What this handout is about.
This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.
Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.
Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.
Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.
Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.
Strategies for writing an effective conclusion
One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:
- Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
- Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
- Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.
Strategies to avoid
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
- Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
- Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Four kinds of ineffective conclusions
- The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
- The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
- The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.
Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .
Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.
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Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide
Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 13, 2023.
- Restate the problem statement addressed in the paper
- Summarize your overall arguments or findings
- Suggest the key takeaways from your paper
The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .
Table of contents
Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.
The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.
While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.
For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:
Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:
“In conclusion …”
Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.
Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.
Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.
Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments
In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.
Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.
Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.
Empirical paper: Summarize your findings
In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.
Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.
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Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.
Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement
An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?
If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.
Empirical paper: Future research directions
In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.
Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .
Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.
Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
- Argumentative paper
- Empirical paper
While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.
As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.
If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.
- Do they understand from your conclusion what your research was about?
- Are they able to summarize the implications of your findings?
- Can they answer your research question based on your conclusion?
You can also get an expert to proofread and feedback your paper with a paper editing service .
The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:
- A restatement of the research problem
- A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
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How to write a conclusion to an essay
Which do you think count more: first impressions or last impressions?
A conclusion is the last impression that a reader will have of your essay: make it count!
Introduction to writing a conclusion
A conclusion is the final idea left with the reader at the end of an essay. Without it, an essay would be unfinished and unfocused.
A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression.
A conclusion often includes a final thought or reflection to highlight the significance of the topic . It is usually a short paragraph.
Video about how to reflect on your main points in a conclusion
Reflecting on the argument.
Before you write your conclusion, it is a good idea for you to look again at your ideas in the essay. It can be particularly useful to re-read your introduction and think about what you have realised and explored as you wrote the essay. Your conclusion can then sum up what you have understood more deeply about the literature text and the essay topic.
If you think of your essay as a type of argument, persuading the reader to a particular point of view, then the conclusion can be a powerful way of bringing together the most important aspects of your argument.
Which of these statements is not true?
a) A conclusion brings together lots of new ideas to interest the reader.
b) A conclusion brings together the ideas already discussed in the essay.
c) A conclusion is important because it brings together what you understand about the text and topic.
Answer a) A conclusion is not the moment to introduce new ideas!
Drawing your essay to a close
Link back to the question.
Keep your conclusion focused by linking back to the question, title, statement or topic of the essay. This can be achieved by using key words from the essay question. For example:
Why is Jack an important character in the novel Lord of the Flies ?
In conclusion, the character of Jack is important because he represents the violent side of human nature in the novel.
Summarise the main points
In the conclusion, you should not simply repeat what you have said in the rest of the essay, but aim to reinforce these key ideas by briefly summarising your main points. One way to do this is to look back at all the topic sentences from the paragraphs in your essay and bring them together:
In conclusion, the character of Jack is important because he symbolises violence and savagery in the novel. His desire for power and increasing bloodlust represent the negative side of human nature. He is a charismatic character who is feared by the other boys on the island. He therefore acts as an important contrast to the character of Ralph.
Your conclusion should leave the reader thinking about the significance of the whole topic. So, in a literature essay, it is a good idea to include a final thought or reflection, perhaps one that looks forward, or outwards from the novel. For example:
At the end of the novel Jack’s reign of terror ends with the arrival of the British Naval Officer and this perhaps leaves the reader with some sense of optimism that human beings can change for the better when they are no longer frightened and under the power of an evil leader.
Which links back to the question?
Which of the following concluding sentences clearly links back to this question: How is the character important in the novel?
a) In the novel, the main character changes from being selfish and angry to being caring and happy. b) Overall, this character is important in the novel because they learn the most important life lesson: look after others not just yourself. c) The novel is a ghost story and the sinister setting of the orphanage adds to the horror.
Answer: b) ‘Overall, this character is important in the novel because they learn the most important life lesson: look after others not just yourself.’ Key words in the title ‘character’ and ‘important’ have been used to link the conclusion back to the essay question.
Useful sentence starters
You could use one of the following sentence starters to signal to the reader that you are concluding the essay:
- In conclusion…
- In summary…
What to avoid
- Avoid including any new points or ideas.
- Avoid making your conclusion too long.
- Avoid lots of repetition.
The conclusion is an important way to wrap up your ideas. Without a conclusion, your writing may seem unfinished or your overall aim may not be clear. The conclusion is your final chance to leave an impression on the reader.
Test your knowledge
Writing in response to fiction, how to use evidence from a text, how to write an essay, how to write an introduction to an essay.
How to Write a Reflective Essay
You’re probably used to responding to different sources in essays. For example, in an academic essay, you might compare two books’ themes, argue for or against a position, analyze a piece of literature, or persuade the reader with facts and statistics.
In one way, a reflective essay is similar to an academic essay. Like an academic essay, a reflective essay can discuss ideas and concepts from books, literature, essays, or articles. However, unlike an academic essay, it focuses on how your personal experience relates to these things.
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What is a reflective essay?
Reflective essays are a type of personal essay in which the writer examines a topic through the lens of their unique perspective. Reflective essays are more subjective about their subjects than an academic essay, use figurative language, and don’t require academic sources. The purpose of a reflective essay is to explore and share the author’s thoughts, perspectives, and experiences.
Reflective essays are often written for college applications and cover letters as a way for the writer to discuss their background and demonstrate how these experiences shaped them into an ideal candidate. For example, a college applicant might write a reflective essay about how moving every few years because of their parent’s military service impacted their concept of home.
Sometimes, reflective essays are academic assignments. For example, a student may be assigned to watch a film or visit a museum exhibition and write a reflective essay about the film or exhibition’s themes. Reflective essays can also be pieces of personal writing, such as blog posts or journal entries.
Reflective essay vs. narrative essay
There are a few similarities between reflective essays and narrative essays. Both are personal pieces of writing in which the author explores their thoughts about their experiences. But here’s the main difference: While a narrative essay focuses on a story about events in the author’s life, a reflective essay focuses on the changes the author underwent because of those events. A narrative essay has many of the same elements as a fictional story: setting, characters, plot, and conflict. A reflective essay gets granular about the circumstances and changes driven by the conflict and doesn’t necessarily aim to tell a full story.
Reflective essays based on academic material
You might be assigned to write a reflective essay on an academic text, such as an essay, a book, or an article. Unlike a reflective essay about your own personal experiences, this type of reflective essay involves analysis and interpretation of the material. However, unlike in an analytical essay , the position you support is informed by your own opinion and perspective rather than solely by the text.
How to choose a topic
A reflective essay can be about any topic. By definition, a reflective essay is an essay where the writer describes an event or experience (or series of events or experiences) and then discusses and analyzes the lessons they derived from their experience. This experience can be about anything , whether big life events like moving to a new country or smaller experiences like trying sushi for the first time. The topic can be serious, lighthearted, poignant, or simply entertaining.
If your reflective essay is for an assignment or an application, you might be given a topic. In some cases, you might be given a broad area or keyword and then have to develop your own topic related to those things. In other cases, you might not be given anything. No matter which is the case for your essay, there are a few ways to explore reflective essay ideas and develop your topic.
Freewriting is a writing exercise where you simply write whatever comes to mind for a fixed period of time without worrying about grammar or structure or even writing something coherent. The goal is to get your ideas onto paper and explore them creatively, and by removing the pressure to write something submittable, you’re giving yourself more room to play with these ideas.
Make a mind map
A mind map is a diagram that shows the relationships between ideas, events, and other words related to one central concept. For example, a mind map for the word book might branch into the following words: fiction , nonfiction , digital , hardcover . Each of these words then branches to subtopics. These subtopics further branch to subtopics of their own, demonstrating just how deep you can explore a subject.
Creating a mind map can be a helpful way to explore your thoughts and feelings about the experience you discuss in your essay.
You can find inspiration for a reflective essay from any part of your life. Think about an experience that shifted your worldview or dramatically changed your daily routine. Or you can focus on the smaller, even mundane, parts of life like your weekly cleaning routine or trips to the grocery store. In a reflective essay, you don’t just describe experiences; you explore how they shape you and your feelings.
Reflective essay outline
A reflective essay’s introduction paragraph needs to include:
- A thesis statement
The hook is the sentence that catches the reader’s attention and makes them want to read more. This can be an unexpected fact, an intriguing statistic, a left-field observation, or a question that gets the reader’s mind thinking about the essay’s topic.
The thesis statement is a concise statement that introduces the reader to the essay’s topic . A thesis statement clearly spells out the topic and gives the reader context for the rest of the essay they’re about to read.
These aren’t all the things that a reflective essay’s introduction needs, however. This paragraph needs to effectively introduce the topic, which often means introducing a few of the ideas discussed in the essay’s body paragraphs alongside the hook and thesis statement.
Your essay’s body paragraphs are where you actually explore the experience you’re reflecting on. You might compare experiences, describe scenes and your emotions following them, recount interactions, and contrast it with any expectations you had beforehand.
Unless you’re writing for a specific assignment, there’s no required number of body paragraphs for your reflective essay. Generally, authors write three body paragraphs, but if your essay needs only two—or it needs four or five—to fully communicate your experience and reflection, that’s perfectly fine.
In the final section, tie up any loose ends from the essay’s body paragraphs. Mention your thesis statement in the conclusion, either by restating it or paraphrasing it. Give the reader a sense of completion by including a final thought or two. However, these thoughts should reflect statements you made in the body paragraphs rather than introduce anything new to the essay. Your conclusion should also clearly share how the experience or events you discussed affected you (and, if applicable, continue to do so).
6 tips for writing a reflective essay
1 choose a tone.
Before you begin to write your reflective essay, choose a tone . Because a reflective essay is more personal than an academic essay, you don’t need to use a strict, formal tone. You can also use personal pronouns like I and me in your essay because this essay is about your personal experiences.
2 Be mindful of length
Generally, five hundred to one thousand words is an appropriate length for a reflective essay. If it’s a personal piece, it may be longer.
You might be required to keep your essay within a general word count if it’s an assignment or part of an application. When this is the case, be mindful to stick to the word count—writing too little or too much can have a negative impact on your grade or your candidacy.
3 Stay on topic
A reflective essay reflects on a single topic. Whether that topic is a one-off event or a recurring experience in your life, it’s important to keep your writing focused on that topic.
4 Be clear and concise
In a reflective essay, introspection and vivid imagery are assets. However, the essay’s language should remain concise , and its structure should follow a logical narrative.
5 Stay professional
Although you aren’t bound to a formal tone, it’s generally best to use a professional tone in your reflective writing. Avoid using slang or overly familiar language, especially if your reflective essay is part of a college or job application .
Before you hit “send” or “submit,” be sure to proofread your work. For this last read-through, you should be focused on catching any spelling or grammatical mistakes you might have missed.
Reflective essay FAQs
Reflective essays are a type of personal essay that examines a topic through the lens of thewriter’s unique perspective. They are more subjective about their subjects than an academic essay, use figurative language, and don’t require academic sources.
What’s the difference between a reflective essay and a narrative essay?
While a reflective essay focuses on its author’s feelings and perspectives surrounding events they’ve experienced or texts they’ve read, a narrative essay tells a story. A narrative essay might show changes the author underwent through the same conventions a fictional story uses to show character growth; a reflective essay discusses this growth more explicitly and explores it in depth.
What are example topics for a reflective essay?
- Moving abroad and adapting to the local culture
- Recovering from an athletic injury
- Weekly phone conversations with your grandmother
- The funniest joke you ever heard (and what made it so funny)
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How to Start a Conclusion
Last Updated: April 12, 2023 References
This article was co-authored by Diane Stubbs . Diane Stubbs is a Secondary English Teacher with over 22 years of experience teaching all high school grade levels and AP courses. She specializes in secondary education, classroom management, and educational technology. Diane earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Delaware and a Master of Education from Wesley College. This article has been viewed 149,342 times.
A persuasive essay, literary analysis, or research paper should include a thoughtful introduction and conclusion. The conclusion, when written correctly, gives the reader a summary and insights into the reasons for the subject's importance. You may also need to deliver a speech or presentation which needs a good conclusion. Many of the same principles apply, but you should tailor your conclusion carefully.
Things You Should Know
- For an essay, start with a transition sentence that references the original question, avoiding phrases like "in conclusion."
- Go beyond a simple summary, exploring how every point in your essay connects and the significance of your essay question.
- In a presentation, indicate that you’re finishing up and return to the initial question, giving a summary with enthusiasm and conviction.
Writing Template and Sample Conclusion
Writing a Conclusion for an Essay or Paper
- To help you achieve this fluency, you should start with a sentence that links the conclusion to the main body of the text.  X Research source
- This might be a statement that reflects the content of your essay but connects your essay to the wider points that your conclusion will then go on to briefly discuss.
- The sentence "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement permeates this poem", indicates a transition to the conclusion by articulating the key argument in one sentence.
- For example, what if the essay question asks you "to what extent did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of the Second World War"?
- Here, you could begin with a sentence such as "The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII, but did not in itself turn the tide of the war".
- A short summary can be useful in a longer essay, but do not simply restate what you have said in the same terms.  X Research source
- Rather, indicate your key points while situating them within a larger context, which displays a deeper understanding and potentially opens up new lines of inquiry.
- In your conclusion structure, this discussion of the broader implications should follow the transition sentences and the explanation of how the different elements of your argument fit together.  X Research source
- This could include universalizing the topic of essay, making a connection to a contemporary issue, or providing a call to action.
Concluding a Presentation or Speech
- Phrases such as "in conclusion", and "to summarise", which you wouldn't use in a written essay, can be useful for a spoken presentation.
- Indicating that you are about to conclude will encourage your listeners to focus on what you are about to say.  X Research source
- For example, you could ask yourself the main question at the start of the conclusion. "So, how do I suggest we improve our sales in the Mid-West?" before going on provide a summary of your key points.
- Generally, listening to a presentation will be more passive than reading an essay, so it is more beneficial to summarise your key points in the conclusion of a spoken presentation.
- The last things your audience hear will most likely be what they take away with them, so be sure all your key points are covered in the conclusion.
- You might also include a short anecdote that supports your argument and acts as a call to action to the other people in the room.
- A strong ending can make a personal connection with the audience, by demonstrating how you can resolve a problem for the audience member.  X Research source
- Using an action verb in your final sentence can highlight exactly how you want your audience to respond.
- For example, when John F. Kennedy said, "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do or your country," he was encouraging action from the audience.  X Research source
- Finishing this way both demonstrates your personal conviction and indicates that you think your ideas should be followed up.
You Might Also Like
- ↑ http://www.writing.ucsb.edu/faculty/donelan/concl.html
- ↑ http://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html
- ↑ http://www.businessinsider.com/worst-ways-to-end-a-presentation-2014-7
- ↑ http://www.ethos3.com/2014/12/the-best-way-to-end-a-professional-presentation/
About This Article
To start a conclusion for an essay, begin with a reference to the original question. If, for example, the essay question asks “How did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of WWII?”, start with “The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII.” Additionally, start your conclusion in a natural way, without obvious transitions like "In conclusion." For example, begin with "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement..." instead of, "In conclusion, a sense of the impermanence.." For more advice from our English reviewer, including how to write a conclusion for a presentation or speech, keep reading. Did this summary help you? Yes No
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17 Essay Conclusion Examples (Copy and Paste)
Essay conclusions are not just extra filler. They are important because they tie together your arguments, then give you the chance to forcefully drive your point home.
In an argumentative essay, it’s important to restate the thesis statement and key for and against arguments. For a descriptive essay, restate your key points to demonstrate your depth of knowledge and understanding, and capacity to deeply analyze a topic.
Below are a range of copy-and-paste essay conclusions with gaps for you to fill-in your topic and key arguments. Browse through for one you like (there are 17 for argumentative, expository, compare and contrast, and critical essays). Once you’ve found one you like, copy it and add-in the key points to make it your own.
P.S If you don’t know the difference between the types of essays, start with my article on the differences between argumentative and expository essays .
Video: How to Write a Conclusion
I’ve previously produced this video (below) on how to write a conclusion. It follows the 5 C’s method ( you can read about it in this post ), which doesn’t perfectly match each of the below copy-and-paste conclusion examples, but the principles are similar, and can help you to write your own strong conclusion:
Essay Conclusion Examples
1. argumentative essay conclusions.
The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of _____________. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as ____________, it remains clear that the benefits/merits of _____________ far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support _____________. In the coming years, _____________ will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for _____________.
Version 1 Filled-In
The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of fighting climate change. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as the claim that it is too late to stop catastrophic change, it remains clear that the merits of taking drastic action far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support the claim that we can at least mitigate the worst effects. In the coming years, intergovernmental worldwide agreements will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for humankind.
As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding _____________ is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that _____________, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that _____________. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that _____________ not only leads to ____________, but it may also be a necessity for _____________. Moving forward, _____________ should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for _____________. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate _____________ more effectively into society.
Version 2 Filled-In
As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding climate change is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that we should fight climate change, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that action can mitigate the worst effects. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that strong action not only leads to better economic outcomes in the long term, but it may also be a necessity for preventing climate-related deaths. Moving forward, carbon emission mitigation should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for all. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate smart climate policies more effectively into society.
Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that _____________ holds the potential to significantly alter/improve _____________. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for _____________. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that _____________ presents the most effective solution/approach to _____________. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of _____________ for developing a better _____________. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including _____________.
Version 3 Filled-In
Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that addressing climate change holds the potential to significantly improve the future of society. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for immediate climate action. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that widespread and urgent social action presents the most effective solution to this pressing problem. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of taking immediate action for developing a better environment for future generations. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including more extreme climate events and greater economic externalities.
On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for _____________. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that _____________. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that _____________ is the most sufficient option for _____________. The implications of embracing _____________ do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more _____________. Therefore, the solution of _____________ should be actively pursued by _____________.
Version 4 Filled-In
On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for immediate tax-based action to mitigate the effects of climate change. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that action is urgently necessary. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that taking societal-wide action is the most sufficient option for achieving the best results. The implications of embracing a society-wide approach like a carbon tax do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more healthy future. Therefore, the solution of a carbon tax or equivalent policy should be actively pursued by governments.
2. Expository Essay Conclusions
Overall, it is evident that _____________ plays a crucial role in _____________. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of _____________ on _____________. By understanding the key facts about _____________, practitioners/society are better equipped to navigate _____________. Moving forward, further exploration of _____________ will yield additional insights and information about _____________. As such, _____________ should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on _____________.
Overall, it is evident that social media plays a crucial role in harming teenagers’ mental health. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of social media on young people. By understanding the key facts about the ways social media cause young people to experience body dysmorphia, teachers and parents are better equipped to help young people navigate online spaces. Moving forward, further exploration of the ways social media cause harm will yield additional insights and information about how it can be more sufficiently regulated. As such, the effects of social media on youth should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on youth mental health.
To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of _____________. Through a careful examination of _____________, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on _____________. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that _____________. As research continues to emerge, the importance of _____________ will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of _____________ is not merely desirable, but imperative for _____________.
To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of globalization. Through a careful examination of globalization, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on the economy, cultures, and society. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that globalization has both positive and negative effects. As research continues to emerge, the importance of studying globalization will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of globalization’s effects is not merely desirable, but imperative for judging whether it is good or bad.
Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that _____________ serves a pivotal role in _____________. By delving into the intricacies of _____________, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in _____________. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on _____________. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of _____________ can only deepen and expand.
Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that mass media serves a pivotal role in shaping public opinion. By delving into the intricacies of mass media, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in shaping the media landscape. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on how mass media impacts society. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of mass media’s impacts can only deepen and expand.
In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of _____________ in the context of _____________. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect _____________ has on _____________. The knowledge gained from exploring _____________ will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in _____________. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding _____________ will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of _____________ to better navigate and influence _____________.
In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of bedside manner in the context of nursing. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect compassionate bedside manner has on patient outcome. The knowledge gained from exploring nurses’ bedside manner will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in nursing practice. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding nurses’ bedside manner will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of this topic to better navigate and influence patient outcomes.
3. Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion
While both _____________ and _____________ have similarities such as _____________, they also have some very important differences in areas like _____________. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of _____________ and _____________ has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on _____________. For example, as highlighted in the essay, ____________. Despite their differences, both _____________ and _____________ have value in different situations.
While both macrosociology and microsociology have similarities such as their foci on how society is structured, they also have some very important differences in areas like their differing approaches to research methodologies. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of macrosociology and microsociology has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on the researcher’s perspective on how society works. For example, as highlighted in the essay, microsociology is much more concerned with individuals’ experiences while macrosociology is more concerned with social structures. Despite their differences, both macrosociology and microsociology have value in different situations.
It is clear that _____________ and _____________, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in _____________. On the other hand, their contrasts in _____________ shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to _____________. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to _____________.
It is clear that behaviorism and consructivism, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in their foci on knowledge acquisition over time. On the other hand, their contrasts in ideas about the role of experience in learning shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to which approach works best in which situation. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to student education.
Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that _____________ and _____________ share similarities such as _____________, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in _____________. The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as _____________. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both _____________ and _____________ play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to _____________.
Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that red and orange share similarities such as the fact they are both ‘hot colors’, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in their social meaning (red meaning danger and orange warmth). The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as personal taste. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both red and orange play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to color theory.
Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of _____________ and _____________ have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as _____________ give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, _____________ will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both _____________ and _____________ hold significant value within the context of _____________, and each contributes to _____________ in its own unique way.
Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of driving and flying have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as their differing speed to destination give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, urgency to arrive at the destination will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both driving and flying hold significant value within the context of air transit, and each contributes to facilitating movement in its own unique way.
4. Critical Essay Conclusion
In conclusion, the analysis of _____________ has unveiled critical aspects related to _____________. While there are strengths in _____________, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on _____________, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of _____________ should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.
In conclusion, the analysis of flow theory has unveiled critical aspects related to motivation and focus. While there are strengths in achieving a flow state, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on how humans achieve motivation, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of flow theory of motivation should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.
To conclude, this critical examination of _____________ sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While _____________ presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of _____________. Therefore, future engagements with _____________ should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.
To conclude, this critical examination of postmodern art sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While postmodernism presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of how it has contributed to the arts over the past 50 years. Therefore, future engagements with postmodern art should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.
Upon reflection, the critique of _____________ uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as ________, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of _____________, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of _____________ should be taken into account when considering ____________.
Upon reflection, the critique of marxism uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as its ability to critique exploitation of labor, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of marxism’s harmful effects when used as an economic theory, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of marxism should be taken into account when considering the use of its ideas in real life.
Ultimately, this critique of _____________ offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of _____________ such as __________ are significant, yet its limitations such as _________ are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of _____________ but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around _____________ continue to embrace this balanced approach.
Ultimately, this critique of artificial intelligence offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of artificial intelligence, such as its ability to improve productivity are significant, yet its limitations such as the possibility of mass job losses are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of artificial intelligence but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around the regulation of artificial intelligence continue to embrace this balanced approach.
This article promised 17 essay conclusions, and this one you are reading now is the twenty-first. This last conclusion demonstrates that the very best essay conclusions are written uniquely, from scratch, in order to perfectly cater the conclusion to the topic. A good conclusion will tie together all the key points you made in your essay and forcefully drive home the importance or relevance of your argument, thesis statement, or simply your topic so the reader is left with one strong final point to ponder.
Chris Drew (PhD)
Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education.
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Compare And Contrast Essay Guide
Compare And Contrast Essay Examples
Last updated on: Mar 22, 2023
Good Compare and Contrast Essay Examples For Your Help
By: Barbara P.
Reviewed By: Jacklyn H.
Published on: Mar 22, 2023
Are you ready to challenge your critical thinking skills and take your writing to the next level? Look no further than the exciting world of compare and contrast essays!
As a college student, you'll have the unique opportunity to delve into the details and differences of a variety of subjects. But don't let the pressure of writing the perfect compare-and-contrast essay weigh you down.
To help guide you on this journey, we've got some great compare-and-contrast essay examples. It will make the writing process not only manageable but also enjoyable. So grab a pen and paper, and let's get started on this exciting adventure!
On this Page
Good Compare and Contrast Essay Examples
A compare and contrast essay is all about comparing two subjects. Writing essays is not always easy, but it can be made easier with help from the examples before you write your own first. The examples will give you an idea of the perfect compare-and-contrast essay.
We have compiled a selection of free compare-and-contrast essay examples that can help you structure this type of essay.
SAMPLE COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY INTRODUCTION EXAMPLE
BOOK COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
CITY COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
CATS & DOGS COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
SCIENCE & ART COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
E-BOOKS & HARDBACK BOOKS COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
HOMESCHOOLING BOOKS COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
PARENTING STYLES COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
CONVENTIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY
Don't know how to map out your compare and contrast essay? Visit this link to learn how to perfectly outline your essay!
Compare and Contrast Essay Examples University
Compare and contrast paper is a common assignments for university students. This type of essay tells the reader how two subjects are the same or different from each other. Also, show the points of comparison between the two subjects.
Look at the example that is mentioned below and create a well-written essay.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE UNIVERSITY
Compare and Contrast Essay Examples College
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE COLLEGE
Compare and Contrast Essay Examples High School
Compare and contrast essays are often assigned to high school students to help them improve their analytical skills.
In addition, some teachers assign this type of essay because it is a great way for students to improve their analytical and writing skills.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE HIGH SCHOOL
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE 9TH GRADE
Check out the video below to gain a quick and visual comprehension of what a compare and contrast essay entails.
Compare and Contrast Essay Examples Middle school
In middle school, students have the opportunity to write a compare-and-contrast essay. It does not require an expert level of skills, but it is still a way to improve writing skills.
Middle school students can easily write a compare-and-contrast essay with a little help from examples. We have gathered excellent examples of this essay that you can use to get started.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE MIDDLE SCHOOL
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLES 5TH GRADE
Literary Analysis Compare and Contrast Essay Examples
The perfect way to inform readers about the pros and cons of two subjects is with a comparison and contrast essay.
It starts by stating the thesis statement, and then you explain why these two subjects are being compared in this essay.
The following is an example that you can use for your help.
LITERARY ANALYSIS COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY EXAMPLE
Tough Essay Due? Hire Tough Writers!
Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion Example
The conclusion of an essay is the last part, in which you wrap up everything. It should not include a story but rather summarize the whole document so readers have something meaningful they can take away from it.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST ESSAY CONCLUSION EXAMPLE
Struggling to think of the perfect compare-and-contrast essay topic ? Visit this link for a multitude of inspiring ideas.
Compare and Contrast Essay Writing Tips
A compare and contrast essay presents the facts point by point, and mostly, the argumentative essay uses this compared-contrasted technique for its subjects.
If you are looking for some easy and simple tips to craft a perfectly researched and structured compare and contrast essay, we will not disappoint you.
Following are some quick tips that you can keep in mind while writing your essay:
- Choose the essay topic carefully.
- Research and brainstorm the points that make them similar and different.
- Create and add your main statement and claim.
- Create a Venn diagram and show the similarities and differences.
- Choose the design through which you will present your arguments and claims.
- Create compare and contrast essay outline. Use either the block method or the point-by-point structure.
- Research and add credible supporting evidence.
- Transitioning is also important. Use transitional words and phrases to engage your readers.
- Edit, proofread, and revise the essay before submission.
In conclusion, writing a compare and contrast essay can be an effective way to explore the similarities and differences between two topics. By using examples, it is possible to see the different approaches that can be taken when writing this type of essay.
Whether you are a student or a professional writer, these examples can provide valuable insight to enhance your writing skills. But you still don’t have to take on this challenge alone.
If you don’t feel confident in your writing skills, you can always hire our professional essay writer .
5StarEssays.com offer comprehensive essay writing service for students across the globe. Our experts are highly trained and qualified, making sure all of your essays will meet academic requirements while receiving top grades.
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Frequently Asked Questions
How do i write a compare and contrast essay.
Here are some steps that you should follow and write a great essay.
- Begin by brainstorming with a Venn diagram.
- Create a thesis statement.
- Develop an outline.
- Write the introduction.
- Write the body paragraphs.
- Write the conclusion.
How do you start a compare and contrast essay introduction?
When writing a compare and contrast essay, it is important to have an engaging introduction that will grab the reader's attention. A good way to do this would be by starting with a question or fact related to the topic to catch their interest.
What are some good compare and contrast essay topics?
Here are some good topics for compare and contrast essay:
- E-books or textbooks.
- Anxiety vs. Depression.
- Vegetables and fruits.
- Cinnamon vs. sugar.
- Similarities between cultural and traditional fashion trends.
How long is a compare and contrast essay?
Usually, a compare and contrast essay would consist of five paragraphs but there are no hard and fast rules regarding it. Some essays could be longer than five paragraphs, based on the scope of the topic of the essay.
What are the two methods for arranging a comparison and contrast essay?
The two ways to organize and arrange your compare and contrast essay. The first one is the Point-by-Point method and the second one is the Block method.
Dr. Barbara is a highly experienced writer and author who holds a Ph.D. degree in public health from an Ivy League school. She has worked in the medical field for many years, conducting extensive research on various health topics. Her writing has been featured in several top-tier publications.
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What is an Essay?
10 May, 2020
11 minutes read
Author: Tomas White
Well, beyond a jumble of words usually around 2,000 words or so - what is an essay, exactly? Whether you’re taking English, sociology, history, biology, art, or a speech class, it’s likely you’ll have to write an essay or two. So how is an essay different than a research paper or a review? Let’s find out!
Defining the Term – What is an Essay?
The essay is a written piece that is designed to present an idea, propose an argument, express the emotion or initiate debate. It is a tool that is used to present writer’s ideas in a non-fictional way. Multiple applications of this type of writing go way beyond, providing political manifestos and art criticism as well as personal observations and reflections of the author.
An essay can be as short as 500 words, it can also be 5000 words or more. However, most essays fall somewhere around 1000 to 3000 words ; this word range provides the writer enough space to thoroughly develop an argument and work to convince the reader of the author’s perspective regarding a particular issue. The topics of essays are boundless: they can range from the best form of government to the benefits of eating peppermint leaves daily. As a professional provider of custom writing, our service has helped thousands of customers to turn in essays in various forms and disciplines.
Origins of the Essay
Over the course of more than six centuries essays were used to question assumptions, argue trivial opinions and to initiate global discussions. Let’s have a closer look into historical progress and various applications of this literary phenomenon to find out exactly what it is.
Today’s modern word “essay” can trace its roots back to the French “essayer” which translates closely to mean “to attempt” . This is an apt name for this writing form because the essay’s ultimate purpose is to attempt to convince the audience of something. An essay’s topic can range broadly and include everything from the best of Shakespeare’s plays to the joys of April.
The essay comes in many shapes and sizes; it can focus on a personal experience or a purely academic exploration of a topic. Essays are classified as a subjective writing form because while they include expository elements, they can rely on personal narratives to support the writer’s viewpoint. The essay genre includes a diverse array of academic writings ranging from literary criticism to meditations on the natural world. Most typically, the essay exists as a shorter writing form; essays are rarely the length of a novel. However, several historic examples, such as John Locke’s seminal work “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” just shows that a well-organized essay can be as long as a novel.
The Essay in Literature
The essay enjoys a long and renowned history in literature. They first began gaining in popularity in the early 16 th century, and their popularity has continued today both with original writers and ghost writers. Many readers prefer this short form in which the writer seems to speak directly to the reader, presenting a particular claim and working to defend it through a variety of means. Not sure if you’ve ever read a great essay? You wouldn’t believe how many pieces of literature are actually nothing less than essays, or evolved into more complex structures from the essay. Check out this list of literary favorites:
- The Book of My Lives by Aleksandar Hemon
- Notes of a Native Son by James Baldwin
- Against Interpretation by Susan Sontag
- High-Tide in Tucson: Essays from Now and Never by Barbara Kingsolver
- Slouching Toward Bethlehem by Joan Didion
- Naked by David Sedaris
- Walden; or, Life in the Woods by Henry David Thoreau
Pretty much as long as writers have had something to say, they’ve created essays to communicate their viewpoint on pretty much any topic you can think of!
The Essay in Academics
Not only are students required to read a variety of essays during their academic education, but they will likely be required to write several different kinds of essays throughout their scholastic career. Don’t love to write? Then consider working with a ghost essay writer ! While all essays require an introduction, body paragraphs in support of the argumentative thesis statement, and a conclusion, academic essays can take several different formats in the way they approach a topic. Common essays required in high school, college, and post-graduate classes include:
Five paragraph essay
This is the most common type of a formal essay. The type of paper that students are usually exposed to when they first hear about the concept of the essay itself. It follows easy outline structure – an opening introduction paragraph; three body paragraphs to expand the thesis; and conclusion to sum it up.
These essays are commonly assigned to explore a controversial issue. The goal is to identify the major positions on either side and work to support the side the writer agrees with while refuting the opposing side’s potential arguments.
Compare and Contrast essay
This essay compares two items, such as two poems, and works to identify similarities and differences, discussing the strength and weaknesses of each. This essay can focus on more than just two items, however. The point of this essay is to reveal new connections the reader may not have considered previously.
This essay has a sole purpose – defining a term or a concept in as much detail as possible. Sounds pretty simple, right? Well, not quite. The most important part of the process is picking up the word. Before zooming it up under the microscope, make sure to choose something roomy so you can define it under multiple angles. The definition essay outline will reflect those angles and scopes.
Perhaps the most fun to write, this essay focuses on describing its subject using all five of the senses. The writer aims to fully describe the topic; for example, a descriptive essay could aim to describe the ocean to someone who’s never seen it or the job of a teacher. Descriptive essays rely heavily on detail and the paragraphs can be organized by sense.
The purpose of this essay is to describe an idea, occasion or a concept with the help of clear and vocal examples. “Illustration” itself is handled in the body paragraphs section. Each of the statements, presented in the essay needs to be supported with several examples. Illustration essay helps the author to connect with his audience by breaking the barriers with real-life examples – clear and indisputable.
Being one the basic essay types, the informative essay is as easy as it sounds from a technical standpoint. High school is where students usually encounter with informative essay first time. The purpose of this paper is to describe an idea, concept or any other abstract subject with the help of proper research and a generous amount of storytelling.
This type of essay focuses on describing a certain event or experience, most often chronologically. It could be a historic event or an ordinary day or month in a regular person’s life. Narrative essay proclaims a free approach to writing it, therefore it does not always require conventional attributes, like the outline. The narrative itself typically unfolds through a personal lens, and is thus considered to be a subjective form of writing.
The purpose of the persuasive essay is to provide the audience with a 360-view on the concept idea or certain topic – to persuade the reader to adopt a certain viewpoint. The viewpoints can range widely from why visiting the dentist is important to why dogs make the best pets to why blue is the best color. Strong, persuasive language is a defining characteristic of this essay type.
The Essay in Art
Several other artistic mediums have adopted the essay as a means of communicating with their audience. In the visual arts, such as painting or sculpting, the rough sketches of the final product are sometimes deemed essays. Likewise, directors may opt to create a film essay which is similar to a documentary in that it offers a personal reflection on a relevant issue. Finally, photographers often create photographic essays in which they use a series of photographs to tell a story, similar to a narrative or a descriptive essay.
Drawing the line – question answered
“What is an Essay?” is quite a polarizing question. On one hand, it can easily be answered in a couple of words. On the other, it is surely the most profound and self-established type of content there ever was. Going back through the history of the last five-six centuries helps us understand where did it come from and how it is being applied ever since.
If you must write an essay, follow these five important steps to works towards earning the “A” you want:
- Understand and review the kind of essay you must write
- Brainstorm your argument
- Find research from reliable sources to support your perspective
- Cite all sources parenthetically within the paper and on the Works Cited page
- Follow all grammatical rules
Generally speaking, when you must write any type of essay, start sooner rather than later! Don’t procrastinate – give yourself time to develop your perspective and work on crafting a unique and original approach to the topic. Remember: it’s always a good idea to have another set of eyes (or three) look over your essay before handing in the final draft to your teacher or professor. Don’t trust your fellow classmates? Consider hiring an editor or a ghostwriter to help out!
If you are still unsure on whether you can cope with your task – you are in the right place to get help. HandMadeWriting is the perfect answer to the question “Who can write my essay?”
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Ethical Research Paper Topics
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Art Research Paper Topics
Students obtaining degrees in fine art and art & design programs most commonly need to write a paper on art topics. However, this subject is becoming more popular in educational institutions for expanding students’ horizons. Thus, both groups of receivers of education: those who are into arts and those who only get acquainted with art […]
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How to write a Good Conclusion?
What is the conclusion.
Conclusions are frequently viewed as the most challenging section of an essay to write. They are, nevertheless, one of the most critical components of work because they bring clarity and insight into the subject. We’ll guide you on how to write a conclusion and offer you an outline to utilize in your next essay in this article.
The conclusion section is your last chance to convince your readers to agree with you and to make an impression on them as an expert writer. And the impression you leave with your readers after they’ve finished the essay will be shaped by the impression you leave with them in the conclusion. As a result, the conclusion of an essay should express a sense of completion and end for the subject.
In a research paper, essay, or article, the conclusion is the closing piece of writing that summarizes the entire topic’s efforts. The conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis statement, review the major supporting concepts covered throughout the paper, and give your last thoughts on the central idea. The main idea of your topic should also be included in this final summary. The “so what” is addressed in the conclusion by emphasizing the essay’s argument and providing the reader with a solution and query into the subject matter that supports why they should care.
Outline of the conclusion
- The first sentence
The Thesis statement is rephrased with an original topic sentence.
- Supporting sentences
Summarize the important arguments in the body of the essay
Explain how the concepts fit together.
- Closing sentence
Returns to the beginning
Brings the story to a close
How to write a Conclusion Paragraph?
Every type of writing ends with a conclusion. When a reader reaches the end of your work, a good conclusion paragraph can change their minds, and knowing how to create a complete, interesting conclusion can improve the effectiveness of your writing.
- You’ll leave your reader with a concluding paragraph that “wraps up” your essay.
- It displays to the reader that you have completed what you set out to do
- It explains how you have proven your thesis statement
- It’s the total opposite of the first paragraph of your essay.
- Keep in mind that the starting of your conclusion begins generic and finishes specifically.
How to write a Conclusion for An Essay?
The final paragraph of your paper is the conclusion. A good conclusion tries to tie together the essay’s main ideas, demonstrate why your argument is important, and make a lasting impact on the reader. Your conclusion should provide your argument a sense of closure and completion while simultaneously demonstrating what new issues or possibilities it has raised.
So, if we utilize shapes to show the content of the essay, it would look like this:
- Your thesis statement should be summarized in your topic sentence.
- Rephrase the thesis statement to reflect a new and deeper understanding.
- Your concluding sentences should restate what you’ve already expressed in your essay’s body.
- In the conclusion paragraph, summarize the theme of each body paragraph.
- Your final phrase should make your readers happy that they took the time to read your report.
Knowing how to write a good conclusion is relatively apparent, depending on the length of your essay—you don’t want to simply summarize everything you wrote. Rather, the ending should provide a sense of conclusiveness while also addressing the topic’s meaning and potential.
Here are five crucial points to consider when creating a good conclusion that will stay with the reader:
- Start with a topic sentence . The first sentence in a conclusion should always be a topic sentence. Restating your opening paragraph’s thesis in the first line of your conclusion is a good method to remind the reader of the main topic.
- As a starting point, refer to your introduction paragraph . The thesis statement from your introduction, as well as supporting points, emotional request, and final impression, should all be included in the conclusion paragraph. When writing your conclusion, use the introduction as a guide, but don’t rewrite it with different wording.
- Write a summary of the important points . Effective conclusions will repeat the most appropriate material in order to summarize the paper’s main point. Because academic essays and research papers can be extensive, a quick overview of all your supporting points should be included in your final paragraph to keep the reader up to date. It’s best not to use new facts, future research, or fresh concepts, as this may cause the reader to become confused.
- Attracts the emotions of the reader . A good conclusion will use emotional language to inspire the reader with a powerful, long-lasting image. Using an emotional attraction to reinforce your main ideas is also a good idea.
- Finish with a sentence . Your concluding line should wrap up your entire work with a synthesis of important details. Write your concluding argument concisely and clearly, giving the reader closure while also leaving them with a strong feeling of its significance in a greater perspective.
How to write a Research Paper Conclusion?
The conclusion of a research paper is the section that links everything together in a logical manner. A conclusion, as the final section of a research paper, gives a clear explanation of your research’s findings in a way that emphasizes the value of your research.
You can use the stages below to help you start drafting your conclusion:
- Instead of summarizing, synthesize
Restating the Introduction
Changing the reader’s focus.
- Explain the importance of the findings.
Bring your ideas to a close..
Instead of summarizing, Synthesize
Your research paper’s conclusion is not a summary. While a summary can be included in this part, the conclusion is more than just a restatement of your arguments and analysis. Rather than repeating what you discussed in the abstract, introduction, and body of your study, show the reader how the important arguments of your research paper fit together in a logical way.
The way to write the conclusion brings your reader full idea by including the same components you used in your introduction. Retelling the main idea you mentioned in your introduction while establishing a fresh understanding of the issue based on the outcomes of your study that validates your arguments and/or assumptions is an example of how you can restate your introduction.
After bringing readers into your study through your introduction and immersing them in your techniques, analysis, and results, your conclusion serves as a bridge back to the real world. Changing your reader’s focus is a technique to encourage them to implement what they’ve learned from your research study in real life. This approach can also be used to propose a path of action for additional research on a current problem.
Explain the importance of the findings
You might consider the significance of these ideas after presenting the key arguments for your topic. After expressing your key points in your argument, you might discuss how the effects of your topic influence a given result. Similarly, you could provide the conclusions of research or other findings that can help you emphasize the importance of your knowledge.
The motivation for the research is a set of questions. Posing questions to your readers or to the public can assist them in obtaining a new perspective on the topic that they might not have had before reading your conclusion. It could also bring your major points together to form or develop a new idea based on your research.
As you near the end of your conclusion, consider including a call to action or a suggestion that encourages your readers to think about your argument further. This line can also be used to answer any questions that were left unanswered in your paper’s body paragraphs.
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- Ending the Essay: Conclusions
So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.
The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.
To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
- Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
- Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.
To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection, Dubliners , with information about Joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about Joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
- Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes .
- Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise of dehumanization "; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic -- rather than moral or ethical-- terms.
- Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel Ambiguous Adventure , by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible.
Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:
- Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
- Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These phrases can be useful--even welcome--in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
- Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . ."
Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
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Learn about the elements of a successful essay conclusion.
The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn’t fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why your topic is important. A conclusion is more than just "the last paragraph"—it's a working part of the paper. This is the place to push your reader to think about the consequences of your topic for the wider world or for the reader's own life!
A good conclusion should do a few things:
Restate your thesis
Synthesize or summarize your major points
Make the context of your argument clear
Restating Your Thesis
You've already spent time and energy crafting a solid thesis statement for your introduction, and if you've done your job right, your whole paper focuses on that thesis statement. That's why it's so important to address the thesis in your conclusion! Many writers choose to begin the conclusion by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the first sentence of the paragraph, the last sentence, or in between. Here are a few tips for rephrasing your thesis:
Remind the reader that you've proven this thesis over the course of your paper. For example, if you're arguing that your readers should get their pets from animal shelters rather than pet stores, you might say, "If you were considering that puppy in the pet-shop window, remember that your purchase will support 'puppy mills' instead of rescuing a needy dog, and consider selecting your new friend at your local animal shelter." This example gives the reader not only the thesis of the paper, but a reminder of the most powerful point in the argument!
Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. For example, if you've written a paper that targets parents of young children, you can find a way to phrase your thesis to capitalize on that—maybe by beginning your thesis statement with, "As a parent of a young child…"
Don’t repeat your thesis word for word—make sure that your new statement is an independent, fresh sentence!
Summary or Synthesis
This section of the conclusion might come before the thesis statement or after it. Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that:
Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis (usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay).
Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible.
One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important:
Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If so, remind the reader of what he/she should do. If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. (In the above examples, the essay asks the reader to adopt a shelter dog—a specific action.)
Explain why this topic is timely or important. For example, the animal-shelter essay might end with a statistic about the number of pets in shelters waiting for adoption.
Remind the readers of why the topic matters to them personally. For example, it doesn’t matter much if you believe in the mission of animal shelters, if you're not planning to get a dog; however, once you're looking for a dog, it is much more important. The conclusion of this essay might say, "Since you’re in the market for a dog, you have a major decision to make: where to get one." This will remind the reader that the argument is personally important!
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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay
By the time you get to the final paragraph of your paper, you have already done so much work on your essay, so all you want to do is to wrap it up as quickly as possible. You’ve already made a stunning introduction, proven your argument, and structured the whole piece as supposed – who cares about making a good conclusion paragraph?
The only thing you need to remember is that the conclusion of an essay is not just the last paragraph of an academic paper where you restate your thesis and key arguments. A concluding paragraph is also your opportunity to have a final impact on your audience.
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How to write a conclusion paragraph that leaves a lasting impression – In this guide, the team at EssayPro is going to walk you through the process of writing a perfect conclusion step by step. Additionally, we will share valuable tips and tricks to help students of all ages impress their readers at the last moment.
Instead of Intro: What Is a Conclusion?
Before we can move on, let’s take a moment here to define the conclusion itself. According to the standard conclusion definition, it is pretty much the last part of something, its result, or end. However, this term is rather broad and superficial.
When it comes to writing academic papers, a concluding statement refers to an opinion, judgment, suggestion, or position arrived at by logical reasoning (through the arguments provided in the body of the text). Therefore, if you are wondering “what is a good closing sentence like?” – keep on reading.
What Does a Good Conclusion Mean?
Writing a good conclusion for a paper isn’t easy. However, we are going to walk you through this process step by step. Although there are generally no strict rules on how to formulate one, there are some basic principles that everyone should keep in mind. In this section, we will share some core ideas for writing a good conclusion, and, later in the article, we will also provide you with more practical advice and examples.
Here are the core goals a good conclusion should complete:
- “Wrap up” the entire paper;
- Demonstrate to readers that the author accomplished what he/she set out to do;
- Show how you the author has proved their thesis statement;
- Give a sense of completeness and closure on the topic;
- Leave something extra for your reader to think about;
- Leave a powerful final impact on a reader.
Another key thing to remember is that you should not introduce any new ideas or arguments to your paper's conclusion. It should only sum up what you have already written, revisit your thesis statement, and end with a powerful final impression.
When considering how to write a conclusion that works, here are the key points to keep in mind:
- A concluding sentence should only revisit the thesis statement, not restate it;
- It should summarize the main ideas from the body of the paper;
- It should demonstrate the significance and relevance of your work;
- An essay’s conclusion should include a call for action and leave space for further study or development of the topic (if necessary).
How Long Should a Conclusion Be?
Although there are no strict universal rules regarding the length of an essay’s final clause, both teachers and experienced writers recommend keeping it clear, concise, and straight to the point. There is an unspoken rule that the introduction and conclusion of an academic paper should both be about 10% of the overall paper’s volume. For example, if you were assigned a 1500 word essay, both the introductory and final clauses should be approximately 150 words long (300 together).
Why You Need to Know How to End an Essay:
A conclusion is what drives a paper to its logical end. It also drives the main points of your piece one last time. It is your last opportunity to impact and impress your audience. And, most importantly, it is your chance to demonstrate to readers why your work matters. Simply put, the final paragraph of your essay should answer the last important question a reader will have – “So what?”
If you do a concluding paragraph right, it can give your readers a sense of logical completeness. On the other hand, if you do not make it powerful enough, it can leave them hanging, and diminish the effect of the entire piece.
Strategies to Crafting a Proper Conclusion
Although there are no strict rules for what style to use to write your conclusion, there are several strategies that have been proven to be effective. In the list below, you can find some of the most effective strategies with some good conclusion paragraph examples to help you grasp the idea.
One effective way to emphasize the significance of your essay and give the audience some thought to ponder about is by taking a look into the future. The “When and If” technique is quite powerful when it comes to supporting your points in the essay’s conclusion.
Prediction essay conclusion example: “Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children’s requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion in them, we must let our children take care of pets.”
Another effective strategy is to link your conclusion to your introductory paragraph. This will create a full-circle narration for your readers, create a better understanding of your topic, and emphasize your key point.
Echo conclusion paragraph example: Introduction: “I believe that all children should grow up with a pet. I still remember the exact day my parents brought my first puppy to our house. This was one of the happiest moments in my life and, at the same time, one of the most life-changing ones. Growing up with a pet taught me a lot, and most importantly, it taught me to be responsible.” Conclusion:. “I remember when I picked up my first puppy and how happy I was at that time. Growing up with a pet, I learned what it means to take care of someone, make sure that he always has water and food, teach him, and constantly keep an eye on my little companion. Having a child grow up with a pet teaches them responsibility and helps them acquire a variety of other life skills like leadership, love, compassion, and empathy. This is why I believe that every kid should grow up with a pet!”
Finally, one more trick that will help you create a flawless conclusion is to amplify your main idea or to present it in another perspective of a larger context. This technique will help your readers to look at the problem discussed from a different angle.
Step-up argumentative essay conclusion example: “Despite the obvious advantages of owning a pet in childhood, I feel that we cannot generalize whether all children should have a pet. Whereas some kids may benefit from such experiences, namely, by becoming more compassionate, organized, and responsible, it really depends on the situation, motivation, and enthusiasm of a particular child for owning a pet.”
What is a clincher in an essay? – The final part of an essay’s conclusion is often referred to as a clincher sentence. According to the clincher definition, it is a final sentence that reinforces the main idea or leaves the audience with an intriguing thought to ponder upon. In a nutshell, the clincher is very similar to the hook you would use in an introductory paragraph. Its core mission is to seize the audience’s attention until the end of the paper. At the same time, this statement is what creates a sense of completeness and helps the author leave a lasting impression on the reader.
Now, since you now know what a clincher is, you are probably wondering how to use one in your own paper. First of all, keep in mind that a good clincher should be intriguing, memorable, smooth, and straightforward.
Generally, there are several different tricks you can use for your clincher statement; it can be:
- A short, but memorable and attention-grabbing conclusion;
- A relevant and memorable quote (only if it brings actual value);
- A call to action;
- A rhetorical question;
- An illustrative story or provocative example;
- A warning against a possibility or suggestion about the consequences of a discussed problem;
- A joke (however, be careful with this as it may not always be deemed appropriate).
Regardless of the technique you choose, make sure that your clincher is memorable and aligns with your introduction and thesis.
Clincher examples: - While New York may not be the only place with the breathtaking views, it is definitely among my personal to 3… and that’s what definitely makes it worth visiting. - “Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars”, Divine Comedy - Don’t you think all these advantages sound like almost life-saving benefits of owning a pet? “So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.”, The Great Gatsby
Conclusion Writing Don'ts
Now, when you know what tricks and techniques you should use to create a perfect conclusion, let’s look at some of the things you should not do with our online paper writing service :
- Starting with some cliché concluding sentence starters. Many students find common phrases like “In conclusion,” “Therefore,” “In summary,” or similar statements to be pretty good conclusion starters. However, though such conclusion sentence starters may work in certain cases – for example, in speeches – they are overused, so it is recommended not to use them in writing to introduce your conclusion.
- Putting the first mention of your thesis statement in the conclusion – it has to be presented in your introduction first.
- Providing new arguments, subtopics, or ideas in the conclusion paragraph.
- Including a slightly changed or unchanged thesis statement.
- Providing arguments and evidence that belong in the body of the work.
- Writing too long, hard to read, or confusing sentences.
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Conclusion Paragraph Outline
The total number of sentences in your final paragraph may vary depending on the number of points you discussed in your essay, as well as on the overall word count of your paper. However, the overall conclusion paragraph outline will remain the same and consists of the following elements:
- A conclusion starter:
The first part of your paragraph should drive readers back to your thesis statement. Thus, if you were wondering how to start a conclusion, the best way to do it is by rephrasing your thesis statement.
- Summary of the body paragraphs:
Right after revisiting your thesis, you should include several sentences that wrap up the key highlights and points from your body paragraphs. This part of your conclusion can consist of 2-3 sentences—depending on the number of arguments you’ve made. If necessary, you can also explain to the readers how your main points fit together.
- A concluding sentence:
Finally, you should end your paragraph with a last, powerful sentence that leaves a lasting impression, gives a sense of logical completeness, and connects readers back to the introduction of the paper.
These three key elements make up a perfect essay conclusion. Now, to give you an even better idea of how to create a perfect conclusion, let us give you a sample conclusion paragraph outline with examples from an argumentative essay on the topic of “Every Child Should Own a Pet:
- Sentence 1: Starter
- ~ Thesis: "Though taking care of a pet may be a bit challenging for small children. Parents should not restrict their kids from having a pet as it helps them grow into more responsible and compassionate people."
- ~ Restated thesis for a conclusion: "I can say that taking care of a pet is good for every child."
- Sentences 2-4: Summary
- ~ "Studies have shown that pet owners generally have fewer health problems."
- ~ "Owning a pet teaches a child to be more responsible."
- ~ "Spending time with a pet reduces stress, feelings of loneliness, and anxiety."
- Sentence 5: A concluding sentence
- ~ "Pets can really change a child life for the better, so don't hesitate to endorse your kid's desire to own a pet."
This is a clear example of how you can shape your conclusion paragraph.
How to Conclude Various Types of Essays
Depending on the type of academic essay you are working on, your concluding paragraph's style, tone, and length may vary. In this part of our guide, we will tell you how to end different types of essays and other works.
How to End an Argumentative Essay
Persuasive or argumentative essays always have the single goal of convincing readers of something (an idea, stance, or viewpoint) by appealing to arguments, facts, logic, and even emotions. The conclusion for such an essay has to be persuasive as well. A good trick you can use is to illustrate a real-life scenario that proves your stance or encourages readers to take action. More about persuasive essay outline you can read in our article.
Here are a few more tips for making a perfect conclusion for an argumentative essay:
- Carefully read the whole essay before you begin;
- Re-emphasize your ideas;
- Discuss possible implications;
- Don’t be afraid to appeal to the reader’s emotions.
How to End a Compare and Contrast Essay
The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to emphasize the differences or similarities between two or more objects, people, phenomena, etc. Therefore, a logical conclusion should highlight how the reviewed objects are different or similar. Basically, in such a paper, your conclusion should recall all of the key common and distinctive features discussed in the body of your essay and also give readers some food for thought after they finish reading it.
How to Conclude a Descriptive Essay
The key idea of a descriptive essay is to showcase your creativity and writing skills by painting a vivid picture with the help of words. This is one of the most creative types of essays as it requires you to show a story, not tell it. This kind of essay implies using a lot of vivid details. Respectively, the conclusion of such a paper should also use descriptive imagery and, at the same time, sum up the main ideas. A good strategy for ending a descriptive essay would be to begin with a short explanation of why you wrote the essay. Then, you should reflect on how your topic affects you. In the middle of the conclusion, you should cover the most critical moments of the story to smoothly lead the reader into a logical closing statement. The “clincher”, in this case, should be a thought-provoking final sentence that leaves a good and lasting impression on the audience. Do not lead the reader into the essay and then leave them with dwindling memories of it.
How to Conclude an Essay About Yourself
If you find yourself writing an essay about yourself, you need to tell a personal story. As a rule, such essays talk about the author’s experiences, which is why a conclusion should create a feeling of narrative closure. A good strategy is to end your story with a logical finale and the lessons you have learned, while, at the same time, linking it to the introductory paragraph and recalling key moments from the story.
How to End an Informative Essay
Unlike other types of papers, informative or expository essays load readers with a lot of information and facts. In this case, “Synthesize, don’t summarize” is the best technique you can use to end your paper. Simply put, instead of recalling all of the major facts, you should approach your conclusion from the “So what?” position by highlighting the significance of the information provided.
How to Conclude a Narrative Essay
In a nutshell, a narrative essay is based on simple storytelling. The purpose of this paper is to share a particular story in detail. Therefore, the conclusion for such a paper should wrap up the story and avoid finishing on an abrupt cliffhanger. It is vital to include the key takeaways and the lessons learned from the story.
How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab Report
Unlike an essay, a lab report is based on an experiment. This type of paper describes the flow of a particular experiment conducted by a student and its conclusion should reflect on the outcomes of this experiment.
In thinking of how to write a conclusion for a lab, here are the key things you should do to get it right:
- Restate the goals of your experiment
- Describe the methods you used
- Include the results of the experiment and analyze the final data
- End your conclusion with a clear statement on whether or not the experiment was successful (Did you reach the expected results?)
How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper
Writing a paper is probably the hardest task of all, even for experienced dissertation writer . Unlike an essay or even a lab report, a research paper is a much longer piece of work that requires a deeper investigation of the problem. Therefore, a conclusion for such a paper should be even more sophisticated and powerful. If you're feeling difficulty writing an essay, you can buy essay on our service.
However, given that a research paper is the second most popular kind of academic paper (after an essay), it is important to know how to conclude a research paper. Even if you have not yet been assigned to do this task, be sure that you will face it soon. So, here are the steps you should follow to create a great conclusion for a research paper:
- Restate the Topic
Start your final paragraph with a quick reminder of what the topic of the piece is about. Keep it one sentence long.
- Revisit the Thesis
Next, you should remind your readers what your thesis statement was. However, do not just copy and paste it from the introductory clause: paraphrase your thesis so that you deliver the same idea but with different words. Keep your paraphrased thesis narrow, specific, and topic-oriented.
- Summarise Your Key Ideas
Just like the case of a regular essay’s conclusion, a research paper’s final paragraph should also include a short summary of all of the key points stated in the body sections. We recommend reading the entire body part a few times to define all of your main arguments and ideas.
- Showcase the Significance of Your Work
In the research paper conclusion, it is vital to highlight the significance of your research problem and state how your solution could be helpful.
- Make Suggestions for Future Studies
Finally, at the end of your conclusion, you should define how your findings will contribute to the development of its particular field of science. Outline the perspectives of further research and, if necessary, explain what is yet to be discovered on the topic.
Then, end your conclusion with a powerful concluding sentence – it can be a rhetorical question, call to action, or another hook that will help you have a strong impact on the audience.
- Answer the Right Questions
To create a top-notch research paper conclusion, be sure to answer the following questions:
- What is the goal of a research paper?
- What are the possible solutions to the research question(s)?
- How can your results be implemented in real life? (Is your research paper helpful to the community?)
- Why is this study important and relevant?
Additionally, here are a few more handy tips to follow:
- Provide clear examples from real life to help readers better understand the further implementation of the stated solutions;
- Keep your conclusion fresh, original, and creative.
Address to our term paper writers if you need to proofread or rewrite essay.
So, What Is a Good Closing Sentence? See The Difference
One of the best ways to learn how to write a good conclusion is to look at several professional essay conclusion examples. In this section of our guide, we are going to look at two different final paragraphs shaped on the basis of the same template, but even so, they are very different – where one is weak and the other is strong. Below, we are going to compare them to help you understand the difference between a good and a bad conclusion.
Here is the template we used: College degrees are in decline. The price of receiving an education does not correlate with the quality of the education received. As a result, graduated students face underemployment, and the worth of college degrees appears to be in serious doubt. However, the potential social and economic benefits of educated students balance out the equation.
People either see college as an opportunity or an inconvenience; therefore, a degree can only hold as much value as its owner’s skillset. The underemployment of graduate students puts the worth of college degrees in serious doubt. Yet, with the multitude of benefits that educated students bring to society and the economy, the equation remains in balance. Perhaps the ordinary person should consider college as a wise financial investment, but only if they stay determined to study and do the hard work.
Why is this example good? There are several key points that prove its effectiveness:
- There is a bold opening statement that encompasses the two contrasting types of students we can see today.
- There are two sentences that recall the thesis statement and cover the key arguments from the body of the essay.
- Finally, the last sentence sums up the key message of the essay and leaves readers with something to think about.
In conclusion, with the poor preparation of students in college and the subsequent underemployment after graduation from college, the worth associated with the college degree appears to be in serious doubt. However, these issues alone may not reasonably conclude beyond a doubt that investing in a college degree is a rewarding venture. When the full benefits that come with education are carefully put into consideration and evaluated, college education for children in any country still has good advantages, and society should continue to advocate for a college education. The ordinary person should consider this a wise financial decision that holds rewards in the end. Apart from the monetary gains associated with a college education, society will greatly benefit from students when they finish college. Their minds are going to be expanded, and their reasoning and decision making will be enhanced.
What makes this example bad? Here are a few points to consider:
- Unlike the first example, this paragraph is long and not specific enough. The author provides plenty of generalized phrases that are not backed up by actual arguments.
- This piece is hard to read and understand and sentences have a confusing structure. Also, there are lots of repetitions and too many uses of the word “college”.
- There is no summary of the key benefits.
- The last two sentences that highlight the value of education contradict with the initial statement.
- Finally, the last sentence doesn’t offer a strong conclusion and gives no thought to ponder upon.
- In the body of your essay, you have hopefully already provided your reader(s) with plenty of information. Therefore, it is not wise to present new arguments or ideas in your conclusion.
- To end your final paragraph right, find a clear and straightforward message that will have the most powerful impact on your audience.
- Don’t use more than one quote in the final clause of your paper – the information from external sources (including quotes) belongs in the body of a paper.
- Be authoritative when writing a conclusion. You should sound confident and convincing to leave a good impression. Sentences like “I’m not an expert, but…” will most likely make you seem less knowledgeable and/or credible.
Good Conclusion Examples
Now that we've learned what a conclusion is and how to write one let's take a look at some essay conclusion examples to strengthen our knowledge.
The ending ironically reveals that all was for nothing. (A short explanation of the thematic effect of the book’s end) Tom says that Miss Watson freed Jim in her final will.Jim told Huck that the dead man on the Island was pap. The entire adventure seemingly evaporated into nothingness. (How this effect was manifested into the minds of thereaders).
All in all, international schools hold the key to building a full future that students can achieve. (Thesis statement simplified) They help students develop their own character by learning from their mistakes, without having to face a dreadful penalty for failure. (Thesis statement elaborated)Although some say that kids emerged “spoiled” with this mentality, the results prove the contrary. (Possible counter-arguments are noted)
In conclusion, public workers should be allowed to strike since it will give them a chance to air their grievances. (Thesis statement) Public workers should be allowed to strike when their rights, safety, and regulations are compromised. The workers will get motivated when they strike, and their demands are met.
In summary, studies reveal some similarities in the nutrient contents between the organic and non-organic food substances. (Starts with similarities) However, others have revealed many considerable differences in the amounts of antioxidants as well as other minerals present in organic and non-organic foods. Generally, organic foods have higher levels of antioxidants than non-organic foods and therefore are more important in the prevention of chronic illnesses.
As time went by, my obsession grew into something bigger than art; (‘As time went by’ signals maturation) it grew into a dream of developing myself for the world. (Showing student’s interest of developing himself for the community) It is a dream of not only seeing the world from a different perspective but also changing the perspective of people who see my work. (Showing student’s determination to create moving pieces of art)
In conclusion, it is evident that technology is an integral part of our lives and without it, we become “lost” since we have increasingly become dependent on its use. (Thesis with main point)
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Stuck On Your Conclusion?
Hopefully, this guide helped you grasp the general idea of what an essay’s conclusion is and how to write a good one. However, if you are still struggling with making an impactful final clause, do not hesitate to entrust this matter to professionals. The expert writers from EssayPro can help you cope with essay writing and ensure you an excellent grade. Just ask us ' write my essay online ' and we will process your requests asap.
How to write an essay: Conclusion
- What's in this guide
- Essay structure
- Additional resources
The last section of an academic essay is the conclusion . The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments. It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won’t use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question. Then set out your general conclusions , and a short explanation of why they are important.
Finally, draw together the question , the evidence in the essay body, and the conclusion. This way the reader knows that you have understood and answered the question. This part needs to be clear and concise.
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The flash series finale review: a serviceable conclusion with a few emotional highs.
The truncated final season of The Flash stumbled after a strong start, but Grant Gustin's last run as Barry Allen still manages to be a sweet homage.
The Flash season 9 finale had the nearly impossible task of wrapping up the series while also doing justice to a long-awaited villain and honoring beloved characters. But Barry Allen is all about believing in the impossible, and the actors' sincerity ultimately helps the story succeed. The truncated final season stumbled after a strong start due to its reliance on interludes rather than a cohesive series arc, but Grant Gustin's last run as Barry Allen still manages to be a sweet homage to the things and people that made the CW show so iconic in the first place.
“A New World, Part Four,” which was written by showrunner Eric Wallace and Sam Chalsen and directed by Vanessa Parise, opens with Barry's unforgettable voiceover and drops viewers back into what purports to be the team's biggest battle yet. Though the finale also serves as the end of the Arrowverse as a whole, the episode wisely scales back the participants to The Flash 's main characters — though Carlos Valdes' absence as Cisco Ramon is sorely felt. Nevertheless, Rick Cosnett's return as Eddie Thawne continues to make way for callbacks to the show's glory days, and the finale capitalizes on those emotional beats more than once. Candice Patton and Jesse L. Martin also get some beautiful moments, reminding audiences that Iris and Joe's father-daughter bond was once a cornerstone of the series.
On the other hand, The Flash's series finale is still slowed down by its unnecessarily large supporting cast that never really gelled together. It's hard to build excitement for a showdown between Eddie and characters like Mark Blaine, who never justified his continued presence on the show. While the actual battles in “A New World, Part Four” have fun CG elements and act as a showcase for various lightning colors and power sets, they lack the intensity of previous Big Bad standoffs. Even Chester and Allegra's romantic bliss feels unearned, despite the seasons-long slow burn it took to bring them together. The Flash never understood how to give the present its due, failing to build up characters so that they could stand on their own two feet without the leads.
As for the leads themselves, Iris West-Allen is once again robbed of the opportunity to be at the center of proceedings, but Patton makes the most of her hospital scenes. She and Gustin still sparkle in their moments together, and the emotions of welcoming a newborn to the world are keenly expressed by both of them. The impending birth of Nora West-Allen simultaneously represents a respite from the timeline-focused chaos around Barry while also reinforcing that his family is the reason he fights, triumphantly reconnecting the show with its roots in the process. In fact, most of the episode's best scenes take place near Iris' hospital bed — proving once more that The Flash 's strength has always been its character dynamics, which unfortunately fell by the wayside in later seasons.
To the show's credit, however, “A New World, Part Four” does hit some decent notes with both Cecile Horton (Danielle Nicolet) and Danielle Panabaker's latest Snow sister, Khione. Both characters have previously been problematic in terms of how the series chose to employ them, but they close out their stories with a sense of satisfaction. Cecile in particular has been a difficult character to understand once The Flash began treating her as the newest team member rather than as the established matriarch, but her relationship with Joe finally gets spotlighted in a way that makes sense in this episode.
Overall, The Flash may be going out with more of a whimper than a bang, but the season 9 finale successfully uses its available resources to craft a heartfelt farewell to Barry Allen and his crew. Between the touching moments of Barry and Iris reflecting on everything they've been through to much-appreciated appearances from guest star staples such as Jay Garrick, the Arrowverse's swan song is much more sweet than bitter. Regardless of the reception the last few seasons received, the series finale serves as a testament to how Gustin captured so many hearts as the Scarlet Speedster.
Has ChatGPT Rendered Student Essays Obsolete?
Should students even be using ChatGPT?
ChatGPT is a powerful large language model that will pretty much answer almost anything. But because of its power, many students use it to solve their homework, especially essays.
So, has ChatGPT rendered student essays dead? Should educational institutions find a new way to gauge subject competence?
What Is the Purpose of the Student Essay?
According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary , an essay is "an analytic or interpretative literary composition usually dealing with its subject from a limited or personal point of view." And by going through the word's history, we find that essay derives from the old Frech word essai , which itself is from the Latin exagium , which means the act of weighing.
So, by this definition, an essay is a written piece wherein the writer—the student—analyzes or weighs a particular subject. So, in an essay, the writer gathers information on the topic they're covering; then, they'll digest the material and write an argument on their understanding of the case.
Furthermore, the Western Sydney University Library (PDF) states that an essay's purpose is to "persuade the reader that your position is credible (i.e., believable and reasonable)." This means that a student shouldn't just argue their case in an essay, but they should do so in a logical way.
So, for many professors, the student essay is an excellent tool for developing critical thinking. It's also not as taxing for the students since most essays are take-home assignments.
Libraries, Internet Search, and Analytical Thinking vs. ChatGPT
Before the proliferation of the internet, students had to exert double effort to research and write their essays. So, their critical and analytical thinking skills are exercised in multiple ways—searching for related literature to their topic, analysis of existing data, and how they write and present and their learnings.
When online search peaked, research became much easier for students. They no longer had to go through tons of books, magazines, and articles across different libraries—type in some choice keywords and separate the wheat from the chaff in the results.
But even with the faster search results, they still had to use their critical thinking skills to analyze the data and write what they learned. And while it's easier to plagiarize now, as you just have to copy and paste the data from your browser to your word processor, teachers can easily catch this form of cheating.
So, although Google made it easier to write essays, it also meant that students could now access more information than ever before. Because of this, the student essay became a more powerful learning tool.
However, when ChatGPT launched, students discovered it was more than just a research and summarizing tool. ChatGPT uses natural language processing (NLP— what is NLP? ) to understand your search intent, and then it conversationally answers your question.
This is the basic gist of how ChatGPT works : when you ask ChatGPT anything, it doesn't send you to an article or a website. Instead, it goes through all its stored information and recognizes patterns based on what it has learned. From there, it will return an answer it predicts will satisfy your need.
ChatGPT and generative AI generally do not analyze information for you. However, it will deliver results that previous writers have already processed. And, based on your question, it can also give you related results.
AI as a Learning Tool: Harnessing ChatGPT to Improve Understanding
As we've discussed above, AI is a powerful tool for learning. Moreover, because it understands the nuances of language, it can deliver far more accurate results. For example, we asked Google and ChatGPT the following question:
"Was Google Search controversial in the academe when it first launched?"
With Google search, the top three results showed an article about Google Books in The New York Times, Google's Wikipedia page, and an article on The Guardian called "Google, democracy and the truth about internet search."
On the other hand, the free version of ChatGPT gave a comprehensive answer—albeit without sources.
This result shows how AI and ChatGPT can make research faster and easier for students. And although ChatGPT did not reveal its sources, I can use its results as a springboard for further investigation.
In a conversation with my colleagues, one of MUO's writers, Garling Wu , said this about using ChatGPT in the academe:
It would come down to how they are using it. It could be to re-write a paragraph, edit for grammar, or ask it to explain how a concept works and use that text as it is in their essay or paraphrase. In another scenario, you could copy the text you found via research through Google, then ask ChatGPT to summarise the key points.
In short, AI is a powerful learning tool, but it's just a tool nonetheless. Students must still use their critical thinking to produce their final output. So, whether you're a student or a professional, you must ensure that you use ChatGPT ethically—and here are some ways writers and editors can use AI responsibly .
AI as a Cheating Tool: Making Plagiarism Much Easier and Harder to Detect
However, as with any new technology, some students misuse it. Because ChatGPT answers questions by predicting the correct response, it will paraphrase its sources. So, it's tempting for many to copy and paste what ChatGPT regurgitated from the internet.
And because ChatGPT's results are mostly unique, it isn't easy to spot them. And although OpenAI launched a detection tool to counter ChatGPT-generated text, it isn't as effective at detecting them. We've already read a report from The Washington Post where a ChatGPT detector returned a false positive, and The Conversation published a piece on how AI detectors are easily outsmarted.
Garling Wu added this in our conversation about AI:
The problem is, with ChatGPT around, it could be challenging to assess someone's knowledge on a topic using an essay, making the whole point of essays in the first place a bit redundant. Some people could use ChatGPT to understand a topic better, while others will use it to pretend that they learned what a class was teaching, or some mix in between.
Because of this, educators must find ways to make student essays more robust. For example, they can no longer assign general topics—like a book report on The Great Gatsby—because it's easy for students to ask ChatGPT or any other generative AI tool to write it for them.
How Student Essays Need to Evolve to Survive AI
So, how can teachers, professors, and educators change the student essay to make it evolve with AI?
Make the Questions More Pointed or Personal
The biggest thing that generative AI like ChatGPT cannot do is write about personal experience. After all, a student's life isn't generally available online, so generative AI cannot predict that student's life.
Write Essay Questions in the Context of Current Events
The free version of ChatGPT, the most popular generative AI today, is only updated up to September 2021 at the time of writing. So, it would help to ask essay questions relating to events that happened in the past three months.
However, students with access to ChatGPT Plus or GPT-4 get a fully updated version of ChatGPT. So, as part of checking essays, the teacher should also quiz the student on what they wrote.
Students Should Present Their Essays as Reports
Instead of assigning the same topic to all students, educators can give different subjects to students or groups of students. And once they've written or prepared their essay, they could present it to the class.
This ensures that the students are truly knowledgeable in their assigned topic. And to further the discussion, the professor should encourage the student audience to ask questions. This will help the reporting student or group and the rest of the class think analytically.
Essays Should Be Written Offline During Class or Exams
If an essay is the best way to determine a student's understanding of a topic, then it should be limited in the classroom during on-paper exams. That way, the student must rely solely on their knowledge to explain a topic.
Essays Can Still Gauge Student Knowledge and Competence
As previously defined, an essay is designed so students can develop their critical thinking skills and knowledge on a specific topic. And even though ChatGPT can make writing essays easier, it still hasn't made the student essay obsolete.
After all, if a student does not possess the necessary knowledge to defend their essay, it would show. The crux now lies on the educators—they should ask essay questions that make it difficult for students to answer just ChatGPT. Or they should make the essay complex enough to require critical thinking—even with AI.
And if they suspect that a student used AI, they shouldn't automatically fail that student—instead, they should give the student an oral exam based on their essay to gauge their knowledge accurately. After all, if they just used ChatGPT to get a good essay grade, they probably don't understand their output and will fail the oral test.
The First Year of AI College Ends in Ruin
There’s an arms race on campus, and professors are losing.
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O ne hundred percent AI . That’s what the software concluded about a student’s paper. One of the professors in the academic program I direct had come across this finding and asked me what to do with it. Then another one saw the same result— 100 percent AI —for a different paper by that student, and also wondered: What does this mean? I did not know. I still don’t.
The problem breaks down into more problems: whether it’s possible to know for certain that a student used AI, what it even means to “use” AI for writing papers, and when that use amounts to cheating. The software that had flagged our student’s papers was also multilayered: Canvas, our courseware system, was running Turnitin, a popular plagiarism-detection service, which had recently installed a new AI-detection algorithm. The alleged evidence of cheating had emerged from a nesting doll of ed-tech black boxes.
This is college life at the close of ChatGPT’s first academic year: a moil of incrimination and confusion. In the past few weeks, I’ve talked with dozens of educators and students who are now confronting, for the very first time, a spate of AI “cheating.” Their stories left me reeling. Reports from on campus hint that legitimate uses of AI in education may be indistinguishable from unscrupulous ones, and that identifying cheaters—let alone holding them to account—is more or less impossible.
O nce upon a time , students shared exams or handed down papers to classmates. Then they started outsourcing their homework, aided by the internet. Online businesses such as EssayShark (which asserts that it sells term papers for “ research and reference purposes only ”) have professionalized that process. Now it’s possible for students to purchase answers for assignments from a “tutoring” service such as Chegg —a practice that the kids call “chegging.” But when the AI chatbots were unleashed last fall, all these cheating methods of the past seemed obsolete. “We now believe [ChatGPT is] having an impact on our new-customer growth rate,” Chegg’s CEO admitted on an earnings call this month. The company has since lost roughly $1 billion in market value.
Other companies could benefit from the same upheaval. By 2018, Turnitin was already taking more than $100 million in yearly revenue to help professors sniff out impropriety. Its software, embedded in the courseware that students use to turn in work, compares their submissions with a database of existing material (including other student papers that Turnitin has previously consumed), and flags material that might have been copied. The company, which has claimed to serve 15,000 educational institutions across the world, was acquired for $1.75 billion in 2019. Last month, it rolled out an AI-detection add-in (with no way for teachers to opt out). AI-chatbot countermeasures, like the chatbots themselves, are taking over.
Now, as the first chatbot spring comes to a close, Turnitin’s new software is delivering a deluge of positive identifications: This paper was “18% AI”; that one, “100 % AI.” But what do any of those numbers really mean? Surprisingly—outrageously—it’s very hard to say for sure. In each of the “100% AI” cases I heard about, students insisted that they had not let ChatGPT or any other AI tool do all of their work.
But according to the company , that designation does indeed suggest that 100 percent of an essay—as in, every one of its sentences—was computer generated, and, further, that this judgment has been made with 98 percent certainty. A Turnitin spokesperson acknowledged via email that “text created by another tool that uses algorithms or other computer-enabled systems,” including grammar checkers and automated translators, could lead to a false positive, and that some “genuine” writing can be similar to AI-generated writing. “Some people simply write very predictably,” she told me. Are all of these caveats accounted for in the company’s claims of having 98 percent certainty in its analyses?
Perhaps it doesn’t matter, because Turnitin disclaims drawing any conclusions about misconduct from its results. “This is only a number intended to help the educator determine if additional review or a discussion with the student is warranted,” the spokesperson said. “Teaching is a human endeavor.” The company has a guide for humans who confront the software’s “small” risk of generating false positives . Naturally, it recommends the use of still more Turnitin resources (an AI-misuse rubric and AI-misuse checklist are available) and doing more work than you ever would have done in the first place.
Read: ChatGPT is about to dump more work on everyone
In other words, the student in my program whose work was flagged for being “100% AI” might have used a little AI, or a lot of AI, or maybe something in between. As for any deeper questions—exactly how he used AI, and whether he was wrong to do so—teachers like me are, as ever, on our own.
S ome students probably are using AI at 100 percent: to complete their work absent any effort of their own. But many use ChatGPT and other tools to generate ideas, help them when they’re stuck, rephrase tricky paragraphs, or check their grammar.
Where one behavior turns into another isn’t always clear. Matthew Boedy, an English professor at the University of North Georgia, told me about one student so disengaged, he sometimes attended class in his pajamas. When that student submitted an uncharacteristically adept essay this spring, Boedy figured a chatbot was involved, and OpenAI’s verification tool confirmed as much. The student admitted that he hadn’t known how to begin, so he asked ChatGPT to write an introduction, and then to recommend sources. Absent a firm policy on AI cheating to lean on, Boedy talked through the material with the student in person and graded him based on that conversation.
A computer-science student at Washington University in St. Louis, where I teach, saw some irony in the sudden shift from giving fully open-book assignments earlier in the pandemic to this year’s attitude of “you can use anything except AI.” (I’m withholding the names of students so that they can be frank about their use of AI tools.) This student, who also works as a teaching assistant, knows firsthand that computers can help solve nearly every technical exercise that is assigned in CS courses, and some conceptual ones too. But taking advantage of the technology “feels less morally bankrupt,” he said, “than paying for Chegg or something.” A student who engages with a chatbot is doing some kind of work for themselves—and learning how to live in the future.
Another student I spoke with, who studies politics at Pomona College, uses AI as a way to pressure-test his ideas. Tasked with a research paper on colonialism in the Middle East, the student formulated a thesis and asked ChatGPT what it thought of the idea. “It told me it was bogus,” he said. “I then proceeded to debate it—in doing so, ChatGPT brought up some serious counterarguments to my thesis that I went on to consider in my paper.” The student also uses the bot to recommend sources. “I treat ChatGPT like a combination of a co-worker and an interested audience,” he said.
Read: The college essay is dead
The Pomona student’s use of AI seems both clever and entirely aboveboard. But if he borrows a bit too much computer-generated language, Turnitin might still flag his work for being inauthentic. A professor can’t really know whether students are using ChatGPT in nuanced ways or whether they’ve engaged in brazen cheating. No problem, you might say: Just develop a relationship of mutual trust with students and discuss the matter with them openly. A good idea at first blush, but AI risks splitting faculty and student interests. “AI is dangerous in that it’s extremely tempting,” Dennis Jerz, a professor at Seton Hill University, in Greensburg, Pennsylvania, told me. For students who are not invested in their classes, the results don’t even have to be good—just good enough, and quick. “AI has made it much easier to churn out mediocre work.”
Faculty already fret over getting students to see the long-term benefit of assignments. Their task is only getting harder. “It has been so completely demoralizing,” an English teacher in Florida told me about AI cheating. “I have gone from loving my job in September of last year to deciding to completely leave it behind by April.” (I am not printing this instructor’s name or employer to protect him from job-related repercussions.) His assignments are typical of composition: thesis writing, bibliographies, outlines, and essays. But the teacher feels that AI has initiated an arms race of irrelevance between teachers and students. “With tools like ChatGPT, students think there’s just no reason for them to care about developing those skills,” he said. After students admitted to using ChatGPT to complete assignments in a previous term—for one student, all of the assignments—the teacher wondered why he was wasting his time grading automated work the students may not have even read. That feeling of pointlessness has infected his teaching process. “It’s just about crushed me. I fell in love with teaching, and I have loved my time in the classroom, but with ChatGPT, everything feels pointless.”
The loss that he describes is deeper and more existential than anything academic integrity can protect: a specific, if perhaps decaying, way of being among students and their teachers. “AI has already changed the classroom into something I no longer recognize,” he told me. In this view, AI isn’t a harbinger of the future but the last straw in a profession that was almost lost already, to funding collapse, gun violence, state overreach, economic decay, credentialism, and all the rest. New technology arrives on that grim shore, making schoolwork feel worthless, carried out to turn the crank of a machine rather than for teaching or learning.
What does this teacher plan to do after leaving education, I wonder, and then ask. But I should have known the answer, because what else is there: He’s going to design software.
A common line about education in the age of AI: It will force teachers to adapt . Athena Aktipis, a psychology professor at Arizona State University, has taken the opportunity to restructure her whole class, preferring discussions and student-defined projects to homework. “The students said that the class really made them feel human in a way that other classes didn’t,” she told me.
But for many students, college isn’t just a place for writing papers, and cutting corners can provide a different way of feeling human. The student in my program whose papers raised Turnitin’s “100% AI” flag told me that he’d run his text through grammar-checking software, and asked ChatGPT to improve certain lines. Efficiency seemed to matter more to him than quality. “Sometimes I want to play basketball. Sometimes I want to work out,” he said when I asked if he wanted to share any impressions about AI for this story. That may sound outrageous: College is for learning, and that means doing your assignments! But a milkshake of stressors, costs, and other externalities has created a mental-health crisis on college campuses. AI, according to this student, is helping reduce that stress when little else has.
Read: The end of recommendation letters
Similar pressures can apply to teachers too. Faculty are in some ways just as tempted as their students by the power of the chatbots, for easing work they find irritating or that distract from their professional goals. (As I pointed out last month, the traditional recommendation letter may be just as threatened by AI as the college essay .) Even so, faculty are worried the students are cheating themselves—and irritated that they’ve been caught in the middle. Julian Hanna, who teaches culture studies at Tilburg University, in the Netherlands, thinks the more sophisticated uses of AI will mostly benefit the students who were already set to succeed, putting disadvantaged students even further at risk. “I think the best students either don’t need it or worry about being caught, or both.” The others, he says, risk learning less than before. Another factor to consider: Students who speak English as a second language may be more reliant on grammar-checking software, or more inclined to have ChatGPT tune up their sentence-level phrasing. If that’s the case, then they’ll be singled out, disproportionately, as cheats.
One way or another, the arms race will continue. Students will be tempted to use AI too much, and universities will try to stop them. Professors can choose to accept some forms of AI-enabled work and outlaw others, but their choices will be shaped by the software that they’re given. Technology itself will be more powerful than official policy or deep reflection.
Universities, too, will struggle to adapt. Most theories of academic integrity rely on crediting people for their work, not machines. That means old-fashioned honor codes will receive some modest updates, and the panels that investigate suspected cheaters will have to reckon with the mysteries of novel AI-detection “evidence.” And then everything will change again. By the time each new system has been put in place, both technology and the customs for its use could well have shifted. ChatGPT has existed for only six months, remember.
Rethinking assignments in light of AI might be warranted, just like it was in light of online learning. But doing so will also be exhausting for both faculty and students. Nobody will be able to keep up, and yet everyone will have no choice but to do so. Somewhere in the cracks between all these tectonic shifts and their urgent responses, perhaps teachers will still find a way to teach, and students to learn.
Essays on Mutually Exciting Point Processes
Dhr. R.S. Karim will defend the dissertation 'Essays on Mutually Exciting Point Processes'. Supervisors are Prof. R.J.A. Laeven and Prof. M.R.H. Mandjes.
You can find UvA dissertations and other publications in the UvA-DARE database .
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On Women by Susan Sontag review – the reluctant feminist
Susan Sontag’s mixed feelings towards the movement that propelled her career
D id Susan Sontag like women? I’m not so sure she did, which made the arrival of feminism in the early 1970s a complicated prospect. Should she get on board or scuttle the ship? I’m not talking about the private realm, of course. She liked, loved, lusted after and admired plenty of individual women. Although she declined to identify publicly as a lesbian, most of her sexual relationships were with women. But was membership of the second sex useful to the public project of Being Sontag? Judging from the evidence here, it was an ambivalent passport, sometimes flashed at the border and sometimes disparaged.
The essays that make up On Women are from the early 1970s, just as the second wave of feminism was breaking on the shores of New York. They weren’t originally published as a book, in the manner of Against Interpretation , the collection that established her reputation as a young avant-gardiste and intellectual force in 1966. Instead, they are wayside pronouncements from a jobbing writer whose high-low trajectory ran from the New York Review of Books to Vogue. Their appearance now is a posthumous creation that, the jacket reports, brings together Sontag’s “most fearless and incisive writing on women, a crucial aspect of her work that has not until now received the attention it deserves”.
What is actually revealed by the book, and especially by the decision to organise it chronologically, is the process by which Sontag approached, assimilated, dominated and expelled disquieting material. In the earliest essays, she’s plainly late to the party. The Double Standard of Ageing is the most dated and uncertain I’ve ever heard Sontag. It’s as if she’s stepped from Warhol’s Factory back into the anxious fug of the 1950s, with her timorous pronouncements about spinsters and old maids, her sweeping descriptions of how “women” (all of them? Everywhere?) routinely lie about their age, lest they are branded sexually obsolete, “ineligible”, over the hill at 35.
Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique had been published nearly a decade earlier. Germaine Greer’s The Female Eunuch , Kate Millett’s Sexual Politics and Shulamith Firestone’s The Dialectic of Sex had all appeared in 1970. Why on earth was Sontag serving up such gloop? Characteristic, too, that she notes the humiliation of segregating women into Miss and Mrs without acknowledging that an alternative had already been generated by women themselves. Ms magazine had been founded two months before, and the new word was everywhere that year.
Beneath her caution lurks something stranger. Women, she reports, are kept as children, “weak”, “servile”, “parasitic”. This is the consequence of society not biology, yet the solution Sontag proposes is not revolution, separatism, protest or any other upending of the iniquitous order. Women need to stop lying about their age and wearing makeup. “Women should tell the truth.” Somehow, it is their fault after all.
A year on, and she seems to have vaulted from the margins to the vanguard. The Third World of Women was Sontag’s response to a questionnaire sent to her and five other prominent women, including Simone de Beauvoir, by the Spanish-language quarterly Libre. Here she sketches out a far more radical, which is to say rigorously doctrinaire, account of women’s liberation. The tone is firm, exacting, definitive, a little testy: a good general who has mastered the brief and digested the background reading. “Anything less than a change in who has power and what power is, is not liberation but pacification.” “The women’s movement must lead to a critical assault on the very nature of the state.”
But odd wobbles in her knowledge base remain. She advises, grandly, that women’s groups should “lobby, demonstrate, march”, suggesting raids on beauty parlours and the defacing of sexist billboards, all tactics that the women’s movement was already using. Worse, there’s still the submerged sense that somehow weak, silly women are to blame for a predicament that Sontag herself doesn’t share. This exceptionalism is familiar to the seasoned Sontag watcher, recurring, for example, in 1989’s Aids and Its Metaphors, in which she describes herself as “quite unseduced” by the fantasies about illness that terrified her fellow cancer patients, a pose debunked by her own diary.
The questionnaire essay includes a swift biography: university at 15, married at 17, divorced at 24, independent, vigorously self-confident, travelling without the shelter of a man’s name, income or physical protection. She’s a shining exception to those servile masses, and here at least she’s careful to portray this as a matter of fortune, not talent; to differentiate herself from those successful women who slam the door in the face of others, cleaving to their special status and refusing to admit the cards are stacked. If the first responsibility of the liberated woman is to live “the fullest, freest and most imaginative life she can”, the second, she declares piously, is solidarity with her sisters.
By 1975, that sense of solidarity had eroded, never to be seen on such public display again. Perhaps Sontag no longer felt threatened by feminism or thought it could provide her with useful cachet. Certainly, she’d ceased to be intellectually invested in the project. It had become more important to define herself against the backdrop of her mutinous sisters, often by using exactly the techniques she’d recently decried. Her (brilliant) essay on the Nazi film-maker Leni Riefenstahl and the aesthetics of fascism occasioned a scrap on the letters page of the New York Review of Books with the feminist poet Adrienne Rich, whose mild-voiced desire for Sontag to discover a familial connection between the grotesque object-making of fascism and patriarchy occasioned a snarling denouncement of “simple-minded … feminist plaint”.
There’s no question that Sontag is right when she says “it is surely not treasonable to think that there are other goals than the depolarization of the two sexes, other wounds than sexual wounds”. Of course, she had a right to choose her subjects. Of course, not every argument need spool back to the dominance of men over women. And, of course, feminism had – has – its simple-minded solipsism, its groupthink and hatred of defectors. But the fact remains that she wasn’t very good at it anyway.
As the Riefenstahl essay demonstrates, Sontag doesn’t come alive stylistically or intellectually unless she has cultural material with which to think. Her sentences only begin to accumulate their sonorous, unsettling meanings when she’s reading a photograph or applying the techniques of new historicism to a film, not when she’s making vacuous statements about women and beauty, terms so cavernous they echo. She can’t get purchase on the subject of sexual politics. She doesn’t possess the rage of Andrea Dworkin , her incantatory, haunted-house style. She isn’t an obsessive theoretician, a basement genius like Shulamith Firestone. Frankly, her heart isn’t in it.
What’s most noticeable about the last quarter of this book is that it starts to sound like Sontag. Her voice doesn’t quicken until it leaves the subject of women far behind. What she really wants to write about is death and history, about the multiplication of images and the sickening, suffering body as it travels through the devastations of time. Those were her subjects. This is not a very good book about women, but on Sontag herself – her machinations, her refusals – it’s as revealing as, well, a face with the makeup scrubbed off.
- Book of the day
Martin Amis was prolific. Here’s where to start with his writing.
The author, who died friday, wrote more than a dozen novels as well as a memoir and collections of essays and criticism.
Martin Amis, a writer known for novels including “Money” and “The Information,” as well as for his literary criticism and acerbic observations about British and American culture, died Friday at 73 .
Amis, the son of famed British writer Kingsley Amis, became one of the characteristic literary celebrities of his generation. He first broke onto the scene with darkly comedic novels about drugs, sex, finance and media, cutting against what he viewed as the British tendency toward airless, sanitized nostalgia. In middle age, he took on self-consciously grander themes: history, war, the specter of nuclear annihilation, environmentalism. His last book, “Inside Story,” was an autobiographical — and metafictional — reflection on his life, his friendships and some contemporary politics.
“I think there’s a lot of romanticism in my work,” he once told a reporter , “but it’s thwarted by distortion and perversity, false commercial images in TV, literature, porn. The fact is, my satire wouldn’t work if what I’m satirizing were not valued. Like Philip Larkin’s poetry, love is conspicuous by [its] absence.”
Amis was energetically prolific as novelist, essayist, critic and reporter. Here’s where to start:
The major novels
“Money: A Suicide Note” (1984). The first novel of what would become known as Amis’s London trilogy follows an ad man, John Self, as he crosses the Atlantic to make a movie. Amis himself described it as “essentially a plotless novel, … a voice novel.” Here’s how Jonathan Yardley characterized it in his review for The Washington Post : “From first page to last it is one long drinking bout, interrupted only briefly by a period of relative sobriety; it contains incessant sexual activity, much of it onanistic; it has a generous supply of sordid language that would not pass muster in polite society; and it has an unkind word for just about every race, creed or nationality known to exist.” He also wrote that “it is so unremittingly, savagely hilarious that reading it is quite literally an exhausting experience, from which one emerges simultaneously gasping for air and pleading for more.”
“London Fields” (1989). “This is the story of a murder,” the narrator tells us on the first page of arguably Amis’s most widely admired novel. “It hasn’t happened yet. But it will. (It had better.)” The narrator is Samson Young, a chronically blocked American writer. But as with John Self in “Money,” the novel’s most memorable character is the seediest one, Keith Talent, a two-bit thief who aspires to be a champion darts thrower. Amis roasted 1980s New York in “Money” and captures late-20th-century London with the same jaded and very funny eye.
“The Information” (1995). This story of two writer frenemies, one of whom becomes a best-selling success, was overshadowed in the British tabloids at the time of publication by the rumored $800,000 Amis had been paid for it. The author later remarked to an interviewer about his demand for the generous advance: “These things stay with you. For years it was the number one thing people asked about, and it was not my finest hour.” But the book’s reputation has done just fine: In 2019, the Guardian ranked it his second-best novel (behind “Money”), writing: “The comedy is unsparing but affectionate and the existential angst more acute than ever.”
“The War Against Cliché: Essays and Reviews 1971-2000” (2001). Amis was widely admired by other reviewers for his work as a critic. The Post’s Michael Dirda, reviewing this collection , wrote: “Should you happen to be a writer yourself, or — God help you — a literary journalist, you suddenly know, with numbing clarity, just how Salieri felt when Mozart sashayed into Vienna.” Amis was an “honest and patient” critic, Dirda wrote, and a stylish one: “Whatever Amis chooses to say about a book or a writer seems just right — and lip-smackingly phrased.” This collection includes pieces about Bellow, Nabokov, Kafka, Elmore Leonard and more.
“Experience: A Memoir” (2000). Amis’s memoir, loosely structured but beautifully written and revealing, covers his romantic relationships, his many literary friends, his life with his famous father and his equally famous (or infamous) teeth. (The book’s index entries for “dental problems” are a literary experience of their own.)
“The Moronic Inferno and Other Visits to America” (1986). In addition to literary profiles, this collection of pieces Amis wrote for magazines and newspapers from the late 1970s through the early 1980s also includes his thoughts on Elvis, Ronald Reagan and Steven Spielberg.
“The Second Plane” (2008). Like many other literary writers in the wake of Sept. 11, 2001, Amis produced contentious opinion pieces that were met with, at best, mixed reviews. In the New York Times, Leon Wieseltier wrote of this collection: “The results of Amis’s clumsily mixed cocktail of rhetoric and rage can be eccentric, or worse.”
Amis wrote 15 novels over his lifetime. Here’s a sampling of The Post’s reviews:
“Einstein’s Monsters” (1987), reviewed by Bruce Cook . “‘Some readers might like to read the introductory essay last or later,’ says Martin Amis in an author’s note at the beginning of this short, uneven and rather curious book. Writers are always pulling stuff like that. You wonder why, if that’s the recommended reading order, he didn’t arrange it that way in the first place.”
“Yellow Dog” (2003), reviewed by James Hynes . “The novel reads like a midlife crisis, a writer’s equivalent of buying a sports car and running off with a woman half his age.”
“House of Meetings” (2007), reviewed by Thomas Mallon . “The book gnaws at one’s memory. Amis tries to imagine history with the intimacy and specificity that the greatest historical novelists, including Tolstoy, have always presumed to seek for it.”
“The Pregnant Widow” (2010), reviewed by The Post’s Ron Charles . “In this nakedly autobiographical novel, a handful of topless bombshells and horny college kids spend the summer of 1970 at an Italian castle with nothing to do but plot their next orgasms. The setting is exotic, the subject is erotic, but the story is necrotic.”
“Lionel Asbo” (2012), reviewed by Charles . “Here, Amis seems unwilling to exert more effort than it would take to change the channel from ‘Jersey Shore’ to ‘Half Pint Brawlers.’ He’s ambling years behind The Situation and the Kardashians, serving up blanched stereotypes on the silver platter of his prose as though it contained enough spice to entertain or even shock.”
“The Zone of Interest” (2014), reviewed by Tova Reich . “Amis is a wizard possessing the ambition to take on weighty themes, but he is above all a word wizard. … It’s signature Amis at his most inventive, and it is precisely through such inspired and irreverent fluency that his dead-serious purpose is realized.”
Assorted essays and reviews
“Joan Didion’s style,” 1980. Dubbing Didion “the poet of the Great Californian Emptiness” in the London Review of Books, Amis both praises her originality and criticizes the “hollow places” of her writing — where it’s missing, he argues, social imagination and assured literary references.
“The World According to Spielberg,” 1982. Amis confesses to staggering out of the theater, drained of tears, after “E.T.,” and says in the Guardian: “The rule is: no one ever lost money underestimating the intelligence of the audience. Spielberg doesn’t need to do this because in a sense he is there already, uncynically.”
“Jane’s World,” 1995. Careening from “Four Weddings and a Funeral” to the BBC television adaptation of “Pride and Prejudice,” Amis reflects on the ’90s wave of the Jane Austen craze — “or more particularly Darcymania” — and the novelist’s enduring appeal.
“A rough trade,” 2001. Amis reported on the American porn industry for the Guardian. What follows — hilarious, shocking, sometimes appalling — should not be quoted here.
Profiles and interviews
The Post’s 1985 profile of Amis . “Money, to British novelist Martin Amis, is in the same vile category as Herpes II, daytime game shows and the Long Island Expressway,” wrote journalist Stephanie Mansfield. She reported that, at the conclusion of their interview in a Washington restaurant, when the check came, Amis did not move; he did not carry a wallet.
… and The Post’s profile from 1991 . On the occasion of Amis’s seventh novel, “Time’s Arrow,” Charles Trueheart had lunch with the novelist and learned that this was the first book that Amis’s father had read in full: “Having gotten completely used to him not reading them, this was a real buzz,” Amis quipped.
A conversation with Salman Rushdie in Interview magazine . The old friends, regarded (along with Christopher Hitchens, Julian Barnes, Ian McEwan and Kazuo Ishiguro) as members of the same close-knit literary generation, talked in 2020 about Amis’s autobiographical novel, “Inside Story” — and what Hitchens would have made of Donald Trump.
His Paris Review interview from 1998 . In it, Amis described what he would consider a good day of writing. (He considered it a “part-time job, really,” though also said that, toward the end of a novel, he experienced “hysterical energy” that allowed him to put in six or seven hours at a time.) He also, of course, answered questions about Kingsley: “I’m not at all reluctant to talk about my father, since it’s become clearer to me that it is more or less a unique case.” Amis did, however, breezily profess some resentment of younger writers.
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The Earthquake Changed Turkey, but Change Is Complicated
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By Naomi Cohen
Ms. Cohen is a freelance journalist in Istanbul.
ADIYAMAN, Turkey — Adiyaman is a southern province of Turkey that a lot of people miss on a map. Too small, too poor, too pious. Too Kurdish, yet not Kurdish enough. Its neighboring provinces carry the weight of history; Adiyaman is mostly known for its loose tobacco.
In the 2014 presidential election, Recep Tayyip Erdogan won 69 percent of the vote in Adiyaman. In 2018, he won 67 percent there.
The earthquakes that struck on Feb. 6 left more than 50,000 people in Turkey and Syria dead. More than 6,000 died in Adiyaman alone, where more than 1,200 buildings collapsed and thousands more were heavily damaged. In those first essential hours, the state was nowhere to be seen. Victims lay under the rubble waiting for rescue teams for days .
That failure was supposed to jolt places like Adiyaman out of their long alliance with Mr. Erdogan. Heading into the election on Sunday, the opposition, led by Kemal Kilicdaroglu and the Republican People’s Party, the C.H.P., expected a wave of protest votes.
That election was one of the closest of Mr. Erdogan’s career. Neither party managed to claim an outright majority in the first round, and a runoff is planned for May 28. If Mr. Erdogan is confident that he’ll succeed in the second round, it might be because of places like Adiyaman, where he won 66 percent of the vote .
For some voters in Ankara and Istanbul, it seemed as if people in the southern provinces blindly voted for a president and a party that abandoned them when their need was dire. The truth is more complicated.
I spent a week in Adiyaman following the work of Oy ve Otesi (Vote and Beyond), a group that monitors elections, and talking to survivors of the earthquakes about this election. People in Adiyaman are getting by again, but things are fragile. Many lost their jobs and Turkey’s hyperinflation has hit the region hard. But for now the government is paying attention. Families that were made homeless by the earthquakes are starting to settle into temporary housing. In one camp, container houses sent from Qatar overheat in the sun, but the road is freshly paved. A huge poster of Mr. Erdogan nearby promised free natural gas for a year. Mr. Kilicdaroglu pledged free housing for earthquake victims on another poster, but that one was a three-and-a-half-mile drive away.
Zeynep, a mother of four children whose husband was in the army, told me that supplies from the disaster relief ministry and her husband’s recent raise in wages, courtesy of Mr. Erdogan’s government, were what allowed her to feed her family. Zeynep asked me not to use her full name for her husband’s sake. She favored Mr. Kilicdaroglu and the pro-Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party, the H.D.P. Her husband is in the special operation forces, fighting Kurdish insurgents. She wasn’t going to vote in the first round. Maybe, she said, she’d vote in the second.
Sevgi, also a housewife, planned to vote but kept changing her mind. She didn’t like Mr. Erdogan, at least not anymore, but she was afraid of what her family would do if they found out she voted for the C.H.P.: the party of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and secularism; the party that once supported a ban against the head scarf in public institutions. Who knows, her family might say, what the C.H.P. would do next.
On the other side of town, near the local university, Ekrem Abaci, a muhtar — a sort of neighborhood representative — ordered people around in his office. Men unloaded water jugs from the trucks that kept arriving. The disaster response ministry was sending daily deliveries of water that the muhtar could distribute among his constituency. He and the men around him all told me the same thing: Our government took care of us. It may have come late, but any country would have been the same in such a disaster. The government is not to blame.
“Vote for Papa Tayyip tomorrow,” the muhtar called out to Hakan, a graduate student with a broken arm who had come in to collect some papers. Hakan was quiet for a moment, then he told me I could restart the voice recorder that I’d paused when he came in. He said that he’d voted his whole life for Mr. Erdogan and his party, but he wouldn’t this time. He’d vote against the nepotism that has left so many graduates like him unemployed, and the bureaucratic rot that means he gets fined when he shouldn’t and can’t get access to benefits he’s entitled to. Then he left.
It’s not that nothing in Adiyaman and neighboring provinces has changed: Many of the areas hit hardest by the earthquakes, which have historically supported Mr. Erdogan, shifted away from him in the first round. But when the sidewalk still crunches with leftover debris; when neighborhoods are still a mix of empty lots, where buildings once stood, and scattered tents; and when life is still a question of today, not tomorrow, a vote for change can feel like a big gamble.
Naomi Cohen ( @naomireneecohen ) is a freelance journalist in Istanbul.
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The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay. A strong conclusion aims to: Tie together the essay's main points; Show why your argument matters; Leave the reader with a strong impression; Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.
Avoid phrases like "in summary," "in conclusion," or "to sum up.". Readers know they're at the end of the essay and don't need a signpost. Don't simply summarize what's come before. For a short essay, you certainly don't need to reiterate all of your supporting arguments. Readers will know if you just copied and pasted ...
The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings. Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or ...
How to write a conclusion. An effective conclusion is created by following these steps: 1. Restate the thesis. An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point.
Table of contents. Step 1: Restate the problem. Step 2: Sum up the paper. Step 3: Discuss the implications. Research paper conclusion examples. Frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.
A conclusion is the final idea left with the reader at the end of an essay. Without it, an essay would be unfinished and unfocused. A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly ...
End your essay with a call to action, warning, or image to make your argument meaningful. Keep your conclusion concise and to the point, so you don't lose a reader's attention. Do your best to avoid adding new information to your conclusion and only emphasize points you've already made in your essay. Method 1.
2 Be mindful of length. Generally, five hundred to one thousand words is an appropriate length for a reflective essay. If it's a personal piece, it may be longer. You might be required to keep your essay within a general word count if it's an assignment or part of an application.
1. Start with a transition sentence. If you are writing a conclusion to an essay or paper for school or college, it's important to understand the functions of the conclusion. Your conclusion shouldn't only restate the main points of your argument in a way that is disconnected from the rest of the text.
Conclusion. This article promised 17 essay conclusions, and this one you are reading now is the twenty-first. This last conclusion demonstrates that the very best essay conclusions are written uniquely, from scratch, in order to perfectly cater the conclusion to the topic.
Edit, proofread, and revise the essay before submission. In conclusion, writing a compare and contrast essay can be an effective way to explore the similarities and differences between two topics. By using examples, it is possible to see the different approaches that can be taken when writing this type of essay.
Essay Structure. Writing an academic essay means fashioning a coherent set of ideas into an argument. Because essays are essentially linear—they offer one idea at a time—they must present their ideas in the order that makes most sense to a reader. Successfully structuring an essay means attending to a reader's logic.
The essay is a written piece that is designed to present an idea, propose an argument, express the emotion or initiate debate. It is a tool that is used to present writer's ideas in a non-fictional way. Multiple applications of this type of writing go way beyond, providing political manifestos and art criticism as well as personal ...
Make sure the title is clear and visible at the beginning of the report. You should also add your name and the names of others who have worked on the report and the date you wrote it. 4. Write a table of contents. The table of contents page should follow the title and authors.
In a research paper, essay, or article, the conclusion is the closing piece of writing that summarizes the entire topic's efforts. The conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis statement, review the major supporting concepts covered throughout the paper, and give your last thoughts on the central idea. The main idea of your topic should ...
Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes. Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict ...
The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn't fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why ...
Prediction essay conclusion example: "Taking care of a pet is quite hard, which is the reason why most parents refuse their children's requests to get a pet. However, the refusal should be the last choice of parents. If we want to inculcate a deep sense of responsibility and organization in our kids, and, at the same time, sprout compassion ...
The conclusion should reaffirm your answer to the question, and briefly summarise key arguments. It does not include any new points or new information. A conclusion has three sections. First, repeat the thesis statement. It won't use the exact same words as in your introduction, but it will repeat the point: your overall answer to the question.
The truncated final season of The Flash stumbled after a strong start, but Grant Gustin's last run as Barry Allen still manages to be a sweet homage. The Flash season 9 finale had the nearly impossible task of wrapping up the series while also doing justice to a long-awaited villain and honoring ...
Essays Should Be Written Offline During Class or Exams. If an essay is the best way to determine a student's understanding of a topic, then it should be limited in the classroom during on-paper exams. That way, the student must rely solely on their knowledge to explain a topic.
"I think everyone takes points off one another, generally, so if you go down, it's not a foregone conclusion you're going to come straight back up, regardless of who you are. It is a very ...
Read: The college essay is dead The Pomona student's use of AI seems both clever and entirely aboveboard. But if he borrows a bit too much computer-generated language, Turnitin might still flag ...
Running the script. To run the above scenario, save the three files (main.tf, variables.tf, and ADDS.ps1) on the same folder, open a PowerShell session on that folder and run the following: az login az account set <subscription ID> terraform init terraform apply. When you apply the Terraform config, it will ask you for the parameters needed not ...
Dhr. R.S. Karim will defend the dissertation 'Essays on Mutually Exciting Point Processes'. Supervisors are Prof. R.J.A. Laeven and Prof. M.R.H. Mandjes.
The questionnaire essay includes a swift biography: university at 15, married at 17, divorced at 24, independent, vigorously self-confident, travelling without the shelter of a man's name ...
The author, who died Friday, wrote more than a dozen novels as well as a memoir and collections of essays and criticism. By Sophia Nguyen. and. John Williams. May 20, 2023 at 9:03 p.m. EDT. Martin ...
In 2018, he won 67 percent there. The earthquakes that struck on Feb. 6 left more than 50,000 people in Turkey and Syria dead. More than 6,000 died in Adiyaman alone, where more than 1,200 ...