly water, various salts, urea and uric acid. No, they are not present in urine as glucose is reabsorbed by nephron while protein are not filtered from blood in glomerulus in a healthy kidney. Volume of urine is regulated by a. The amount of excess water. b. The amount of dissolved waste in blood.

Question. a. What is the role of mucus in stomach? b. What are the two vital functions of human kidney? Answer :  a. To protect the stomach lining from the action of acid and pepsin. b. The two vital functions of human kidney are: (i) Excretion – Removal of toxic wastes like urea, uric acid. (ii) Osmoregulation – The process of maintaining the right amount of water and proper ionic balance in body. It is done by controlling the amount of water and salts reabsorbed by nephron – tubules.

Question. a. How is oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged between blood and tissue? How are the gases transported in human being? b. What is haemoglobin?  Answer : a. Exchange of gases in tissues occurs through diffusion. Oxygen is carried as oxyhaemoglobin from lungs to tissues. It dissociates and carbon dioxide diffuses out into blood from tissues. It is transported in dissolved form and reaches lungs where again it diffuses to alveoli. b. Respiratory pigment: Haemoglobin is a red coloured protein present in red blood cells. Haemoglobin has affinity for O2.

Question. What are the important features of all respiratory structures in animals? or How are alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases?  Answer : All respiratory system have some important features. a. Large surface area. b. Thin and delicate surface for diffusion and exchange of gases. It is generally located in protected inner part of body. c. Rich blood supply to respiratory organ. Since all of them are present in alveoli hence it is perfectly designed for exchange of gases.

Question. What is excretion? Name some parts in our body involved in this life process?  Answer : E xcretion means throwing out metabolic waste from living body. Many organs perform this process such as  a. Kidneys remove nitrogenous wastes like urea and uric acid in urine. b. Sweat and oil by glands in skin. c. Carbon dioxide and water vapor by lungs. d. Faces or undigested food by large intestine. e. Bile pigments by liver. It also converts toxic ammonia to urea.

Question. What is the need to have a transport system in complex organisms? Answer : The transport system of an animal moves substances to where they are needed in the body. Even the smallest animal must have the means of transporting substances around its body. Oxygen and food molecules must move to all the cells, and the waste products must be removed from the cells and expelled into the environment. It occurs through diffusion mainly. In a multicellular organism, all cells are not in contact with the surrounding hence diffusion will be insufficient for it. A variety of fluid systems, called vascular systems, help such transport in most members of the animal kingdom.

Question. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of human respiratory system. Explain in brief the role of lungs in the exchange of gases. Answer: The labelled diagram of human respiratory system is as follows: The primary organs of the respiratory system are lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breathe. During the exchange of gases at the respiratory surface (alveoli) of the respiratory organs (lungs) and the oxygen enters the blood and combines with haemoglobin (respiratory pigment) of red blood corpuscles to form oxyhaemoglobin. The oxygenated blood from the lungs is carried to left atrium of heart by pulmonary veins. The heart pumps and distributes the oxygenated blood to the body tissues by arteries where second exchange of gases occurs between blood and body cells. Blood gives oxygen to the body cells and takes carbon dioxide. Inside the cells, oxygen is utilised for oxidation of simple nutrients to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water. Body cells give carbon dioxide to blood and deoxygenated blood is pumped to right atrium of heart from where pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to lungs.

Question. (a) Draw a diagram depicting human alimentary canal and label on it: gall bladder, liver and pancreas. (b) State the role of liver and pancreas. (c) Name the organ which performs the following function in human. (i) Absorption of digested food (ii) Absorption of water Answer: (a) Refer to answer 6(a). (b) Liver is the largest gland of the body that secretes bile juice. Bile juice neutralises acidity of food coming from stomach and provides alkaline medium and helps in digestion of fats in small intestine by bringing about fat emulsification (conversion of large fat droplets into smaller ones) making it easier for enzymes to act and digest them. Pancreas is a soft, lobulated greyish-pink gland which has both endocrine and exocrine parts. Cells of exocrine part secrete pancreatic juice which contains enzymes like pancreatic amylase, trypsin and lipase that help in digestion of starch, proteins and fats, respectively. The cells of endocrine part secrete hormones glucagon and insulin that take part in glucose metabolism. (c) (i) The absorption of digested food takes place in small intestine. (ii) Absorption of most of the water from undigested food takes place in large intestine.

Question. (a) Draw a diagram of excretory system in human beings and label on it : aorta, vena cava, urinary bladder and urethra. (b) List two vital functions of the kidney.  Answer: (a)   

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

(b) Two vital functions of kidneys are: (i) The most important function of kidneys is filltration of blood to excrete the waste products of metabolism. If these waste products, mainly nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid, are not removed from the blood, they will start accumulating to unbearable toxic levels. (ii) Osmoregulation : Kidneys maintain water balance in the body and removes excess water. Besides filltering out the waste products, the kidneys perform other functions such as secretion of erythropoietin, enzyme-renin, homeostasis and conversion of inactive form of vitamin D to the active form.

Question. What will happen to a plant if its xylem is removed?  Answer: Xylem is the main water conducting tissue of plant. If it is removed then water and minerals absorbed by plant roots will not be able to reach different plant parts and plant will wilt and ultimately die.

Question. State the basic difference between the process of respiration and photosynthesis. Answer:  Respiration involves breakdown of food (like glucose) by using oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, water and energy whereas photosynthesis is synthesis of food (like glucose) by using carbon dioxide, water and sunlight and releasing oxygen. Therefore, respiration is just reverse of photosynthesis.

Question. Write any three differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.  Answer: Differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration are as follows: 

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Question. Write one function of each of the following components of the transport system in human beings. (a) Blood vessels (b) Blood platelets (c) Lymph (d) Heart Answer: (a) : The blood vessels are tubes that transport blood throughout the body. There are three kinds of blood vessels in human body; arteries, veins and capillaries. (b) Blood platelets are irregular disc shaped cytoplasmic fragments that assist in formation of blood clot at the site of injury and prevent excessive loss of blood. (c) Lymph is a mobile connective tissue and acts as ‘middle man’. It takes part in nutritive process as it carries protein molecules from tissue into the blood stream. It also helps in removing waste products like fragments of dead cells, germs, etc. (d) Human heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes from the same.

Question. Draw a neat and labelled diagram of human excretory system. Describe in brief the function of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.  Answer: The labelled diagram of human excretory system is as follows:   

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Functions : (i) Kidneys : These are main or primary excretory organs present as one pair of large-sized, reddishbrown coloured and bean shaped structure in the upper part of abdomen. The function of kidneys is to remove the poisonous substance, urea, other waste salts and excess water from the blood and excrete them in the form of a yellowish liquid called urine. (ii) Ureters : These are a pair of long, narrow, thinwalled and tubular structures which conduct the urine from the kidneys to urinary bladder. (iii) Urinary bladder : It is a thin-walled, elastic, pear-shaped and distensible sac which temporarily stores the urine. Its wall is lined with smooth (involuntary) muscles. (iv) Urethra : It is a muscular and tubular structure which carries the urine from urinary bladder to the outside.

Question. (a) Draw a sectional view of the human heart and label on it: pulmonary arteries, vena cava, left ventricle. (b) Why is the double circulation of blood necessary in human beings? Answer: (a) The sectional view of human heart is as follows:   

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

(b) The blood passes through human heart twice for one supply to the body. One circulation involves the transport of deoxygenated blood from all body parts into the heart. This blood is transported to lungs for oxygenation. The second circulation involves entry of oxygenated blood from lungs into lef side of the heart from where it is distributed to all parts of the body. Double circulation is made possible because the human heart is divided into two halves. One half pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and the other half pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Double circulation prevent any mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the body ensuring maximum supply of oxygen to all body parts. This is necessary for humans who need a lot of energy to maintain their constant body temperature against any external temperature fluctuations. The rich oxygen supply enables optimum oxidation of glucose in body cells to release the required energy.

Question. (a) Draw a schematic representation of transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during transportation of blood in human beings and label on it: lung capillaries, pulmonary artery to lungs, aorta to body, pulmonary veins from lungs. (b) What is the advantage of separate channels in mammals and birds for oxygenated and deoxygenated blood? Answer: (a) The schematic representation of transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide is as follows:   

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

(b) In mammals and birds the two circulatory system (oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood) become fully separate sending low pressure pumping to lungs and high pressure flow of blood to rest of body. This prevents any mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood ensuring maximum supply of oxygen to all body parts. This allows optimum oxidation of glucose to release energy required by these animal groups to maintain their body temperature making them homeothermic.

Long Answer Type Questions :

Question. How are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings? How are lungs designed to maximise the area for exchange of gases?  Answer: In gaseous exchange, the blood takes up oxygen from the alveolar air and releases CO2 to the alveolar air. Such an exchange occurs because the concentration of O2 is more in alveolar air and O 2 moves from higher concentration to lower concentration due to the process of diffusion. The blood has more concentration of CO 2 as compared to alveolar air. occus, the CO 2 moves from blood to alveolar air due to simple diffusion. This exchange of gases results in the oxygenation of blood. In times, the exchange of gases occurs between the oxygenated blood and the tissue cells. The concentration of O 2 is more in the blood and less in the tissue cells. So, the O 2 moves from blood to the tissues and CO 2 moves from tissues to the blood. The blood now becomes deoxygenated. Heart receives this oxygen rich blood from lungs through pulmonary vein and distributes it to all body parts through arteries and collect carbon dioxide rich blood from all body parts through veins and takes it to lungs through pulmonary artery for oxygenation. Deoxygenated carbon dioxide rich air moves out from blood capillaries into the alveoli and is finally breathed out. Human lungs have a highly branched network of respiratory tubes. A primary bronchus divides into secondary bronchus, which in turn forms tertiary bronchus. Tertiary bronchus divides repeatedly into bronchioles which finally terminate into alveoli. Alveoli are small, rounded polyhedral pouches which are extremely thin-walled and possess a network of capillaries. Exchange of gases takes place in alveoli and hence an alveolus is called a miniature lung. The alveoli provide a vast surface area where exchange of gases can takes place. Oxygen diffuses from alveoli into pulmonary blood capillaries and CO 2 diffuses out from capillaries into alveoli.

Question. Explain the process of digestion of food in mouth, stomach and small intestine in human body.  stomach and small intestine in human body is as follows : Answer: The process of digestion of food in mouth, stomach and small intestine in human body is as follows : (i) Mouth : Food is chewed with the help of premolars and molars which increases the rate of action of salivary amylase. Food is mixed with saliva of salivary glands. Salivary amylase hydrolyses about 30-40% of starch into maltose and isomaltose at pH 6.8. Starch Salivary amylase → pH 6.8 Maltose + Isomaltose (ii) Stomach : Food is mixed with gastric juice which contains mucus, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, rennin and a weak lipase enzyme. Mucus lubricates the food and protects the inner lining of the stomach from the action of acid. Hydrochloric acid stops the action of saliva in stomach, kills the bacteria present in the food and provides acidic medium (pH 1-2) of gastric juice so that pepsin gets active for protein digestion. Pepsin hydrolyses proteins into proteoses and peptones, while gastric lipase enzymes hydrolyses small amounts of fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Curdling of milk is done by the enzyme rennin, which increases the period of action of pepsin on milk proteins. Proteins Pepsin→ pH 1-2 Proteoses + Peptones In addition to chemical digestion, food also undergoes mechanical churning inside the stomach. (iii) Small intestine : Food is mixed with three digestive juices : bile juice of liver; pancreatic glands. Bile juice neutralises the acidity of the food coming from the stomach and provides alkaline medium and emulsifies (breaks down with the help of bile salts) larger fat globules into smaller fat droplets but is a non-enzymatic digestive juice so has no chemical action on food. Pancreatic juice contains a number of enzymes like trypsin, pancreatic amylase and pancreatic lipase, which digest the peptones, starch and fats into peptides, maltose, isomaltose and fatty acids respectively. Fats Lipase → Fatty acids + Glycerol Intestinal juice also contains number of enzymes like aminopeptidase, intestinal amylase, maltase, isomaltase and lipase enzymes which hydrolyse peptides to amino acids, starch to maltose, maltose to two glucose, isomaltose to two glucose and fats to fatty acids and glycerol. So, small intestine is the site of the complete digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Question. (a) List the three events that occur during the process of photosynthesis. Explain the role of stomata in this process. (b) Describe an experiment to show that “sunlight is essential for photosynthesis.” Answer: (a) The three events that occur during the process of photosynthesis are : (i) Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll : It takes place in grana region of chloroplast. During light reaction, radiant energy of sun is trapped by photosynthetic pigments like chlorophyll and accessory pigments. When exposed to light, chlorophyll molecule is excited and emits electrons. (ii) Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen : Emitted electrons from chlorophyll are channeled through electron transport chain in chloroplast. the energy absorbed by chlorophyll is responsible for carrying out three functions: (i) formation of ATP, (ii) photolysis of water and (iii) synthesis of NADPH (Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate). (iii) Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate: Carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose (carbohydrate) by the hydrogen in NADPH and by utilising the chemical energy stored in ATP. Stomata play an important role in photosynthesis, as gaseous exchange in plants take place through the stomata. Stomata are tiny pores present on the surface of the leaves (also on other green parts like stem). Carbon dioxide required for photosynthesis enters the leaves of the plant through stomata. A large amount of water is also lost through stomatal pores and oxygen released as by product of photosynthesis goes out through stomatal pores of leaves. (b) Experiment to show that sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis. (i) Take a potted plant having green leaves and place it in a completely dark place for about three days to destarch its leaves. (ii) Take a thin strip of aluminium foil (or black paper) and wrap it in the centre of one leaf on both the sides (while the leaf is still attached to the plant). the aluminium foil should be fixed tightly to the leaf by using paper clips so that sunlight may not enter it from the sides. the aluminium foil should cover only a small part of the leaf so that the remaining part of the leaf remains uncovered and exposed to sunlight. (iii) Keep this potted plant (with partially covered leaf) in bright sunshine for three to four days. (iv) Pluck the partially covered leaf from the plant and remove its aluminium foil. Immerse this leaf in boiling water for a few minutes. This will break down the cell membranes of leaf cells and make the leaf more permeable to iodine solution. This leaf is now to be tested for the presence of starch. But before testing for starch, chlorophyll has to be removed from the leaf. (v) Now put the leaf in a beaker containing some alcohol. Place the beaker containing alcohol and leaf in a water bath. (vi) Heat the water in the bigger beaker. then the alcohol in the smaller beaker will also get heated and start boiling soon. This boiling alcohol will extract (or remove) chlorophyll from the green leaf. (vii) Boil the green leaf in alcohol till all its green pigment ‘chlorophyll’ is removed. The leaf will now become almost colourless or pale (and the alcohol will turn green). (viii) Remove the colourless leaf from alcohol and wash it thoroughly with hot water to soften it and remove any chlorophyll which may be sticking to it. (ix) Place the colourless leaf in petri-dish. Drop iodine solution over the decolourised leaf with the help of a dropper. Observe the change in colour of leaf. (x) The middle part of leaf which was covered with aluminium foil does not turn blue-black on adding iodine solution showing that no starch is present in this middle part of the leaf. This is because sunlight could not reach the covered ‘middle part’ of the leaf due to which the covered ‘middle part’ of leaf could not do photosynthesis to make starch. (xi) The uncovered part of leaf which was exposed to sunlight turns blue-black on adding iodine solution showing that starch is present in this part of leaf. (xii) Since the part of leaf which was covered and hidden from sunlight does not contain starch but the part of leaf which was exposed to sunlight contains starch, therefore, we conclude that sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis (to make food like starch).

Question. (a) What are two different ways in which glucose is oxidised to provide energy in various organisms? (b) Write any two differences between the two ways of oxidation of glucose in organisms. Answer: (a) Oxidation of food (glucose) within cell may be of two types depending upon the availability of atmospheric oxygen : aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. (i) Aerobic respiration : The oxidative breakdown of respiratory substrates with the help of atmospheric O2 is known as aerobic respiration. During this process, the respiratory substrate (glucose) is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water by the process of oxidation and large amount of energy (38 ATP) is produced. Aerobic respiration includes glycolysis which is common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The pyruvic acid (pyruvate) molecules formed during glycolysis are carried to the mitochondria where they completely break down to CO2 and H2O with the evolution of a large amount of energy. Glucose Glycolysis → Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid → Mitochondria CO2 + H2O + Energy (ii) Anaerobic respiration: Oxidation of respiratory substrates in absence of oxygen is termed as anaerobic respiration. It involves incomplete breakdown of respiratory substrates in which the end products, such as ethanol or lactic acid are formed and small amount of energy is released. It involves glycolysis, during which glucose is degraded into pyruvate. Further breakdown of pyruvic acid in absence of oxygen result in the production of ethanol or lactic acid. Anaerobic oxidation of glucose in microorganisms formed ethanol and CO 2 and in muscle cells of humans, glucose is anaerobically metabolised into lactic acid.   

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Question. (a) Draw a sectional view of the human heart and label in it, aorta, right ventricle and pulmonary veins. (b) State the functions of the following components of transport system. (i) Blood (ii) Lymph Answer:  (a) The sectional view of human heart is as follows:     

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

(b) (i) Blood is a mobile connective tissue composed of a fluid, plasma and blood corpuscles. Functions of blood are as follows: — Blood takes part in transportation of respiratory gases (carbon dioxide and oxygen), nutrients and waste material in the body. — White blood cells help to fight infection and protect from various pathogenic diseases. — Lymphocytes of blood produce antibodies and provide immunity against various diseases. — When an injury is caused, the blood platelets release certain chemicals which help in clotting of blood. — Blood plasma helps in maintenance of blood pH and uniform distribution of heat in the body. — Blood carries hormones from endocrine glands to the target organs. (ii) Lymph is a mobile connective tissue comprising of lymph plasma (fluid) and lymph corpuscles (cells). — Lymph acts as ‘middle man’, takes part in nutritive process of body. It transport protein molecules from tissue into blood stream. — Body cells are kept moist by lymph. — It absorbs and transports fat and fat soluble vitamins from intestine. — Lymph drains excess fluid from extra cellular spaces back into blood.

Question. How are water and minerals absorbed and transported in the plants?  Answer : 1. Transpiration is the process of removal of water vapors from the aerial parts of a plant, mainly through stomata in the leaves. 2. There are two conducting tissues of plants: first is xylem and second is phloem. Tracheids and vessels which are two kinds of elements of xylem. 3. Tracheids are found in all vascular plants. They are spindle shaped, have only pits and are not very efficient. 4. Vessels are found in flowering plants, are tube like, have perforation plates and pits making them more efficient. 5. When loss of water in vapour occur from leaves of plants due to transpiration, deficit of water is created in the leaves. Evaporation of water molecules from the cells of a leaf creates a suction force which pulls water from the xylem cells. 6. Water and minerals dissolved in it move up to leaves from root through tracheids and vessels, pulling water and minerals upward through xylem elements-ascent of sap. Thus transpiration helps in upward movement of water from roots to leaves. 7. The roots of a plant absorb water and dissolved substances from the soil, which is needed by the aerial parts of the plants. As such these substances are to be transported from roots up to stem, leaves and flowers.

Question. Describe the mechanism of gaseous exchange in tissues and lungs.  or How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human being?  or How is oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human being? Explain clearly how the air is inhaled and exhaled during breathing in humans. Answer :  Exchange of gases in tissues: a. Most of oxygen is carried by haemoglobin in blood. On reaching the tissues, it gets diffused into the cells as it is in higher concentration than in the cells. b. The carbon dioxide, which is formed in the cells, gets accumulated there in higher concentration as compared in the blood, now diffused into the blood. c. The CO2 mostly dissolved in blood plasma reaches the lungs, from where it is expelled out during exhalation. Mechanism of Inhalation: The thoracic cavity expands when diaphragm and rib muscles contract. The thorax moves upwards and outwards, increasing the volume inside thoracic cavity. The air pressure in the cavity decreases, hence the air rushes into the lungs through nostrils, trachea and bronchi. Mechanism of Exhalation : Exchange of gases between alveolar sacs and blood occurs and air having CO2 enters the alveoli. The thoracic cavity comes back to its original size as diaphragm muscles relax. Air containing CO2 is exhaled out through bronchi, trachea and nostrils.

Question. What are the differences between Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms which use the anaerobic mode of respiration. Answer :

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Question. a. Mention any two components of blood. b. Trace the movement of oxygenated blood in the body.  c. Write the function of valves present in between atria and ventricles. d. Write one structural difference between the composition of artery and veins.  Answer : a. plasma, blood cells. b. Pulmonary vein from lungs ” left atrium left ventricle ” aorta ” arteries to all organs. c. Valves prevent backflow of blood from ventricles to atria when latter are contracting. d. Arteries have thick, muscular and elastic walls. Veins have thinner, less muscular walls but have valves.

Question. a. Define excretion. b. Name the basic filtration unit present in the kidney. c. Draw excretory system in human beings and label the following organs of excretory system which perform following functions: (i) form urine (ii) is a long tube which collects urine from kidney. (iii) store urine until it is passed out. Answer : a. Throwing out wastes from the living body. b. Nephron. c. (i) kidney (ii) ureter (iii) urinary bladder

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Question. a. What are two vital functions of the human kidney? b. Draw labelled diagram of human urinary system. Answer :  a. The two vital functions of kidney are — 1. Excretion of nitrogenous wastes. 2. Osmoregulation – regulation of water and salt content in blood.  (Image 84)

Question. Describe double circulation in human beings. Name the group of animal with double circulation? How is it important for them?  Answer : Such a flow in which blood enters the heart twice is called double circulation. It helps in keeping the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate. The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and pumps the blood into the right ventricle. Blood is sent to lungs, where it is oxygenated. Then, it is sent through the right and left pulmonary veins to the left atrium where it is pumped to the left ventricle. The blood then travels to the ascending aorta where it leaves the heart and delivers oxygen to different parts of the body. 

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Birds and mammals have double circulation because they need to maintain a constant body temperature (warm blooded animals or endotherms).

Question. Where are kidneys located in our body? Show the location of different parts of urinary system in man.  What is the importance of kidneys in our body? Answer : The kidneys (renal glands) like high in the abdominal cavity near and on both sides of the vertebral column.  The right kidney is slightly lower than the left to make room for the liver. Each kidney is bean shaped and the concave portion faces medially. The kidney collects and transports urine from the kidney to ureters. The kidneys regulate: a. The volume of blood plasma (blood pressure). b. The concentration of waste products in the blood (excretion). c. The concentration of electrolytes such as Na+, K+, HCO3- and other ions (osmoregulation). d. The pH of plasma. e. Figure :

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

Question. What are the different components of blood? Give the function of each of them.  Answer : Blood is a liquid connective tissue. It is chiefly formed of two components: a. Fluid matrix or plasma: It is of pale colour and transports much substance like dissolved carbon dioxide, glucose, amino acids, urea etc. has mainly water, some proteins like albumin, fibrinogen (blood clotting protein) and many other substances to be transported. b. Cellular elements which are of three types: (1) Red blood corpuscles (R.B.C) or erythrocyt.es, which transport O2 and CO2. They are enucleated, disc shaped, full of a red colored protein pigment, hemoglobin. (2) White blood corpuscles (W.B.C) or leucocytes, which fight disease-causing agent. They are larger, nucleated and are of different types. (3) Blood platelets or thrombocytes, which help in blood clotting. They are fragments of some larger cell hence do not have nucleus.

Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

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Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6

Solved the very best collection of Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Pdf from the latest NCERT edition books, It will help you in scoring more marks in CBSE Exams.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Science Chapter 6

Life processes class 10 important questions very short answer type.

Question 1. Name the tissue which transports soluble products of photosynthesis in a plant.   [AI 2008] Answer: Phloem tissues

Question 2. Name the tissue which transports water and mineral in a plant.   [AI 2008] Answer: Xylem.

Question 3. Which pancreatic enzyme is effective in digesting proteins?   [Foreign 2008] Answer: Pancreatic trypsin.

Question 4. Which enzyme, present in saliva breaks down starch?   [Foreign 2008] Answer: Salivary amylase.

Question 5. Name the process by which autotrophs prepare their own food. Answer: Photosynthesis.

Question 6. What would be the consequence of deficiency of haemoglobin in your body?   [CBSE 2013] Answer: Hemoglobin is a red pigment which carries oxygen in blood to supply to all the parts of the body. Due to its deficiency the supply of oxygen would be low and the energy released in the body would be also low which may lead to a disease called anemia.

Question 7. List three characteristics of lungs which make it an efficient respiratory surface.   [CBSE 2013] Answer: The three characteristics of the lungs are:

  • Large surface area: Lungs provide a large surface area in the form of alveoli inside for the exchange of gases by diffusion. This helps in the absorption of oxygen.
  • Thin walls: The air sacs/alveoli are thin which allows the quick diffusion of the gases through it.
  • Rich in capillary supply: The alveoli are richly supplied with the capillaries that bring blood with the carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen.

Question 8. (a) What is the role of HCl in our stomach? (b) What is emulsification of fats? (c) Which protein digesting enzyme is present in pancreactic juice?   [CBSE 2013] Answer: (a) The HCl provides acidic medium for the action of enzyme pepsin to act and break down the proteins. It kills the germs, microbes and pathogens that enter the stomach. (ii) The breaking down of big fat globules into the smaller ones is called emulsification of fats. (c) Trypsin

Question 9. List in tabular form three differences between arteries and veins.   [CBSE 2013] Answer: Arteries:

  • They are deep seated
  • They carry oxygenated blood
  • They are thick walled so carry blood with lots of pressure
  • They are superficial
  • They carry deoxygenated blood
  • They are thin walled and hence carry blood with less pressure.

Question 10. Which enzyme, present in saliva breaks down starch?   [CBSE 2014] Answer: Mention the raw materials required for photosynthesis Salivary amylase present in saliva breaks down starch. Raw material required for photosynthesis are:

  • Carbon Dioxide: Plants get CO 2 from atmosphere through stomata.
  • Water: Plants absorb water from soil through roots
  • Sunlight: It is absorbed by the chlorophyll present in the leaves.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1. What process in plants is known as transpiration?   [AI 2008] Answer: The loss of water by leaves through small pores called stomata is known as transpiration.

Question 2. How do autotrophs obtain CO 2 and N 2 to make their food?   [AI 2008] Answer: CO 2 is obtained from leaves through stomata pores and N 2 is obtained in combined form, e.g. nitrates, through roots in dissolved form.

Question 3. Write one function each of the following components of the transport system in human beings. (a) Blood vessels (b) Blood platelets (c) Lymph (d) Heart   [AI 2008] Answer: (a) Blood vessels – Carry blood for transportation from part of the body to other. (b) Blood platelets – Helps in blood clotting during injury. (c) Lymph – Carries digested and absorbed fat for transportation. (d) Heart – It is a pumping machine which pumps blood to reach all the parts of the body.

Question 4. Write any 3 differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.   [AI 2008] Answer: Aerobic

  • Takes place in presence of O 2 .
  • End products are CO 2 + H 2 O + energy.
  • Large amount of energy is released.
  • Takes place in absence of oxygen.
  • End products are ethanol + CO 2 + energy.
  • Less amount of energy is released.

Question 5. What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?   [AI 2008] Answer: It converts insoluble starch into soluble sugar and makes the dry food wet.

Question 6. How are fats digested in our body? Where does this process take place?    [Foreign 2008] Answer: Fats when enter our alimentary canal bile juice emulsifies the fat in small intestine the lipase enzyme produced by pancreas digest it to form fatty acids.

Question 7. What is the role of acid in our stomach? Answer: Acid makes the medium in stomach acidic so as to facilitate the action of pepsin. It also kills germs that enter our stomach with food.

Question 8. What is the mode of nutrition in human beings? Answer: Holozoic mode of nutrition i.e., heterotrophic in nature.

Question 9. Why do the walls of the trachea not collapse when there is less air in it?   [CBSE 2012] Answer: Rings of cartilages are present in trachea. These rings support the trachea and do not allow the trachea to collapse when there is less air in it.

Question 10. In human alimentary canal, name the site of complete digestion of various components of food. Explain the process of digestion.   [CBSE 2012] Answer: The site of complete digestion of carbohydrates, fats, proteins is small intestine.

Process of digestion: Food is chewed with digestion of starch by the action of salivary amylase present in mouth. The formed bolus passes down the esophagus into the stomach by the action of peristalsis. Gastric juices further acts on food for the digestion of proteins and forms chyme.

Chyme enters the duodenum where digestive enzymes from pancreas and bile juice from liver mixes with it and then passes through small intestine. Absorbtion of nutrients occur in small intestine and reabsorption of water and minerals too.

Question 11. List the three kinds of blood vessels of human circulatory system and write their functions in tabular form. Answer: Arteries: It carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to all the parts of the body

Veins: It carries de-oxygenated blood from the different parts of the body to the heart

Capillaries: The single walled tubes helps in the exchange of materials within the cell and the blood by diffusion.

Question 12. Why do herbivores have longer, small intestine than carnivores?   [CBSE 2014] Answer: Herbivores feed on the plants and its parts which contain cellulose. Digestion of cellulose takes longer time and hence to allow the complete digestion the small intestine is longer whereas the carnivores eat flesh and meat which does not need cellulose enzyme and long time for digestion.

Question 13. Write correct sequence in four steps about the method for the preparation of temporary mount of a stained leaf peel.   [CBSE 2014] Answer:

  • Take a leaf and fold it to remove the lower surface peel with the forceps.
  • Keep the peel in a watch glass containing dilute safranin for staining.
  • Place the leaf on clean glass slide, add a drop of glycerin and gently place a cover slip over it.
  • Remove the extra stain with the blotting paper and observe it under a microscope.

Question 14. In mammals and birds why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood? [CBSE 2014] Answer: In mammals and birds the energy requirement for their life processes is high and hence large amount of oxygen is required to break down the glucose which would supply the energy during cellular respiration. Hence the oxygenated blood is required to supply oxygen to each and every cell and this works efficiently only if the deoxygenated blood is seperated from the oxygenated one.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 1

Question 18. What are enzymes? Name any one enzyme of our digestive system and write its function.   [CBSE 2015] Answer: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up. For example: Amylase catalyses helps in the breakdown of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 4

(ii) Desert plants open up their stomata during night and take in CO 2 . Stomata remains closed during the day time to prevent the loss of water by transpiration. They store CO 2 in their cells until the sun comes out and they can carry on with photosynthesis during the day time.

Question 20. In single-celled organisms diffusion is sufficient to meet all their requirements of food, exchange of gases or removal of wastes but it is not in case of multicellular organisms. Explain the reason for this difference.    [CBSE 2015] Answer: Unicellular organisms can absorb sufficient oxygen because of its complete contact with the atmosphere, but in multicellular organisms the rate of absorption and diffusion becomes very less because all cells are not in direct contact with the atmosphere. Multicellular organisms require greate amount of oxygen to sustain life processes which cannot be fulfilled by the process of diffusion.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 5

Question 22. Name the acid present in the following: (i) Tomato (ii) Vinegar (iii) Tamarind   [CBSE 2015] Answer: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) citric acid (iii) Tartaric acid.

Question 23. State the role of the following in human digestive system: (i) Digestive enzymes (ii) Hydrochloric acid (iii) Villi    [CBSE 2015] Answer: (i) Digestive enzymes – Foods need to be broken into their small or simpler molecules so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream. However, the physical breakdown of food is not enough. Enzymes are hence needed for the chemical breakdown of food and speeding up the digestive process. The products of digestion should be smaller enough to be absorbed.

(ii) Hydrochloric acid helps to kill the germs which might have entered into the system through food. It creates acidic medium for the pepsin to act on food to break down proteins.

(iii) Villi are finger like projections in the small intestine. They help to increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food. Villi are richly supplied with blood vessel which help to absorb digested food from the blood stream.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Long Answer Type

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 6

(b) Liver – It secretes bile juice which makes medium alkaline and emulsifies the fat. Pancreas – It secretes pancreatic juice which contains amylase, lipase and trypsin. Amylase digest carbohydrates Lipase digest fats Trypsin digest proteins

(c) (i) Villi in small intestine absorbs digested food. (ii) Large intestine absorbs water.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 7

(b) Difference in oxidation of glucose Aerobic:

  • Glucose is oxidised in presence of O 2 .
  • End products are CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy.
  • Oxidised in absence of O 2 .
  • End products are Ethanol + CO 2 + Energy.

Question 3. (a) How do autotrophs prepare food? (b) List three events which occur during this process. (c) State two sources from which plants obtain nitrogen for the synthesis of proteins and other compounds.   [Foreign 2008] Answer: (a) Autotrophs prepare their own food by photosynthesis and few by chemotropism.

(b) Events occurring during Photosynthesis:

  • Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
  • Conversion of light energy to chemical energy and splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Reduction of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates.

(c) Plants obtain nitrogen from the soil in dissolved form of nitrates or nitrites. Rhizobium bacteria converts atmospheric nitrogen into organic compounds.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 8

  • Allows the exchange of gases, O 2 and CO 2 .
  • It helps in losing extra water by transpiration and creates suction pull which helps the water to rise in xylem.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 9

(b) Bile does not contain any enzyme, but it makes the medium in small intestine basic so that trypsin acts on proteins in this medium. It emulsifies fat i.e., breaks large globules of fat into smaller ones.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 10

(b) Kidney helps in (i) Excretion of waste from the body and (ii) Osmoregulation, maintain the level of water in the body.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 11

(b) The blood passes through the heart twice. Right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood which is circulated to lungs for purification. At the same time the left side of the heart receives oxygenated blood which is circulated to the body. This is called double circulation.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 12

(b) The glucose that enters the nephron along with filtrate is reabsorbed by the blood capillaries.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 13

(b) Lungs have bronchioles (small tubes) coming from the bronchi. The bronchioles at the terminals form a balloon like structure called alveoli which increases the surface area for exchange of gases and is richly supplied with blood capillaries.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 14

(b) (i) It helps in the exchange of gases like carbon dioxide and oxygen as per the requirement for the photosynthesis and respiration of the plants. (ii) It also helps in the loss of water in the form of water vapour called transpiration.

(c) Guard cells swell when water enters into it by the process of osmosis and thereby opens the stomata pore for the loss of the water. When the water is lost it shrinks and closes the stomata pore.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 15

(b) The oxygen dissolved in water is very less and the aquatic animals do not get sufficient oxygen unless they breathe fast to meet their energy needs.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 16

  • Renal artery: It brings the impure blood to the kidneys for the purification.
  • Kidney: The kidneys purify the blood by removing the waste from it and regulates the body’s fluid volume and mineral composition by reabsorbing the water and required electrolytes.
  • Ureter: It is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
  • Urinary bladder: It is a muscular sac that stores urine before it is excreted.

Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6, 17

(b) Urine is produced by the filtration of blood by the kidneys. It is then passed through the ureters to urinary bladder where it is stored till urination. Once a person feel like urinating it is passed to urethra to get eliminated from the body.

Question 14. (a) Explain how does the exchange of gases occur in plants across the surface of stems, roots and leaves. (b) How are water and minerals transported in plants? [CBSE 2015] Answer: (a) In plants there are tiny pores called stomata on leaves and lenticels in stem which facilitate the exchange of gases. Carbon dioxide is taken in and oxygen is given out during photosynthesis and vice versa during respiration.

(b) Water and minerals are transported within the plant by the xylem vessels mainly in an upward direction. Phloem transports the products of photosynthesis within the plant, to all parts like the stem, roots fruits etc. in all directions.

Life Processes Class 10: Important Questions & Answers

Studying for your Class 10 Science exam? This post is designed to help you review the important topics from Chapter 5 - Life Processes. Here, you'll find all of the key questions and answers for this chapter to ensure that you're prepared for success on your upcoming exam.

life process class 10 important questions and answers 2023-24

Q. No. 1) Multiple Choice Questions:

i. The labeling for the slide of leaf peel showing stomata by a group of four students who made the diagram and tabulated the labels as follows:

life processes class 10 important questions

Choose the correct combination of plots provided in the following table.

Ans. Option (b)

ii. What is the mode of nutrition in fungi?

a. Autotrophic

b. Heterotrophic

c. Saprophytic

d. Parasitic

Ans. Option (b) or (c)

iii. In the given transverse section of the leaf identify the layer of cells where maximum photosynthesis occurs.

transverse-section-of-a-leaf

Ans. Option (b).

iv. Opening and closing of stomatal pore depend on:

a. Atmospheric temperature

b. Oxygen concentration around stomata

c. Carbon dioxide concentration around stomata

d. Water content in the guard cells

Ans. Option (d).

v. Lime water turns cloudy in the presence of a gas which is a by-product of respiration.

Shown below are four setups kept in sunlight for 24 hours.

life processes class 10 important questions and answers

In which setup is lime water expected to be the cloudiest?

Ans. Option (c)

vi. Generally food is broken and absorbed within the body of organisms. In which of the following organisms is it done outside the body?

b. Mushroom

c. Paramoecium

vii. Identify the option that indicates the correct enzyme that is secreted in locations A, B,  and C.

amylase,pepsin,trypsin

a. i. lipase, ii. trypsin, iii. pepsin

b. i. amylase, ii. pepsin, iii. trypsin

c. i. trypsin, ii. amylase, iii. carboxylase

d. i. permease, ii. carboxylase, iii. oxidase

viii. Observe the diagram of the human digestive system.

diagram of human digestive system

Match the labeling referred to in column I and correlate it with the function in column II.

a) i - a, ii - b, iii – c, iv - d

b) i - b, ii - c, iii – d, iv - a

c) i - b, ii - d, iii – c, iv - a

d) i - d, ii - a, iii – b, iv - c

ix. Carefully study the diagram of the human respiratory system with labels A, B, C, and D.

human respiratory system

Select the option which gives correct identification and the main function and characteristic.

a. i. Trachea: It is supported by bony rings for conducting inspired air.

b. ii. Ribs: When we breathe out, ribs are lifted.

c. iii. Alveoli: Thin-walled sac-like structures for the exchange of gases.

d. iv. Diaphragm: It is pulled up when we breathe in.

Ans. Option (c).

x. The characteristic processes observed in anaerobic respiration are:

  • Presence of oxygen
  • Release of carbon dioxide
  • Release of energy
  • Release of lactic acid

a. i, ii only

b. i, ii, iii only

c. ii, iii, iv only

xi. Study the table below and select the row that has the incorrect information.

Ans. Option (a).

xii. The respiratory route of air in the respiratory tract of humans is:

a. Nostrils → pharynx → larynx → trachea → alveoli.

b. Alveoli → pharynx → larynx → trachea → nostrils.

c. Alveoli → larynx → trachea → pharynx → nostrils.

d. Nostrils → trachea → pharynx → larynx → alveoli.

xiii. Study the graph below that represents the blood test reports of an athlete just before and after a race.

aerobic and anaerobic respiration graph

xiv. Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true about human heart?

  • Left atrium receives oxygenated blood from different parts of the body while the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the lungs.
  • Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to different body parts while the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • Left atrium transfers oxygenated blood to the right ventricle which sends it to different parts of the body.
  • Right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from different parts of the body while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to different parts of the body.

c. ii and iv

d. i and iii

xv. Identify the phase of circulation which is represented in the diagram of the heart given below. Arrows indicate the contraction of the chambers shown.

contraction of heart

a. Blood transferred to the right ventricle and left ventricle simultaneously.

b. Blood is transferred to the lungs for oxygenation and is pumped into various organs simultaneously.

c. Blood transferred to the right auricle and left auricle simultaneously.

d. Blood is received from the lungs after oxygenation and is received from various organs of the body.

xvi. The figure given below shows a schematic plan of blood circulation in humans with labels (i) to (iv). Identify the correct label with its functions.

transportation in human beings

a. i. Pulmonary vein – takes impure blood from the body part.

b. ii. Pulmonary artery – takes blood from the lung to the heart.

c. iii. Aorta – takes blood from the heart to body parts.

d. iv. Vena cava – takes blood from body parts to the right auricle.

xvii. The doctor measured Ravi’s blood pressure and said it is normal now. The range of Ravi’s blood pressure (systolic/diastolic) is likely to be:

a. 120/80 mm of Hg

b. 160/80 mm of Hg

c. 120/60 mm of Hg

d. 180/80 mm of Hg

xviii. In which of the following vertebrate groups, the heart does not pump oxygenated blood to different parts of the body?

a. Pisces and amphibians

b. Amphibians and reptiles

c. Amphibians only

d. Pisces only

xix. Assertion (A): Capillaries have walls that are just one cell thick.

Reason (R): The exchange of material between the blood and surrounding cells takes place across the capillaries.

a. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A

b. Both A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A

c. A is true but R is false

d. A is false but R is true

Ans. Option (a)

xx. Look at the diagram below carefully.

life processes class 10 important questions

Identify the process taking place at Z.

a. Reproduction

b. Transpiration

c. Photosynthesis

d. Translocation

Q. No. 2) Case-Based Question

The figure shown below represents an activity to prove the requirements for photosynthesis. During this activity, two healthy potted plants were kept in the dark for 72 hours. After 72 hours, KOH is kept in the watch glass in setup X and not in setup Y. Both these setups are airtight and have been kept in light for 6 hours. Then, the Iodine test is performed with one leaf from each of the two plants X and Y.

experiment to prove that carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis

i. This experimental setup is used to prove the essentiality of which of the following requirements of photosynthesis?

a. Chlorophyll

c. Carbon dioxide

d. Sunlight

ii. The function of KOH is to absorb

b. Carbon dioxide

c. Moisture

iii. Which of the following statements shows the correct results of the Iodine test performed on the leaf from plant X and Y respectively?

a. Blue-black color would be obtained on the leaf of plant X and no change in color on the leaf of plant Y.

b. Blue-black color would be obtained on the leaf of plant Y and no change in color on the leaf of plant X.

c. Red color would be obtained on the leaf of plant X and brown color on the leaf of plant Y.

d. Red color would be obtained on the leaf of plant Y and brown color on the leaf of plant X.

iv. Which of the following steps can be followed for making the apparatus airtight?

  • Placing the plants on a glass plate
  • Using a suction pump
  • Applying vaseline to seal the bottom of the jar
  • Creating a vacuum

a. i and ii

b. ii and iii

c. i and iii

d. ii and iv

Q. No. 3) Case-Based Question

Study the picture given above and choose the correct combination of plots provided in the following table:

hemodialysis

ii. Which of the following statement(s) is(are) true about excretion in human beings?

  • Urine is stored in the urethra until the urge of passing it out.
  • Each kidney has large numbers of filtration units called nephrons.
  • The bladder is muscular, so it is under nervous control.
  • Kidneys are the primary excretory organs.

a. i and ii only

b. i and iii only

c. ii, iii, and iv only

d. i and iv only

iii. The given figure represents the structure of a nephron.

nephron

Which section of the nephron is responsible for concentrating the solute in the filtrate?

iv. The excretory system of human beings includes

a. A kidney, a ureter, a urinary bladder, and a urethra

b. A pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a pair of urinary bladders, and a urethra

c. A pair of kidneys, a pair of urinary bladders, a ureter, and a urethra

d. A pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra

Q. No. 4) Fill in the blanks:

i. Ultra filtration takes place in ______ of the nephron.

ii. ______ is involved in the breakdown of glucose to produce energy for metabolic activities in a cell.

iii. Blood from the superior vena cava flows into _______.

Ans. i. glomerulus

ii. Mitochondria

iii. right atrium

Q. No. 5) i. Match the terms in Column (A) with those in Column (B):

Ans. a → i, b → iv, c → ii, d → iii.

ii. Match the terms in Column (A) with those in Column (B):

Ans. a → ii, b → i, c → iv, d → iii.

iii. Match the terms in Column (A) with those in Column (B):

Ans. a → iv, b → iii, c → i, d → ii.

Q. No. 6) Name the following:

I. the process in plants that links light energy with chemical energy., ii. organisms that can prepare their own food., iii. the cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs., iv. cells that surround a stomatal pore., v. organisms that cannot prepare their own food., vi. an enzyme secreted from gastric glands in the stomach that acts on proteins., vii. the universal source of energy in all cells..

Ans. i. Photosynthesis

ii. Autotrophs.

iii. Chloroplast.

iv. Guard cells.

v. Heterotrophs.

vi. Pepsin.

vii. ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate).

Q. No. 7) Why is nutrition a necessity for an organism?

Ans. Food is required for the following purposes:

  • It provides energy for the various metabolic processes in the body.
  • It is essential for the growth of new cells and the repair or replacement of worn-out cells.
  • It is needed to develop resistance against various diseases.

Q. No. 8) What is the meaning of variegated leaf?

Ans. The variegated leaf means a leaf with some green and some non-green parts.

Q. No. 9) List two factors that decide the direction of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Ans. Environmental conditions and requirements of the plants decide the direction of diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Q. No. 10) The leaves of a plant were covered with aluminium foil, how would it affect the physiology of the plant?

Ans. i. No photosynthesis will occur so no glucose will be made. Also, no respiration will take place as no oxygen will be taken in.

ii. No transpiration will occur so there would be no upward movement of water or minerals from the soil as there will be no transpirational pull.

iii. Temperature regulation of the leaf surface will be affected.

Q. No. 11) State the events occurring during the process of photosynthesis. Is it essential that these steps take place one after the other immediately?

Ans. Events occurring during the process of photosynthesis:

  • Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
  • Conversion of light energy to chemical energy.
  • Splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.

chemical-equation-of-photosynthesis

These steps need not take place one after the other immediately. For example, desert plants take up carbon dioxide at night and prepare an intermediate which is acted upon by the energy absorbed by the chlorophyll during the day.

Q. No. 12) “All plants give out oxygen during the day and carbon dioxide during the night.” Do you agree with this statement? Give reason.

Ans. During day time, as the rate of photosynthesis is more than the rate of respiration, the net result is the evolution of oxygen. At night there is no photosynthesis, so they give out carbon dioxide due to respiration.

Q. No. 13) If a plant is releasing carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen during the day, does it mean that there is no photosynthesis occurring? Justify your answer.

Ans. The release of carbon dioxide and intake of oxygen gives evidence that either photosynthesis is not taking place or its rate is too low. Normally during day time, the rate of photosynthesis is much more than the rate of respiration. So, carbon dioxide produced during respiration is used up for photosynthesis hence carbon dioxide is not released.

Q. No. 14) Enlist the site of synthesis and storage of bile. ‘Bile juice does not have any digestive enzyme but still plays a significant role in the process of digestion.’ Justify the statement.

Ans. Site of synthesis: Liver

Site of storage: Gall bladder.

Bile juice does not contain any digestive enzyme, but it plays an important role in digestion because:

  • The bile salts emulsify fat by acting on large fat globules to break them into smaller globules. This increases the efficiency of pancreatic enzymes.
  • The food entering the small intestine is acidic. It is made alkaline by the action of bile juice so as to facilitate the action of pancreatic enzymes.

Q. No. 15) Out of a goat and a tiger, which one will have a longer small intestine? Justify your answer.

Ans. Goat, because herbivorous eating grass needs a longer small intestine to allow the cellulose to be digested.

Q. No. 16) A person suffering from liver disease is advised to avoid fatty and highly acidic foods.

Give a reason why each of the foods mentioned should be avoided by a person suffering from liver disease..

Ans. i. Since the liver produces bile which creates an alkaline medium for effective digestion, in absence of bile acidic foods may cause more acidity and poor digestion.

ii. Since bile is responsible for fat digestion by converting large fat globules to smaller ones for efficient digestion, in absence of which fats will not be properly digested.

Q. No. 17) State the role of the pancreas in the digestion of food.

Ans. The pancreas secretes digestive juice which contains enzymes like trypsin for digesting proteins and lipase for the breakdown of emulsified fats.

Q. No. 18) How is the wall of the small intestine adapted for performing the function of absorption of food?

Ans. The inner lining of the small intestine has numerous finger-like projections called villi which increase the surface area for absorption.

Q. No. 19) What are the components of gastric juice? Write their functions.

Ans. Gastric juice contains three components:

  • Hydrochloric acid : Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is used to make the medium acidic to facilitate the action of the enzyme pepsin and to kill germs if any.
  • Enzyme pepsin : It digests proteins to convert them into peptones.
  • Mucus : It helps to protect the stomach wall from its own secretions of hydrochloric acid.

Q. No. 20) Show the breakdown of glucose by various pathways.

breakdown of glucose by various pathways class 10

Q. No. 21) What are the end products formed during fermentation in yeast? Under what conditions a similar process takes place in our body that leads to muscle cramps?

Ans. The end products formed during anaerobic respiration or fermentation in yeast are carbon dioxide and ethanol along with ATP.

A similar process is seen in our body when there is a lack of oxygen in the muscles, leading to muscle fatigue. It results due to the accumulation of lactic acid produced during the anaerobic respiration of glucose. The energy or ATP produced during anaerobic respiration is much less as compared to aerobic respiration.

Q. No. 22) What is the role of cartilaginous rings on the trachea?

Ans. They prevent the collapsing of the trachea when there is no air present in it.

Q. No. 23) Elucidate the process of the double circulatory system with the help of a diagram.

double circulation in human beings class 10

The oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart, which is pumped again into different parts of the body by the heart. Thus, the blood passed twice through the heart making one complete round through the body, i.e., once through the right half in the form of deoxygenated blood and once through the left half in the form of oxygenated blood.

Q. No. 24) Oxygen, mostly, is carried by a pigment in our blood whereas carbon dioxide is transported in dissolved form in our blood.

Give two reasons that make the above statement correct..

Ans. i. Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen.

ii. Haemoglobin (the red pigment in RBC) has a very high affinity for oxygen.

Q. No. 25) Given below is a table representing the characteristics of two fluids involved in the transportation of substances in the human body.

I. identify fluid a and fluid b., ii. with the help of a flow chart, describe the movement of fluid a from the intercellular spaces to the main circulatory system..

Ans. i. Fluid A – Lymph

Fluid B – Blood

ii. Intercellular spaces → Lymphatic capillaries → Lymph vessels → Larger veins.

Q. No. 26) How is lymph an important fluid involved in transportation? If lymphatic vessels get blocked, how would it affect the human body? Elaborate.

Ans. The functions of lymph in transportation are:

  • Lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from the intestine back to the blood.
  • Lymph drains excess fluid from extracellular space back into the blood.

Blockage of the lymphatic system will lead to water retention and poor fat absorption in the body.

Q. No. 27) What are the strategies of plants to get rid of their wastes?

Ans.  Strategies of plants to get rid of their waste are:

  • They throw away oxygen and water vapor through stomata.
  • Some wastes like gums, oil, and resins may be stored in old xylem or wood in the stem.
  • Some wastes may be stored in leaves and bark and shed off from time to time.
  • Roots can also throw some waste.

Q. No. 28) Two major forces help in the transport of water in a plant. Force A is the driving force in the movement of water during the day, whereas force B helps the movement of water in a plant during the night or during the day when humidity is very high.

I. identify force a and force b., ii. describe how each of these forces helps in the movement of water in a plant..

Ans. i. Force A – transpirational pull

Force B – Root pressure

ii. Transpiration pull : Evaporation of water molecules from the stomata of a leaf due to transpiration creates a suction that pulls water from the xylem cells of roots.

Root pressure : Active absorption of ions by roots from the soil causes water to steadily move into the root xylem creating a column of water that is pushed upwards.

Q. No. 29) a. Define excretion.

B. name the basic filtration unit present in the kidney..

c. What is the purpose of making urine in the human body?

d. Draw the excretory system in human beings and label the following organs of the excretory system which perform the following functions:

I. forms urine., ii. is a long tube that collects urine from the kidney., iii. stores urine until it is passed out..

iv. Releases urine.

Ans. a. Throwing out wastes from the living body is called excretion.

b. Nephron.

c. To filter out nitrogenous waste products like urea and uric acid from the blood in humans.

d. i. Kidney, ii. Ureter, iii. Urinary bladder, iv. Urethra

excretory system in human beings class 10

Q. No. 30) Give reason:

I. separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is necessary for mammals., ii. the rate of breathing in a fish is faster than a pigeon., iii. we experience pain in our muscles after strenuous physical exercise., iv. veins are thin-walled and have valves., v. in birds and mammals the left and right sides of the heart are separated., vi. patients whose gallbladder is removed are recommended to eat less oily food., vii. absorption of digested food occur mainly in the small intestine..

Ans. i. Mammals are warm-blooded hence a lot of energy is required to maintain a constant body temperature.

ii. A fish breathes in oxygen dissolved in water and the percentage of oxygen dissolved in water is less as compared to the atmosphere.

iii. Due to a lack of oxygen anaerobic respiration occurs resulting in the formation of lactic acid. Accumulation of lactic acid causes pain in the muscles.

iv. Veins have thin walls because the blood there is no longer under pressure and they have valves to ensure blood flow in one direction.

v. The separation keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood from mixing allowing a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body. This is useful in animals that have high energy needs (birds and mammals) and constantly use energy to maintain their body temperature.

vi. Gallbladder stores bile which helps in the emulsification of lipids. In the absence of stored bile, emulsification of fats will be less, and thus fat digestion will be slow. Hence there are such diet restrictions.

vii. Maximum absorption occurs in the small intestine because:

  • Digestion is completed in the small intestine.
  • The inner lining of the small intestine is provided with villi which increases the surface area for absorption.
  • The wall of the intestine is richly supplied with blood vessels (which take the absorbed food to each and every cell of the body).

Q. No. 31) Differentiate between:

I. saprophytic nutrition and parasitic nutrition, ii. aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration, iii. autotroph and heterotroph, iv. artery and vein, v. blood and lymph, watch the detailed explanation of life processes class 10 science chapter 6 here:.

Hope these questions were helpful to you in preparing for CBSE Class 10 board exams. Do comment if you have any questions/doubts or help me know your requirements.

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Science class 10 important questions, social science class 10 important questions, forest and wildlife resources class 10 important questions and answers, mastering water resources: essential questions and answers for class 10, carbon and its compounds: tackle class 10 questions with ease, the human eye and the colourful world class 10: top q&a, power sharing class 10: important questions and answers, gender, religion, and caste class 10: top questions & answers, important questions and answers on the age of industrialization class10, 19 thoughts on “life processes class 10: important questions & answers”.

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Please Create and provide pdf for us 🙏🏻

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This is better than PDFs because PDF downloads would be lost in your device. But here in website you can get everything at one place. You can also take printout of entire page.

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You are right sir

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Hey sir ! it me prashant kumar raj Sir i wanted to know that all these questions of this chapter are enough for the class 10 board preparation!

Or any more questions i have to do

Please provide me your contact number (VERY URGENT)sir please Please dont say NO! Bye!!! Your student Prashant Kumar Raj(X) School- I dont go school because of some family relalted problems!

Prepare all these questions thoroughly. And don’t worry about anything.

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Sir how to read ncert like you ?

Just keep trying, you’ll be reading better than me.

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Sir i have one dout that if i only learn your given question answer then it will enough to get good marks

Yes, but it also depends on how well you prepare these questions and understand the concepts behind these questions.

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Sir thanks for important question

Always welcome

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Sir, in Q2 of life processes the correct answer is option(c).

Actually both (b) and (c) are correct. Saprophytic nutrition is a type of heterotrophic nutrition.

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Sir it is really helpful

Sir can you give explanation too

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Really helpful. Nice questions

Glad it was helpful. Also check other chapters questions

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I think 10 th question answer is wrong

Sry my mistake

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  • CBSE Notes For Class 10
  • Class 10 Science Notes
  • Chapter 6 Life Processes

CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes

According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 5.

Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Notes

Introduction.

All living organisms have certain common characteristics, such as breathing, growing, requiring nutrition, producing offspring, responding to stimuli, etc., that distinguish them from non-living things. There are certain vital processes that maintain homeostasis and proper functioning of the body, they are called life processes. These processes continue to occur even when we are sleeping or not performing any action. These processes are essential for all living organisms, including plants and animals. These life processes are nutrition, photosynthesis, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction and excretion.

In this chapter, we will learn about the details of these processes occurring in plants, animals and human beings in particular.

Earth happens to be the only known planet having life. There are beings who live, die and become part of nature again. The living organism can be differentiated from the inanimate entities on various parameters of life processes.

Living and Non living Things - Characteristics And Difference

Life Process

  • The maintenance of living organisms is essential even if they are moving, resting or even sleeping.
  • The processes which together perform the function of maintenance of ‘life’ are called as life processes.
  • Nutrition, respiration, circulation, and excretion are examples of essential life processes.
  • In unicellular organisms, all these processes are carried out by a single cell.
  • In multicellular organisms, well-developed systems are present to carry out the processes.

Life processes

For more information on Life Processes, watch the below video

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Life Process, visit here . Students can refer to the short notes and MCQ questions along with a separate solution pdf of this chapter for quick revision from the links below:

  • Life Processes Short Notes
  • Life Processes MCQ Practice Questions
  • Life Processes MCQ Practice Solutions
The process of acquiring food that is needed for nourishment and sustenance of the organism is called nutrition.
  • There are two main modes of nutrition, autotrophic and heterotrophic.
  • Autotrophic nutrition is present in plants, algae and some bacteria. Organisms produce their own food using light energy or chemical energy through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, respectively.
  • Heterotrophic nutrition is present in bacteria, fungi and animals. They derive energy from organic compounds, such as animals eating plants or other animals for food.
  • Heterotrophic nutrition has subtypes such as holozoic, saprophytic and parasitic nutrition.

To know more about Nutrition, visit here .

Autotrophic Nutrition

If an organism can nourish itself by making its own food using sunlight or chemicals such mode of nutrition is called as autotrophic nutrition.
  • Plants photosynthesize (use light energy) and are called photoautotrophs.
  • Few bacteria use chemicals to derive energy and are called chemoautotrophs.

short answer questions life processes class 10

Photosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis is an important process by which food is formed.
  • The plants make food using sunlight and water, which provides nourishment to other organisms and themselves.
  • Chlorophyll present in the green parts absorbs light energy.
  • This light energy is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.
  • Hydrogen is then used to reduce carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, typically glucose.
  • Chlorophyll is essential for photosynthesis and stomata to facilitate the intake of carbon dioxide.

The overall reaction occurring in photosynthesis is as follows:

6CO 2 + 6H 2 O → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

To know more about Photosynthesis, visit here .

  • Stomata are pores on the leaves that help in the exchange of gases.
  • They are mostly found on the underside of the leaf.
  • Each stoma is guarded by guard cells, which control the opening and closing of the pore.
  • The water content of the guard cells is responsible for their function.

Life-Processes-1

To know more about Stomata, visit here .

Saprophytic Nutrition

Some organisms feed on dead and decaying organic matter . This mode of nutrition is called saprophytic nutrition.
  • The food is partially digested outside the body, and then it is absorbed.
  • E.g. Fungi are saprophytes .

Parasitic Nutrition

Some organisms feed at the expense of another organism and in turn cause harm. This is called the parasitic mode of nutrition.
  • These parasites live on the body or in the body of a host organism and derive the nutrients directly from the body of the host.
  • E.g. Leech is an ectoparasite while Ascaris is an endoparasite. Cuscuta is a parasitic plant.

Leech Diagram

Nutrition in Amoeba

short answer questions life processes class 10

  • Amoeba feeds by Holozoic mode of nutrition.
  • It engulfs the food particle using pseudopodia, the process is called phagocytosis.
  • The engulfed food gets enclosed in a food vacuole.
  • As the food vacuole passes through the cytoplasm, digestion, absorption, and assimilation, take place.
  • When the food vacuole opens outside, the egestion of undigested food takes place.

Life-Processes-2

To know more about Nutrition in Amoeba, visit here .

Nutrition in Paramoecium

  • Paramoecium also exhibits holozoic nutrition.
  • However, they have cilia that help them to engulf the food through the oral groove.
  • A food vacuole is created, enclosing the food.
  • It moves through the cytoplasm, the process is called cyclosis.
  • Food digested in the food vacuole is absorbed by the cytoplasm.
  • Undigested food is given out to a tiny pore called an anal pore or cytopyge.

Life-Processes-3

Nutrition in Humans

  • Humans are omnivores, they can eat plant-based food as well as animal-based food.
  • Being more complex, humans have a very complicated nutrition system.
  • The digestive system has an alimentary canal and associated digestive glands, which together function to nourish the body.
  • There are five stages in human nutrition; Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Assimilation and Egestion.
  • Four stages i.e. ingestion, digestion, absorption and egestion, take place in the alimentary canal, while assimilation of food takes place in the whole body.

To know more about Nutrition in Humans, visit here .

Alimentary Canal

  • The alimentary canal in humans is a long tube of varying diameter.
  • It starts with the mouth and ends with the anus.
  • Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine are the parts of the alimentary canal.

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Alimentary Canal, visit here .

 Mouth

  • It is the opening of the alimentary canal and helps in the ingestion of food.
  • The buccal cavity, which is present behind the mouth, is also commonly referred to as the mouth.
  • The buccal cavity has teeth and a tongue.
  • The set of teeth helps in the mastication of food.
  • The tongue has taste buds on it and thus helps in tasting the food.
  • The salivary glands also open in the buccal cavity and pour saliva, which initiates the process of digestion.
  • Teeth are the hard structures present in the buccal cavity.
  • They help us to cut, shear and masticate the food we eat.
  • The vertical section of a tooth shows four layers enamel, dentine, cement and dental pulp.
  • Enamel is the outermost, shiny, highly mineralized and hardest part of the human body.
  • Dentine makes the bulk of the tooth and contains 70% inorganic salts.
  • Cement is present at the lining of a tooth and bony socket.
  • The dental pulp is the central soft part of a tooth and contains nerve endings, blood and lymph vessels along with connective tissue.
  • There are four types of teeth in humans, Incisors, canines, molars and premolars, each with a specific function.
  • Incisors cut the food, canines tear the food while molars and premolars crush it.
  • The dental formula in adult humans is 2:1:2:3.

Life-Processes-4

Oesophagus & Stomach

  • The swallowed food passes into the oesophagus.
  • It is a muscular tube, about 25 cm long, with a sphincter (valve/opening) at each end.
  • Its function is to transport food and fluid, after being swallowed, from the mouth to the stomach.
  • Food is pushed down by peristaltic movements.

short answer questions life processes class 10

  • The stomach is a thick-walled bag-like structure.
  • It receives food from the oesophagus at one end and opens into the small intestine at the other end.
  • The inner lining of the stomach secretes mucous, hydrochloric acid and digestive juices.
  • Food is churned into a semi-solid mass in the stomach and is called chyme.
  • Enzymes present in gastric juice break down the food.
  • Hydrochloric acid helps in the partial digestion of proteins and also kills harmful bacteria.
  • The mucus secreted by the wall of the stomach resists the action of HCl on itself.

For more information on Stomach, watch the below video

short answer questions life processes class 10

Small Intestine

  • The small intestine is the longest part of the alimentary canal, about 20 feet long in humans.
  • It has regions, the duodenum, the region which follows the stomach; the jejunum is the middle part; and the ileum is the later region which continues further into the large intestine.
  • The internal surface of the small intestine is folded into finger-like projections called villi.
  • A common pancreatic duct from the pancreas and liver opens into the duodenum.
  • Most of the chemical digestion and absorption takes place in the small intestine.

Large Intestine

  • The large intestine in humans is about 5 feet long.
  • It has two regions, the colon ( about 1.5 m) and the rectum (10 cm in length in the adult).
  • The region of the large intestine after the ileum is called the colon, while the last part is called the rectum.
  • Colon has three regions, ascending colon, transverse colon and descending colon.
  • At the base of the ascending colon, a small finger-like out-growth is seen and is called an appendix.
  • It houses many useful bacteria required for the digestion of food.
  • Rectum opens to the outside by the anus.
  • The anus has internal and external anal sphincters.

Life-Processes-5

Peristalsis

A constant wave-like movement of the alimentary canal right from the oesophagus to the small intestine is called as peristalsis.

  • Muscles present in the wall of the alimentary canal are responsible for peristalsis.
  • This movement helps to push the food through the alimentary canal.

To know more about Peristalsis, visit here .

Digestive Glands

  • Several glands produce digestive juices that help in the digestion of food.
  • Salivary glands, gastric glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are a few to name.
  • Salivary glands secrete saliva, which initiates digestion in the mouth itself.
  • Gastric glands present in the wall of the stomach secrete hydrochloric acid and the enzyme pepsin.
  • The liver secretes bile which is stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps in the digestion of fats.
  • The pancreas secretes many digestive enzymes, and its secretion is called pancreatic juice.
  • Enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, and amylase are present in pancreatic juice.
  • The pancreas is a long, flat gland present behind the stomach in humans.
  • It is one of the major digestive glands and is of mixed nature, i.e. endocrine as well as exocrine.
  • As an endocrine organ, it secretes two hormones called insulin and glucagon which maintain the blood sugar level.
  • As an exocrine gland, it secretes pancreatic juice, which is nothing but a mixture of many digestive enzymes.
  • The digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas include trypsin and chymotrypsin, and proteases which digest proteins.
  • It also includes amylase, which digests the starch content of the food.
  • Pancreatic lipases are the pancreatic enzymes that help in the digestion of fats.

Life-Processes-6

To know more about Pancreas, visit here .

Holozoic Nutrition

The mode of nutrition in which animals take their food as a whole is called as holozoic nutrition.

In holozoic nutrition, food passes through five steps – ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion.

Physiology of Digestion

  • Mechanical digestion of food takes place in the buccal cavity where teeth masticate the food, saliva gets mixed, and it turns into a bolus.
  • Digestion of starch starts in the buccal cavity itself, with the action of salivary amylase present in the saliva.
  • Salivary amylase converts starch into maltose.
  • In the stomach, the churning of food takes place due to the muscular contraction and relaxation of its wall. It breaks down the food into simpler substances.
  • Digestion of proteins starts in the stomach with the action of pepsin. Proteins are broken down into smaller fragments called peptides by the action of pepsin.
  • The bolus, after mixing with gastric juice, turns into a fine soluble form known as chyme.
  • Chyme enters the small intestine, where complete digestion takes place due to the action of various enzymes present in the pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal juice.
  • The digested food is completely absorbed by the villi and microvilli of the small intestine.
  • Undigested food then enters the large intestine.
  • The colon is responsible for the absorption of water and salts, whereas the rectum stores the undigested food temporarily before defaecation.

For more information on Digestive System, watch the below video

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Digestive System, visit here .

Digestive System in Other Animals

  • Digestive systems in different animals vary in structure and function.
  • The structure of the digestive system depends on the food habits of the animal.
  • The alimentary canal in herbivores is long as the cellulose content of their plant-based diet takes a long time to digest.
  • On the other hand, the alimentary canal of carnivorous animals is comparatively shorter because meat gets digested faster.

Anatomy of Digestive Tract

  • The alimentary canal in humans is approximately 30 feet (9m) long. It is also called the  gastrointestinal tract .
  • It starts in the mouth and ends in the anus.
  • Between these two openings, the alimentary canal is a tube of varying diameter.
  • Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine (divided into three regions, duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and large intestine(having two regions, colon and rectum) are the parts of the alimentary canal.
  • Salivary glands, pancreas and liver act as major digestive glands.
  • Glands present in the wall of the stomach and small intestine also contribute to the digestion of food.

Role of HCl

  • Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is secreted by the gastric glands present in its wall.
  • the pH of gastric acid is usually between 1.5 to 3.5
  • Converts inactive pepsinogen and pro-rennin into active pepsin and rennin, respectively.
  • Provides an acidic medium for protein digestion.
  • Kills bacteria entered through food and prevents infection.
  • Prevents putrefaction of food in the stomach.
  • A thick layer of mucus secreted by the mucous glands of the stomach prevents itself from the action of gastric acid.
  • Excess acid damages gastric mucosa and causes gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Salivary Glands

  • Salivary glands are the exocrine glands that secrete saliva, and through a system of ducts, it is poured into the mouth.
  • In humans, three major pairs of salivary glands are present, parotid, submandibular and sublingual.
  • In healthy individuals, between 0.5 to 1.5 litres of saliva is produced per day.
  • It lubricates and protects the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity
  • It also gives protection from dental caries
  • Saliva prevents microbial growth in the oral cavity.
  • Saliva can encourage soft tissue repair by decreasing clotting time and increasing wound contraction.
  • Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that hydrolyses starch into maltose and dextrin. Hence saliva allows digestion to occur before the food reaches the stomach.
  • Saliva acts as a solvent in which solid particles can dissolve and enter the taste buds located on the tongue.

Life-Processes-7

Heterotrophic Nutrition

When an organism depends on others for food, such a mode of nutrition is called as a heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • These organisms depend on autotrophs for their nutritional requirements.
  • E.g. Animals which eat plants as their food are called herbivores.
  • Animals which eat other animals as their food are called carnivores.
  • Holozoic, saprophytic and parasitic nutrition are all types of heterotrophic nutrition.

For more information on Heterotrophic Nutrition, watch the video below

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Heterotrophic Nutrition, visit here .

Glandular Epithelium

  • Many small glands present in the inner layer of the stomach and intestine take part in the digestion of food.
  • These glands are present in the epithelial lining of the stomach and intestine.
  • The glands present in different regions of the stomach are called gastric glands.
  • They are responsible for the secretion of mucus, hydrochloric acid and enzymes like pepsinogen.
  • The glands present in the epithelial lining of the small intestine and large intestine are called intestinal glands.
  • Glands of the small intestine are responsible for the secretion of intestinal juice, also called succus entericus.
  • Intestinal juice contains hormones, digestive enzymes, alkaline mucus, and substances to neutralize hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach.
  • Intestinal juice completes the digestion started by the pancreatic juice.
  • Glands of the large intestine are associated with the absorption of water and electrolytes.

Villi and Micro Villi

  • Complete digestion and absorption of food take place in the small intestine.
  • Pancreatic juice coming from the pancreas, bile from the liver and intestinal juice secreted by the intestinal glands complete the digestion of food material.
  • All the digested nutrients are absorbed by the long finger-like projections present in the ileum of the small intestine.
  • These small finger-like projections of the inner wall of the intestine are called villi (singular: villus).
  • Each villus has its cell membrane of the lumen side again folded into microscopic processes called microvilli.
  • Villi increase the internal surface area of the intestinal walls making available a greater surface area for absorption.
  • Digested nutrients pass into the semipermeable villi through diffusion.
  • Villi also help in the chemical digestion of food by secreting digestive enzymes.

Life-Processes-8

  • The liver is the largest and major digestive gland of humans
  • The liver, in humans, is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdomen.
  • This organ is dark reddish-brown in colour due to an extensive blood supply.
  • It secretes bile which helps in digestion.
  • It filters the blood coming from the digestive tract before passing it to the rest of the body.
  • It detoxifies various metabolites and antidotes.
  • The liver makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
  • It stores and releases glucose as needed.
  • It processes haemoglobin from the dead and worn-out RBCs, for the iron content (the liver stores iron).
  • The conversion of harmful ammonia to urea takes place in the liver.

To know more about the Liver, visit here .

Digestive Juices

  • Pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal juice (succus entericus) are collectively called digestive juices.
  • A common duct from digestive glands pours the secretions into the duodenum.
  • Chyme enters the small intestine, where complete digestion takes place due to the action of various enzymes.
  • In the duodenum, the acidity of chyme is turned to alkalinity by the action of bile coming from the liver. This is necessary for pancreatic enzyme action.
  • Bile also emulsifies the fats into smaller globules.
  • Pancreatic and intestinal amylases break down carbohydrates into glucose.
  • Trypsin and chymotrypsin are the proteases responsible for the breakdown of proteins finally into amino acids.
  • Lipase is the enzyme which acts on the emulsified fats and breaks them down into glycerol and fatty acids.

For more information on Digestion in Humans, watch the video below

short answer questions life processes class 10

Water Absorption in Large Intestine

  • The large intestine is not involved in the digestion of food or absorption of nutrients.
  • The major function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter and make the stool solid.
  • The large intestine also helps in the absorption of vitamins made by bacteria that normally live in the large intestine.
  • The innermost layer of the large intestine also acts as a barrier and protects from microbial infections and invasions.
  • Rectum stores the undigested food temporarily until defecation.

Respiration

Introduction to respiration.

  • Respiration broadly means the exchange of gases.
  • Animals and plants have different means of exchange of gases.
  • At a cellular level, respiration means the burning of food to generate the energy needed for other life processes.
  • Cellular respiration may take place in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Life-Processes-9

For more information on Life Process of Respiration, watch the below video

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Respiration, visit here .

Respiration in Humans

  • The human respiratory system is more complex and involves breathing, the exchange of gases and cellular respiration.
  • A well-defined respiratory system helps with breathing and the exchange of gases.
  • Breathing involves the inhalation of oxygen and the exhalation of carbon dioxide.
  • The gaseous exchange takes place in the lungs, and oxygen is supplied to all cells of the body.
  • Cellular respiration takes place in each and every cell.

Respiratory System

  • The human respiratory system involves the nose, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea/windpipe, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.
  • Bronchioles and alveoli are enclosed in a pair of lungs.
  • The rib cage, muscles associated with the rib cage and diaphragm all help in the inhalation and exhalation of gases.
  • The exchange of gases takes place between an alveolar surface and surrounding blood vessels.
  • Alveoli provide a large surface area for the exchange of gases.

For more information on Respiration, watch the video below

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Respiratory System, visit here .

Physiology of Respiration

  • Breathing in humans is facilitated by the action of internal intercostal and external intercostal muscles attached to the ribs and the diaphragm.
  • When the dome-shaped diaphragm contracts and becomes flattened and the rib cage is expanded due to the action of intercostal muscles, the volume of the lungs increases, pressure there drops down and the air from outside gushes in. This is inhalation.
  • To exhale, the diaphragm relaxes and becomes dome-shaped again; the chest cavity contracts due to the action of intercostal muscles, the volume inside the lungs decreases, pressure increases and the air is forced out of the lungs.
  • Inhaled air increases the concentration of oxygen in the alveoli,  so oxygen simply diffuses into the surrounding blood vessels.
  • Blood coming from cells has more concentration of carbon dioxide than outside air, and thus carbon dioxide simply diffuses out of the blood vessels into the alveoli.
  • Thus, breathing takes place due to the combined action of intercostal muscles and the diaphragm, while the exchange of gases takes place due to simple diffusion.

Life-Processes-10

Inhalation and Exhalation

  • The process of taking in air rich in oxygen is called  inhalation .
  • Similarly, the process of giving out air rich in carbon dioxide is called  exhalation .
  • One breath comprises one inhalation and one exhalation.
  • A person breathes several times a day.
  • The number of times a person breathes in one minute is termed as his/her  breathing rate .

To know more about Inhalation and Exhalation, visit here .

Diffusion is the movement of molecules from high concentration area to the low concentration area without spending any energy.

Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is set of metabolic reactions occurring inside the cells to convert biochemical energy obtained from the food into a chemical compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  • Metabolism refers to a set of chemical reactions carried out to maintain the living state of the cells in an organism. These can be divided into two categories:
  • Catabolism  – the process of breaking molecules to obtain energy.
  • Anabolism  – the process of synthesizing all compounds required by the cells.
  • Therefore, respiration is a catabolic process which breaks large molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy to fuel cellular activities.
  • Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain are the important processes of cellular respiration.

Life-Processes-12

To know more about Cellular Respiration, visit here .

Aerobic Respiration

Aerobic respiration is a process in which the food i.e. glucose is converted into energy in the presence of oxygen.
  • The general equation of aerobic respiration as a whole is given below-

Glucose + oxygen ⇒  Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

  • This type of respiration takes place in animals, plants and other living organisms.

Respiration in Lower Animals

  • Lower animals lack a sophisticated respiratory system like lungs, alveoli etc.
  • Respiration in them takes place by simple exchange mechanisms.
  • Animals like earthworms take in gases through their skin.
  • Fishes have gills for gaseous exchange.
  • Insects have a tracheal system, which is a network of tubes through which air circulates and gaseous exchange takes place.
  • Frogs breathe through their skin when in water and through their lungs when on land.

Respiration in Cockroach

Respiration in Muscles

  • Respiration in muscles can be anaerobic when there is not enough oxygen.
  • Glucose gets broken down into carbon dioxide and lactic acid.
  • This results in the accumulation of lactic acid that makes the muscles sore.
  • This type of anaerobic respiration is also known as lactic acid fermentation .
  • It is the energy currency of the cell.
  • ATP stands for Adenosine Tri-Phosphate.
  • This molecule is created.; as a result, reactions like photosynthesis, respiration etc.
  • The three phosphate bonds present in the molecule are high-energy bonds, and when they are broken, a large amount of energy is released.
  • Such released energy is then used for other metabolic reactions.

Life-Processes-13

Respiration in Plants

  • Unlike animals and humans, plants do not have any specialized structures for gaseous exchange.
  • They have stomata (present in leaves) and lenticels (present in stems), which are involved in the exchange of gases.
  • Compared to animals, plant roots, stems, and leaves respire at a very lower rate.

Respiration In Plants

To know more about Respiration in Plants, visit here .

Transpiration

Transpiration

  • Transpiration is a biological process in which water is lost in the form of water vapour from the aerial parts of the plants.
  • This process occurs mainly through the stomata, where the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) occurs.
  • Transpiration helps in the transportation of water from roots to the upper parts of plants, and this is explained by the ‘transpirational pull theory’.
  • Loss of water, especially from leaves, acts as a straw effect and pulls water upwards from roots.
  • Transpiration also acts as an excretory mechanism in plants as it helps to get rid of excess water.

To know more about Transpiration, visit here .

Why Do We Need Lungs?

Human Lungs

  • In unicellular organisms like amoeba exchange of gases takes place through a general body surface by osmosis.
  • In lower animals like an earthworm, the gaseous exchange takes place through their moist skin.
  • The requirement for oxygen is sufficiently met in these ways.
  • But as the animal starts becoming more and more complex, for example, humans, the requirement for oxygen cannot be met alone by diffusion.
  • Moreover, diffusion will not be able to supply oxygen to the deep-seated cells.
  • This difficulty has led to the evolution of a more complex mechanism of gaseous exchange, and that is the development of lungs.
  • The alveoli present in the lungs provide a large surface area required for the necessary gas exchange.

For more information on Lungs, watch the video below

short answer questions life processes class 10

Transportation in Human Beings

Transportation.

  • All living organisms need a few necessary components like air, water, and food for their survival.
  • On a regular basis, animals ensure these elements by breathing, drinking and eating.
  • The required elements are transported to their body cells and tissues by a  transportation system.
  • In plants, the vascular tissue is responsible for transporting the substances.

Transportation in Humans

  • Transportation in humans is done by the circulatory system.
  • The circulatory system in humans mainly consists of blood, blood vessels and the heart.
  • It is responsible for the supply of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of carbon dioxide and other excretory products.
  • It also helps to fight infections.

Transportation in Humans

For more information on the Transportation of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide, watch the below video

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Transportation in Animals and Plants, visit here .

  • The muscular organ which is located near the chest, slightly towards the left in the thoracic region.
  • The heart is the main pumping organ of the body.
  • The human heart is divided into four chambers which are involved in the transportation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
  • The upper two chambers are called atria, whereas the lower two chambers are called ventricles.

Life-Processes-14

To know more about Human Heart, visit here .

  • The flow of blood through the heart is as follows:

Life-Processes-15

Blood Vessels

  • Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body.
  • These three types of blood vessels are arteries, veins and blood capillaries.
  • Arteries carry oxygenated blood, and veins carry deoxygenated blood.
  • Gaseous exchange takes place between blood and cells at capillaries.

Difference between Arteries and Veins

Life-Processes-16

Blood Pressure

The pressure exerted by the blood when it flows through the blood vessels is called blood pressure.
  • There are two different variants of blood pressure; systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
  • The pressure exerted on the walls of arteries when the heart is filling with blood is called diastolic pressure. It constitutes the minimum pressure on arteries.
  • The normal range of diastolic blood pressure should be 60 – 80 mm Hg.
  • The pressure exerted on the walls of arteries when the heart is pumping the blood is called systolic pressure. It constitutes the maximum pressure applied to the arteries.
  • The normal range of systolic blood pressure should be 90 – 120 mm Hg.

To know more about Blood Pressure, visit here .

  • Bleeding occurs when the blood vessels rupture.
  • Bleeding is stopped by the platelets that help in the clotting of blood at the site of the injury.
  • Blood Clotting  is the process of forming a clot in order to prevent excess loss of blood from the body.
  • It is a gel-like mass which is formed by the platelets and a fibre-like protein in the blood.

Double Circulation

  • In the human body, blood circulates through the heart twice.
  • Once it goes through the heart during pulmonary circulation and a second time during systemic circulation.
  • Hence, circulation in human beings is called double circulation.

Life-Processes-18

For more information on Human Circulatory System, watch the below video

short answer questions life processes class 10

To know more about Double Circulation, visit here .

Transportation in Plants

  • Transportation is a vital process in plants.
  • The process involves the transportation of water and necessary nutrients to all parts of the plant for its survival.
  • Food and water transportation takes place separately in plants.
  • Xylem transports water, and phloem transports food.

Life-Processes-19

To know more about Transportation in Plants, visit here .

  • The phloem is responsible for the translocation of nutrients and sugar, like carbohydrates, produced by the leaves to areas of the plant that are metabolically active.
  • Sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres, and phloem parenchyma cells are the components of this tissue.
  • The flow of material through the phloem is bidirectional.

Life-Processes-20

Translocation

  • The transport of food in the plant through phloem via a process such as mass flow is called translocation.
  • Photosynthates, i.e. sugars and organic molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, proteins and inorganic solutes like potassium, magnesium, nitrate, calcium, sulfur and iron from source tissues (mature leaves) to the sink cells (areas of growth and storage) are transported through the phloem.
  • Material like sucrose is loaded from leaves to phloem using the energy of ATP.
  • Such a transfer increases the osmotic pressure causing the movement of water from nearby cells into phloem tissue, and the material gets transported through the phloem.
  • The same pressure is also responsible for the transfer of substances from the phloem to tissues where food is required.
  • Thus the bulk flow of material through phloem takes place in response to an osmotically generated pressure difference.

Life-Processes-21

  • Xylem tissue transports water in plants from the root to all other parts of the plant.
  • Xylem tissue is made up of tracheids, vessels, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.
  • The flow of water and minerals through the xylem is always unidirectional.

Life-Processes-22

Root Pressure

  • Conduction of water through the xylem, from roots to upper parts of plants, is due to many forces acting together.
  • One of the forces responsible for this is root pressure.
  • Root pressure is osmotic pressure within the cells of a root system that causes sap to rise through a plant stem to the leaves.
  • Root pressure helps in the initial transport of water up the roots.

To know more about Root Pressure, visit here .

Transport of Water

  • Water is absorbed by the roots and is transported by the xylem to the upper parts of the plant.
Imbibition, osmosis, root pressure and transpiration are the forces that contribute towards the upward movement of water, even in the tallest plants.
  • Imbibition is a process in which water is absorbed by solids. E.g. seeds take up water when soaked.
  • Osmosis is a process where water moves from the area of its lower concentration to the area of its higher concentration.
  • At the roots, the cells take up ions by an active process, and this results in the difference in concentration of these ions.
  • It leads to the movement of water, in the root cells, by osmosis.
  • This creates a continuous column of water that gets pushed upwards. This is root pressure.
  • Transpiration contributes to the upward movement of water by creating a staw effect.
  • It pulls the water column upwards as there is a continuous loss of water from leaves.
  • All these forces act together for water transport through the xylem

Excretion in Humans

Excretion is the process of removal of metabolic waste material and other non-useful substances.
  • Organisms like animals have an advanced and specialized system for excretion.
  • But plants lack a well-developed excretory system like that in animals.
  • They do not have special organs for excretion, and thus excretion in plants is not so complex.

Excretion in Unicellular Organisms

  • In unicellular organisms such as amoeba and bacteria, the waste product is removed by simple diffusion through the general body surface.
  • Unicellular organisms like the amoeba and paramecium excrete excess through tiny organelles called contractile vacuoles.
  • Undigested food in unicellular animals is excreted when the food vacuole merges with the general body surface and opens to the outside.

Excretory System of Humans

  • a pair of kidneys,
  • a pair of ureters,
  • a urinary bladder and
  • It produces urine as a waste product.

Life-Processes-24

To know more about Human Excretory System, visit here .

  • Paired kidneys are the main excretory organs of the body.
  • They are basically the filtration units of the human body.
  • Each kidney is made up of many tiny filtration units called nephrons .
  • Filtering waste materials, medications, and toxic substances from the blood.
  • Regulation of osmolarity, i.e. the fluid balance of the body.
  • Regulation of ion concentration in the body.
  • Regulation of pH.
  • Regulation of extracellular fluid volume.
  • Secreting hormones that help produce red blood cells promotes bone health and regulates blood pressure.
Nephrons are the structural and functional unit of kidney.
  • Each kidney has millions of nephrons, and it forms the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
  • Each nephron has two parts: The malpighian body and the renal tubule.
  • The malpighian body is made up of a cup-like structure called Bowman’s capsule, which encloses a bunch of capillaries called the glomerulus.
  • They together filter waste materials along with many useful substances.
  • The renal tubule has regions called a proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule.
  • These regions absorb useful substances back into the blood and also filter the remaining waste substances.
  • The output from nephrons is called urine.

Life-Processes-25

Haemodialysis

  • When the kidneys fail, it results in a lot of complications, and to compensate for this situation, a technology called dialysis has been developed.
  • It uses a machine filter called a dialyzer or artificial kidney.
  • This is to remove excess water and salt, balance other electrolytes in the body and remove waste products of metabolism.
  • Blood from the body is removed and flows through a series of tubes made up of a semipermeable membrane.
  • A dialysate flows on the other side of the membrane, which draws impurities through the membrane.

Life Processes-26

Excretion in Plants

  • Cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and other metabolic reactions produce a lot of excretory products in plants.
  • Carbon dioxide, excess water produced during respiration and nitrogenous compounds produced during protein metabolism are the major excretory products in plants.
  • Plants produce two gaseous waste products, i.e. oxygen during photosynthesis and carbon dioxide during respiration.
  • The excretion of gaseous waste in plants takes place through stomatal pores on leaves.
  • Oxygen released during photosynthesis is used for respiration, while carbon dioxide released during respiration is used for photosynthesis.
  • Excess water is excreted by transpiration.
  • Organic by-products generated by the plant are stored in different forms in different parts.
  • The gums, oils, latex, resins, etc., are some waste products stored in plant parts like bark, stems, leaves, etc.
  • Eventually, plants shed off these parts.
  • A few examples of the excretory products of plants are oil produced from oranges, eucalyptus, jasmine, latex from the rubber tree, papaya tree, and gums from acacia.
  • Sometimes plants even excrete into the soil.

Life-Processes-27

To know more about Excretion in Plants, visit here .

Also Check:

  • CBSE Class 10 Chapter 5 Periodic Classification of Elements Notes
  • CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 7 Control and Coordination Notes
  • NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes
  • NCERT Exemplar Class 10 Science Solutions for Chapter 6 – Life Processes
  • Real Numbers Class 10 Notes: Chapter 1
  • CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 – The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

Frequently Asked Questions on Life Processes

The instrument used for measuring blood pressure is called a.

A sphygmomanometer is an instrument used for measuring blood pressure.

The phloem tissue in plants is responsible for doing which function?

Phloem is a vascular tissue that is responsible for the transport of substances in plants.

Why aerobic respiration produces more usable chemical energy than fermentation?

Aerobic respiration produces more usable chemical energy in the form of ATPs than fermentation because aerobic respiration involves the complete oxidation of glucose and the release of carbon dioxide and water as end products.

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  1. Life Processes Class 10: Important Questions & Answers

    short answer questions life processes class 10

  2. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

    short answer questions life processes class 10

  3. Life Processes Worksheet Class 10

    short answer questions life processes class 10

  4. Life Processes

    short answer questions life processes class 10

  5. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Life Processes

    short answer questions life processes class 10

  6. CBSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Questions and

    short answer questions life processes class 10

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  1. 3 Most Difficult Questions From The Chapter Life Processes #cbse2024 #class10th #vedantuclass10

  2. Life Processes

  3. Most Important Questions from Life Processes

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  1. Important Question for Class 10 Science Life Processes

    Important Questions of Life Processes Class 10 Science Chapter 6. Question 1. Most of the digestion and absorption of the food takes place in the. (a) small intestine. (b) liver. (c) stomach. (d) large intestine. (2020) Answer: (a) small intestine.

  2. Life Processes Class 10 Extra Questions with Answers ...

    Answer: The factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis are light, water, temperature and carbon dioxide. Question 5. Define photolysis. Answer: The phenomenon of breaking down of water molecule using solar energy absorbed by chlorophyll molecules is known as photolysis. Question 6. Define light reaction. Answer:

  3. Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Science

    Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Long Answer Type. Question 1. Draw the diagram of sectional view of human heart and on it name and label the following parts: (a) The chamber of the heart that pumps out deoxygenated blood. (b) The blood vessel that carries away oxygenated blood from the heart.

  4. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

    Explain the concept of Aerobic respiration covered in Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science. 1. The process occurs in the presence of oxygen. 2. CO 2, water and energy are the products of aerobic respiration. 3. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm first step, followed by mitochondria in the second step.

  5. CBSE Class 10 Biology Chapter 6 Life Processes Important Questions and

    Following questions consist of two statements - Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Answer these questions selecting the appropriate option given below: (a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct ...

  6. CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Important ...

    Ans: Life processes are important for healthy living. Life processes such as respiration, digestion, absorption, assimilation, and excretion are vital for all living organisms. The processes may differ from one organism to another. Students of Class 10 science will learn about the different life processes in Chapter 6.

  7. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

    Answer. The following raw materials are required for photosynthesis: → Carbon Dioxide: Plants get CO 2 from atmosphere through stomata. → Water: Plants absorb water from soil through roots and transport to leaves. → Sunlight: Sunlight, which is absorbed by the chlorophyll and other green parts of the plant. 3.

  8. PDF Important Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

    Important Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 - Life Processes Very Short Answer Questions 1 Mark 1. Amoeba shows following kind of nutrition - (a) autotrophic (b) holozoick (c) saprotrophic (d) parasitic Ans: The nutrition shown by Amoeba is (b) holozoic. 2. The process by which blood is cleared of metabolic wastes in case of kidney ...

  9. Life Processes Class 10 Science Extra Questions with Answers

    Life Processes Class 10 Science Extra Questions with Answers. Question 1: Mention the raw materials required for photosynthesis. Answer: The following raw materials are required for photosynthesis: (i) Carbon Dioxide: Plants get CO 2 from atmosphere through stomata. (ii)Water: Plants absorb water from soil through roots and transport to leaves.

  10. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Life Processes

    NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Exercise Questions. Question 1: The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for. (a) nutrition. (b) respiration. (c) excretion. (d) transportation. Answer: (c) excretion. Question 2: The xylem in plants are responsible for. (a) transport of water.

  11. Important Questions For Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

    Important Questions For Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes are given here. Check out these questions to be able to prepare more effectively for the exams.

  12. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes

    The Class 10 NCERT Solutions for Science Chapter 6 Life Processes includes all the intext and exercise questions. Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes NCERT questions and answers help students to clear their doubts and to obtain good marks in Class 10 board exam. All the solutions provided in this article are strictly based on the CBSE ...

  13. Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions and Answers

    Answer: Xylem transports water and minerals in plants from roots up to the stem to the leaves. Phloem vessels transports soluble products of photosynthesis i.e., sucrose to plant's growing and storage regions. 23. Draw a labelled diagram of sectional view of human heart of human digestive system. Answer: Important Questions for Class 10 ...

  14. Life Processes Class 10 Science Important Questions

    These solved questions for Life Processes have been prepared based on the latest CBSE, NCERT and KVS syllabus and books issued for the current academic year. We have provided important examination questions for Class 10 Science all chapters. Class 10 Science Life Processes Important Questions. Very Short Answer Type Questions : Question.

  15. Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Science Chapter 6

    Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions Long Answer Type. Question 1. (a) Draw a diagram depicting human alimentary canal and label on it gall bladder, liver and pancreas. (b) State the roles of liver and pancreas. (i) Absorption of digested food. (ii) Absorption of water.

  16. Life Processes Class 10 Important Questions for Board Exam

    Refer to the below CBSE Class 10 Science chapter 6 important MCQ-based questions and try to solve the questions: Q1. Identify the correct path of urine in the human body. (a) Kidney → urinary bladder → urethra → ureter. (b) Urinary bladder → ureter → kidney → urethra. (c) Kidney → ureter → urethra → urinary bladder.

  17. Life Processes Class 10: Important Questions & Answers

    Important Questions and Answers. Session. 2023-24. Q. No. 1) Multiple Choice Questions: i. The labeling for the slide of leaf peel showing stomata by a group of four students who made the diagram and tabulated the labels as follows: Choose the correct combination of plots provided in the following table. X.

  18. CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes

    CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 6 Life Processes. Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes Notes Introduction Nutrition Respiration Transportation in Human Beings Transportation in Plants Excretion in Humans Frequently Asked Questions on Life Processes. According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 5.

  19. Life Processes Class 10 Extra Questions with Answers Science Chapter 6

    Extra Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Very Short Answer Type. Question 1. What will happen to a plant if its xylem is removed? [CBSE 2009] Answer: Xylem helps in the transport of water and minerals to the various parts of the plant. If xylem is removed it would ultimately lead to the death of the plant.

  20. Short Answer Questions: Life Processes

    The "Short Answer Questions: Life Processes Class 10 Questions" guide is a valuable resource for all aspiring students preparing for the Class 10 exam. It focuses on providing a wide range of practice questions to help students gauge their understanding of the exam topics.