Linking Words – Full List, Examples & Worksheet

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| Candace Osmond

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Candace Osmond

Candace Osmond studied Advanced Writing & Editing Essentials at MHC. She’s been an International and USA TODAY Bestselling Author for over a decade. And she’s worked as an Editor for several mid-sized publications. Candace has a keen eye for content editing and a high degree of expertise in Fiction.

Worried that your essay lacks structure and coherence? Perhaps you should use linking words, transition words, or connectors to give it a boost.

Linking words join separate sentences to improve writing flow. You can also find them mid-sentence to connect clauses.

Read on as I show you the definition and types of linking words in English. I also list examples of linking words under every category, and I whipped up a helpful worksheet to test your skills.

What Are Linking Words?

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Linking words, transition words, or connecting words in the English language help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing.

Linking words and phrases are connectors or transitional phrases. They are also part of formal language, so you’ll find them in academic writing, opinion writing, critical essays, dialectic essays , journalism, and business documents.

Some linking verbs link clauses within a sentence, such as although, in case, and whatever. That means you can find them in the middle of sentences from time to time. Others link two complete sentences, such as besides, as a result, and however.

List of Transition Words

Now that you know the meaning of transition words, let’s look at the usage of transition words in sentences and clauses. Don’t worry, I’ll break it all down for you!

Below, I’ve got a list of linking words and phrases to serve as alternative choices for connecting ideas in writing. Note that there are several types of transition words which we will discuss later.

Agreement/Addition/Similarity

Linking words may help the reader understand additional comments or ideas in a statement. They may also express agreement or similarities. These words are also called additive transition words, commonly found in expository essays and narrative essays.

  • In the first place
  • As a matter of fact
  • In like manner
  • In addition
  • Not only, but also
  • Coupled with
  • In the same way
  • In the same manner
  • First, second, third
  • Not to mention
  • In the light of
  • By the same token
  • Additionally
  • Correspondingly
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • At the same time
  • Together with
  • Identically

Here are some examples of additive linking words in a sentence.

  • The group found that a constructivist approach leads to higher test scores. Moreover, essay examinations show higher levels of learning.
  • The resort has tennis courts. Furthermore, it has an Olympic pool.

Negative Ideas

Some linking words come in pairs to join negative ideas.

  • Not, neither
  • Neither, nor

Here are sentence examples of linking words showing negative ideas.

  • I haven’t seen Lory, neither have I talked to her friend.
  • I neither drink nor smoke.

Opposition/Limitation/Contradiction

Whereas some linking words show an extra idea, these transition phrases and words express contrasting ideas in writing.

  • Although this may be true
  • In contrast
  • (and) still
  • Notwithstanding
  • Different from
  • Of course…, but
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Be that as it may
  • Nonetheless
  • Even so/though
  • Nevertheless
  • In spite of

Here are some sentences with linking words of opposition.

  • The short story can be analyzed using a functionalist lens. However, its historical theme is better understood with a critical perspective.
  • As much as I want to go, I must take care of my sister.

Some linking words show relationships between ideas by accepting an idea with reservation instead of showing complete opposition. Here are some examples.

  • All the same
  • Regardless of this
  • Up to a point

Here are some sentence examples.

  • Many citizens opposed this unfair policy, which the president nevertheless enacted.
  • I like him even if we have different views in life.

Cause/Condition/Purpose

You may also use linking words in your writing piece to show conditions and purpose for a logical flow of ideas. Words like reason get the reader ready to understand why. These words are commonly found in hypothesis essays.

  • In the event that
  • Granted (that)
  • Provided that
  • On (the) condition (that)
  • For the purpose of
  • With this intention
  • With this in mind
  • In the hope that
  • Inasmuch as
  • To the end that
  • For fear that
  • In order to
  • Seeing/being that
  • The researchers used this method so that the results would be valid, reliable, and aligned with the objectives.
  • I will not be attending the seminar due to a high fever.

Examples/Support/Emphasis

You can also use transition words in your piece of writing that show examples or support of an idea.

  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • For one thing
  • In particular
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For example
  • For instance
  • For this reason
  • To put it another way
  • To demonstrate
  • That is to say
  • With attention to
  • By all means
  • To emphasize
  • To enumerate
  • Particularly
  • Significantly
  • Specifically
  • Surprisingly
  • Important to realize
  • Another key point
  • On the negative side
  • First thing to remember
  • Must be remembered
  • To point out
  • Point often overlooked
  • She visited several cities, namely Portland, Jacksonville, Charleston, and Hartford.
  • Transition words improve writing flow. For instance, we use further to add extra ideas related to the previous statement.

Effect/Consequence/Result

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You might also spot transitional devices for essays that show consequences, results, and effects.

  • As a result
  • In that case
  • Under those circumstances
  • Accordingly
  • Consequently

Consider the examples below.

  • We watered the plant for seven days. In effect, it grew three inches taller.
  • Because she didn’t study for the test, Anna failed and had to retake it.

Conclusion/Summary/Restatement

These words and phrases show transitions between sentences to show conclusions. You’ll find these words in essay conclusions of different essay types.

  • In simple language
  • In explanation
  • In lay terms
  • In a nutshell
  • As can be seen
  • In simple terms
  • Generally speaking
  • All things considered
  • As shown above
  • In the final analysis
  • In the long run
  • In either case
  • Given these points
  • As has been noted
  • In any event
  • On the whole
  • By and large
  • For the most part
  • In conclusion
  • To summarize

Note that in lay terms and in explanation are formal alternative choices to “ in a nutshell.”

Here are some examples.

  • Matter is a material that occupies space and has mass. In simple language, it is any physical substance.
  • I don’t want to climb the corporate ladder. After all, money isn’t everything.

Time/Chronology/Sequence

Linking words’ other role in writing is to show sequence or chronology. Under the time category, these phrases add a meaning of time. You can find these words in an essay introduction when the writer explains how the paper is structured.

  • In due time
  • From time to time
  • At the present time
  • Sooner or later
  • Up to the present time
  • To begin with
  • Straightaway
  • In the meantime
  • In a moment
  • Without delay
  • All of a sudden
  • At this instant
  • First, second
  • By the time
  • Immediately
  • Occasionally
  • I watched the movie on television. Eventually, I fell asleep.
  • First, fill the pan with water. Then, bring it to a boil.

Space/Location/Place

The following transition words are famous adverbial expressions that limit or modify space. Some of these words and phrases are also transition words of time.

  • In the middle of
  • To the left/right
  • In front of
  • On this side
  • In the distance
  • In the foreground
  • In the background
  • In the center of
  • Adjacent to
  • Opposite to

Below are sentence examples using transition words of space.

  • My house is located behind the building.
  • To the left of the supermarket is a flower shop.

Common Mistakes With Transition Words

Transition words help you create a flow of arguments for readers to understand what you’re saying. But misused transition words and phrases will make your writing unclear. Avoid these mistakes to give your readers a better experience.

Starting a Sentence With So, And, and Also

Both so and and are coordinating conjunctions, which means they can start independent clauses that stand on their own. But it’s not recommended to use these words and also as sentence starters in formal writing. For example:

  • Incorrect: Also, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.
  • Correct: Furthermore, there are unauthorized charges on my credit card account.

Combination of Transition Words And/Or

When writing an essay, avoid English transition words and/or because it makes your paper look messy. Instead, consider whether you need both connectors or only one of them. If you need them both, try this alternative.

  • Incorrect: boat and/or plane.
  • Correct: boat, plane, or both.

Using As Well As as Alternative to And

As well as has a different meaning from the transition word and. And means you’re listing something of equal importance. Meanwhile, as well as is for additional, less essential information. Here’s an example.

  • Incorrect: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis as well as provide recommendations for improvement.
  • Correct: In this paper, I discuss my movie analysis and provide recommendations for improvement.

Archaic Words

Your writing may not make any sense to readers if you overuse archaic transition words like therewith .

For example, hereby means as a result. We can replace it with more modern and explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement is connected to the previous statement.

Linking Words Summary

A linking word is a term that connects different ideas in your text, whether they are contrasting, supporting, or adding. They can improve your writing and help it flow better, I promise!

Regardless of the style of writing, every piece of writing contains linking words to show perfect transitions. I hope my guide on the definition and list of transitions helps you use these words and phrases correctly. Memorize each category, and don’t overuse them in essays.

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Linking Words To Use In An Essay

essay linking words list

Table of Contents

Concerned that your essay isn’t logical or has enough structure? You can include linking words, or transition words to make it stronger.

An essay is a crucial type of academic paper. It needs to have a clear flow so that the readability is perfect. Precisely stated, the sentences you create should naturally flow into one another. However, using linking words helps ensure that the sentences in your essay make sense. The words serve as the perfect linkers and overpasses to break up sentence segmentation. Additionally, these words can be used to present a conclusion, provide details, summarise, highlight a point, arrange material, compare and contrast ideas, and give illustrations. You might not be aware of these words and how to use them in your essay writing. Don’t worry. We are here to help you! This blog of All Assignment Help will let you know all about linking words and how you can use them in your essay writing to make it more effective and readable.

What are Linking Words?

Linking words are those words that showcase a connection between sentences. They help in forming the uniformity in the essay. Often referred to as transition words, these words serve to establish a connection between paragraphs or other essay sections. Linking words serves as a means of connecting the ideas or thoughts expressed in essays.

Moreover, the use of linking words makes your writing look more logical. Thus, you should use proper linking words to reduce the reading efforts of the readers. Your essay shouldn’t cause readers mental strain to understand it. Therefore, it is essential to make things simple for them.

Essays commonly use linking words in the following places:

  • The beginning of a paragraph
  • Beginning of a statement that expands on an argument or presents something new
  • At the start of a concluding statement

However, you need to use the right to link it from one another sentences or paragraphs. For example, when you are writing an argumentative essay , you need to make sure the flow of linking words is correct and logical so that the argument you are presenting sounds accurate.

Read Here: Words You May Find Confusing

The Reasons Behind Using Linking Words in Essays

Essay sentences that link is a crucial component of academic writing. To put it another way, you cannot write a paper without using them. Otherwise, readers will not understand what you have written. Linking words in the essay are used to:

  • Link concepts in your writing
  • Organize your ideas and arguments so that readers can follow along and grasp what you are trying to communicate.
  • Lead readers from one concept to the next while highlighting their connections.
  • Draw readers in and encourage them to continue reading the following sentence or paragraph
  • Provide more details
  • Strengthen or disprove an argument
  • Show the outcome, draw a conclusion, and illustrate how this or that point is affected

Every phrase and paragraph in an essay must lead the reader to the next one using essay maker and connecting words. The purpose of these transitional words is to help readers move from one idea or point to the next.

Three Main Types of Linking Words

There are three main types of linking words i.e. coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions. Let’s discuss these three more briefly.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions are utilized to join two or more equally important items. Another name for them is FANBOYS, which is a shorthand for For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.

For example, she is putting a lot of effort into her studies to gain admission to a reputable university.

Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinate clause is joined to a main clause by a subordinating conjunction. However, the supporting clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and is of lesser significance than the main clause.

For example, she stayed home from work because she felt sick.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are utilized in pairs to connect two things of equal value. They are used to illustrate the connection between two concepts.

For example, not only did she finish her work, but she also helped her colleagues.

You can learn about the types of linking words by taking an online course. You can also hire someone to take your online class for you to get professional assistance which will help you in acing your online course with great credits.

Useful Linking Words for Essay Writing

It is not an easy task to compose a compelling essay. If you want to make your essay more appealing and expressive, focus on research, presentation, and persuasion. However, if you don’t have a knack for writing, then you will fail miserably in forming a logical essay with judicial use of linking words.

There are various categories of linking words one can use while writing an essay. Here, you will share the main categories and word lists to be used while framing an essay.

linking words

Linking Words List for Agreement/Addition/Similarity

Using linking words can help the reader understand further remarks or concepts in a statement. They might also convey agreement or similarities. These words are also known as additive transition words, which are often utilized in narrative and explanatory essay writings. The words used to link in such context are:

  • In the first place
  • As a matter of fact
  • In like manner
  • In addition
  • Not only, but also
  • In the same manner
  • First, second, third
  • Not to mention
  • In the light of
  • Furthermore
  • Comparatively
  • At the same time
  • Together with
  • Identically

List Of Linking Words for Sequence/Order

Any kind of essay needs to have flow. Your essay will lose its brilliance if there is a lack of consistency or logical flow of ideas. Here is a linking word list that helps by showing a sequence order in the essay.

  • First/ Second/ Third or Firstly/ secondly/ Thirdly
  • Primary/ Secondary
  • At this point of time
  • Concurrently
  • First of all
  • Following this
  • The next step
  • In the beginning
  • It all started when
  • Once upon a time
  • To begin with/ To start with

Linking Word List for Opposition/Limitation/Contradiction

However, certain linking words provide additional information, these transitional words and phrases convey opposing concepts in writing. These are:

  • Although this may be true
  • In contrast
  • Different from
  • On the other hand
  • On the contrary
  • Nonetheless
  • Even so/though
  • Nevertheless

List Of Words for The Conclusion

An essay with a strong conclusion is considered to be excellent. Unfortunately, most students conclude their essays with nearly the same words, but you have the opportunity to do so here. Look at the linking words list for an excellent conclusion:

  • To conclude
  • In conclusion
  • On the whole
  • Summarising
  • By and large
  • All things considered
  • In the long run
  • For the most part
  • By the large
  • Consequently
  • As a result

Linking Word List to Give Place/Location/Geographical Area

They can be used alone or in combination with words from other categories. They are almost often used together with other terms from the aforementioned groups. They are used to define, limit, or restrict space like the time ones. However, students often face difficulties when using linking words to write about a place and location, which ultimately leads them to buy online essay writing help from professionals. Here is your list of words that you can use to give a location or place.

  • in the background
  • in the center of
  • adjacent to
  • opposite to
  • to the left/right
  • on this site

List of Linking Words for Examples/Support/Emphasis

Transition words that provide examples or strengthen an idea might be used in your essay writing. Here is a list of words that can be used to improvise such contexts:

  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • For one thing
  • In particular
  • As an illustration
  • In this case
  • For example
  • For instance
  • For this reason
  • To put it another way
  • To demonstrate
  • That is to say
  • With attention to
  • By all means
  • To emphasize

Words for Reason/Reference

You can use these linking words to explain connections between concepts and give explanations for what has started or happened.

  • for the purpose of
  • seeing that
  • with this in mind
  • as applied to
  • the fact that
  • granted that
  • in order to
  • with this purpose
  • considering
  • in connection to
  • with regards to
  • provided that

Linking Words for Time/Chronology/Sequence

Another function of linking words in literature is to illustrate chronology or sequence. These expressions give time a meaning that is included in the time category. These are the types of words that appear in the introduction of an essay when a writer outlines the structure of the work.

  • Sooner or later
  • Up to the present time
  • To begin with
  • Straightaway
  • In the meantime
  • In a moment
  • Without delay

Linking Words for Outcomes/Impacts/Repercussions

These particular words are used to demonstrate how one item affected another, to illustrate the outcomes of an action, or to demonstrate how something affected something else. A short list of transitions that work well for this specific category is shown below.

  • consequently
  • for this reason
  • in that case
  • as a result

Also Read: Your Guide Towards Writing An Outstanding Short Essay!

Final Thoughts!

The importance of linking words in essay writing cannot be overstated. These words are crucial for connecting concepts and making your essay read as a cohesive whole. Your essay will flow more naturally the more well-organized your thoughts are. Additionally, your writing will have a logical framework and an engaging read when you make use of linking words correctly.

However, to learn more about these words, you can choose to sign up for an online English class. An online English class will help you boost your knowledge about linking words and how you can use them in your writing. Furthermore, whenever you find yourself struggling with your English class and want to pay someone to take my online English class for me, you can hire an online class helper who will be there to take your worries aside.

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  • Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Transition Words & Phrases | List & Examples

Published on May 29, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2023.

Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. They help the reader to follow your arguments by expressing the relationships between different sentences or parts of a sentence.

The proposed solution to the problem did not work. Therefore , we attempted a second solution. However , this solution was also unsuccessful.

For clear writing, it’s essential to understand the meaning of transition words and use them correctly.

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Table of contents

When and how to use transition words, types and examples of transition words, common mistakes with transition words, other interesting articles.

Transition words commonly appear at the start of a new sentence or clause (followed by a comma ), serving to express how this clause relates to the previous one.

Transition words can also appear in the middle of a clause. It’s important to place them correctly to convey the meaning you intend.

Example text with and without transition words

The text below describes all the events it needs to, but it does not use any transition words to connect them. Because of this, it’s not clear exactly how these different events are related or what point the author is making by telling us about them.

If we add some transition words at appropriate moments, the text reads more smoothly and the relationship among the events described becomes clearer.

Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Consequently , France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. The Soviet Union initially worked with Germany in order to partition Poland. However , Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.

Don’t overuse transition words

While transition words are essential to clear writing, it’s possible to use too many of them. Consider the following example, in which the overuse of linking words slows down the text and makes it feel repetitive.

In this case the best way to fix the problem is to simplify the text so that fewer linking words are needed.

The key to using transition words effectively is striking the right balance. It is difficult to follow the logic of a text with no transition words, but a text where every sentence begins with a transition word can feel over-explained.

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essay linking words list

There are four main types of transition word: additive, adversative, causal, and sequential. Within each category, words are divided into several more specific functions.

Remember that transition words with similar meanings are not necessarily interchangeable. It’s important to understand the meaning of all the transition words you use. If unsure, consult a dictionary to find the precise definition.

Additive transition words

Additive transition words introduce new information or examples. They can be used to expand upon, compare with, or clarify the preceding text.

Adversative transition words

Adversative transition words always signal a contrast of some kind. They can be used to introduce information that disagrees or contrasts with the preceding text.

Causal transition words

Causal transition words are used to describe cause and effect. They can be used to express purpose, consequence, and condition.

Sequential transition words

Sequential transition words indicate a sequence, whether it’s the order in which events occurred chronologically or the order you’re presenting them in your text. They can be used for signposting in academic texts.

Transition words are often used incorrectly. Make sure you understand the proper usage of transition words and phrases, and remember that words with similar meanings don’t necessarily work the same way grammatically.

Misused transition words can make your writing unclear or illogical. Your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Confused use of therefore

“Therefore” and similar cause-and-effect words are used to state that something is the result of, or follows logically from, the previous. Make sure not to use these words in a way that implies illogical connections.

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. Therefore , the average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

The use of “therefore” in this example is illogical: it suggests that the result of 7.5 follows logically from the question being asked, when in fact many other results were possible. To fix this, we simply remove the word “therefore.”

  • We asked participants to rate their satisfaction with their work from 1 to 10. The average satisfaction among participants was 7.5.

Starting a sentence with also , and , or so

While the words “also,” “and,” and “so” are used in academic writing, they are considered too informal when used at the start of a sentence.

  • Also , a second round of testing was carried out.

To fix this issue, we can either move the transition word to a different point in the sentence or use a more formal alternative.

  • A second round of testing was also carried out.
  • Additionally , a second round of testing was carried out.

Transition words creating sentence fragments

Words like “although” and “because” are called subordinating conjunctions . This means that they introduce clauses which cannot stand on their own. A clause introduced by one of these words should always follow or be followed by another clause in the same sentence.

The second sentence in this example is a fragment, because it consists only of the “although” clause.

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. Although other researchers disagree.

We can fix this in two different ways. One option is to combine the two sentences into one using a comma. The other option is to use a different transition word that does not create this problem, like “however.”

  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed, although other researchers disagree.
  • Smith (2015) argues that the period should be reassessed. However , other researchers disagree.

And vs. as well as

Students often use the phrase “ as well as ” in place of “and,” but its usage is slightly different. Using “and” suggests that the things you’re listing are of equal importance, while “as well as” introduces additional information that is less important.

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf, as well as presenting my analysis of To the Lighthouse .

In this example, the analysis is more important than the background information. To fix this mistake, we can use “and,” or we can change the order of the sentence so that the most important information comes first. Note that we add a comma before “as well as” but not before “and.”

  • Chapter 1 discusses some background information on Woolf and presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse .
  • Chapter 1 presents my analysis of To the Lighthouse , as well as discussing some background information on Woolf.

Note that in fixed phrases like “both x and y ,” you must use “and,” not “as well as.”

  • Both my results as well as my interpretations are presented below.
  • Both my results and my interpretations are presented below.

Use of and/or

The combination of transition words “and/or” should generally be avoided in academic writing. It makes your text look messy and is usually unnecessary to your meaning.

First consider whether you really do mean “and/or” and not just “and” or “or.” If you are certain that you need both, it’s best to separate them to make your meaning as clear as possible.

  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus and/or the train.
  • Participants were asked whether they used the bus, the train, or both.

Archaic transition words

Words like “hereby,” “therewith,” and most others formed by the combination of “here,” “there,” or “where” with a preposition are typically avoided in modern academic writing. Using them makes your writing feel old-fashioned and strained and can sometimes obscure your meaning.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Hereby , we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

These words should usually be replaced with a more explicit phrasing expressing how the current statement relates to the preceding one.

  • Poverty is best understood as a disease. Understanding it as such , we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge its devastating effects on a person’s health.

Using a paraphrasing tool for clear writing

With the use of certain tools, you can make your writing clear. One of these tools is a paraphrasing tool . One thing the tool does is help your sentences make more sense. It has different modes where it checks how your text can be improved. For example, automatically adding transition words where needed.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or writing rules make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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Linking/transition words: Things you need to know...

All assignments are written in formal language.   You need to ensure that you demonstrate your knowledge and understanding alongside your ability to answer the question/solve the problem. 

Below are some ideas to help you to develop your structure and flow.

  • Linking / transition words and phrases join ideas, sentences and paragraphs together. They should be used within sentences and to move from one idea to another (between sentences).   

These words and phrases indicate the direction, order and flow of ideas. Significantly, they strengthen the quality and structure of your work.

  • Redundant Words - less is more.  P articularly when trying to reduce the word count, it is important to look for phrases which can be replaced with a single word.

Linking/Transition Words

Transitions link one main idea to another separated by a semi-colon or full-stop.  When the transition word is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:

Among other functions, they can signal cause and effect or sequencing (see examples in the table below).

Linking words: conjunctions

Linking words within a sentence  are referred to as coordinating conjunctions.  Do not worry about the term: think about the function.

Conciseness / redundant words

Microsoft Word now has an additional feature within the Edito r - it is called conciseness or wordiness.  

  • If you cannot see the Editor menu a quick tip is to hold down the function (fn key at the bottom left of the keyboard) + F7 (top line of keys).
  • From the Refinements section - select Conciseness - if there are any suggestions a number will appear in the box alongside this option
  • A dotted line will appear under any groups of groups
  • Either select the identified text by clicking with your right mouse button OR click on the down down next to the Conciseness menu.
  • MS Word will display any alternative words which you can either select and they will be replaced in your text or reject if you want to keep the original phrases.

Examples:  try to replace phrases with a single words which mean the same.

Need to know more...

  • Related pages
  • External links
  • Academic writing Illustrates the main features of academic writing so that you are aware of what it is and what it involves
  • Critical Thinking Academic work involves thinking, not just accepting what you read or are told.
  • Terms and Definitions Important words appear in your assignments and examinations. The aim of this factsheet is to help you to fully understand what they mean.

Additional resources to help you to improve your confidence and grades:-

  • Writing Effectively  demonstrates the importance of: clarity, structure, relevance, argument and precision.
  • Writing Mechanics  gives further examples and resources on areas including: sentence structure, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation and grammar.

Linking/Transition words - Scribbr  https://www.scribbr.co.uk/syntax/transition-words-examples/ [Accessed 10 February 2023]

There are many books concerning academic writing, look around Dewey number  808

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75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

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Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic writing.

Disclosure: This post may contain affiliate links, which means I may earn a small commission if you make a purchase using the links below at no additional cost to you . I only recommend products or services that I truly believe can benefit my audience. As always, my opinions are my own.

Linking words expressing order and sequence in academic writing

Linking words expressing additions in academic writing, linking words expressing cause and effect in academic writing, linking words expressing contrasts and comparisons in academic writing, linking words expressing emphasis in academic writing, linking words expressing illustrations in academic writing, linking words expressing summaries and conclusions in academic writing, linking words expressing conditionality in academic writing, linking words expressing generalisations in academic writing, linking words expressing concessions in academic writing.

1. First(ly), second(ly), third(ly)

Example: First, I review the existing literature on cross-border collaboration. Second, I explain the methodology …

Example: The thesis starts with a literature review. Next, I describe the case study design.

Example: Finally, recommendations for future research are presented.

4. Subsequently

Example: Study participants underwent several experiments and were subsequently examined.

5. Afterwards

Example: The event increased public awareness of this issue. Afterwards, politicians debated it more openly.

6. Eventually

Example: Eventually, this led to the creation of a social movement.

Example: Before scientists discovered the role of neurons in information processing, they assumed that…

8. Previously

Example: Previously, scholars believed that nurture was the most important factor in a child’s development.

essay linking words list

Example: Scholars examine the causes and effects of poverty.

10. Furthermore

Example: Furthermore, the data illustrates the number of chemicals that can be found in drinking water.

11. Additionally

Example: Additionally, the interviewee lamented a lack of attention to his work.

12. As well as

Example: Scholars utilise qualitative as well as quantitative methods to study this phenomenon.

13. Besides

Example: Besides the public outreach component, we wrote a handbook to disseminate the research results in the academic community.

Example: The financial compensation was also appreciated by the study participants.

15. Moreover

Example: Moreover, interviewees were asked to describe their own experiences.

You may also like: How to paraphrase a quote: 4 simple strategies

16. Because

Example: This theory was ultimately rejected because it was built on a flawed dataset.

Example: The outcomes improved since different parties joined forces.

Example: As the number of studies increases, better conclusions can be drawn.

Example: Scientists realised that the data analysis had flaws. So they decided not to run the same data analysis again.

20. Therefore

Example: Many researchers have conducted this experiment with similar results. Therefore, this theory can be debunked.

21. Consequently

Example: The literature highlights the importance of age and physical fitness. Consequently, these factors will be investigated further.

Example: Due to a low response rate, the study’s validity is low.

23. Nevertheless

Example: One academic study found the opposite results. Nevertheless, it can be argued that…

Example: Many scholars have explored this issue. Yet, to date, no inclusive framework exists to explain…

25. Although

Example: Although a confidentiality agreement was provided, study participants were hesitant to disclose private information.

26. In spite of

Example: In spite of the different study contexts, all experiments pointed to similar results.

27. Whereas

Example: People often stated that they are aware of the rules whereas they behaved as if they did not.

Example: While older studies often emphasise structural effects, newer ones tend to highlight the role of agency.

29. In contrast

Example: In contrast to previous findings, my analysis shows that…

30. Similarly

Example: One study found that the majority of residents in disadvantaged areas do not have access to sufficient resources. Similarly, my research revealed that most residents live too far away from the services and resources they would need to climb the social ladder.

31. Equally

Example: E qually important, however, is the role of personal beliefs in decision-making processes.

32. Likewise

Example: The interviewee considered this issue important and expected his colleagues to do likewise.

33. On the other hand

Example: On the one hand, research in this field advanced considerably in the last 20 years. On the other hand, a lot remains unclear.

Example: Unlike social scientists, physical scientists often conduct laboratory examinations.

essay linking words list

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35. Particularly

Example: Particularly relevant for this study is the molecular orbital theory.

36. Especially

Example: Especially younger interviewees expressed dissatisfaction with the status quo.

37. Above all

Example: Above all, this method can generate better insights into the physical processes at hand.

Example: Indeed, motivation turned out to be a defining factor of academic success.

38. Clearly

Example: Clearly, these scholars were not aware of recent advances in medical sciences.

39. Definitely

Example: This was definitely the most important event of the year.

40. Importantly

Example: More importantly, the findings underscore the importance of conflict resolution.

41. Undoubtedly

Example: Undoubtedly, all stakeholders had good intentions.

42. Obviously

Example: Obviously it is too early to draw final conclusions.

43. Of course

Example: Of course, this study should be replicated in a different context.

44. Surprisingly

Example: Surprisingly, all results were unambiguous.

45. Such as

Example: Scientists have explored different parts of the problem, such as CO2 emissions and hydrological processes.

46. For example

Example: Many interviewees were nervous. For example, when asked to describe the event, some of them started to stutter.

47. For instance

Example: Scholars have criticised this approach for different reasons. For instance, they argued that qualitative methods are insufficient to draw generalisable conclusions.

48. In this case

Example: Difficulties arise when no study participants can be found. In this case, alternative methods should be considered.

50. To conclude

Example: To conclude, the empirical analysis supports previous research findings.

51. In conclusion

Example: In conclusion, the reviewed literature highlights a clear research gap.

52. To sum up

Example: To sum up, a mixed methods approach is a better choice than a purely quantitative one.

53. In summary

Example: In summary, it is my opinion that conditions should be improved.

54. In short

Example: In short, scholars call for more research on climate change mitigation.

55. Altogether

Example: Altogether, these examples support the main argument.

Example: Energy supply became a growing problem. Thus, new policies were implemented.

Example: The first dataset was incomplete. Hence, a new dataset had to be developed.

Example: Unless stated otherwise, I refer to the concept as…

59. As long as

Example: As long as the conditions do not change, the results should remain stable.

Example: If scientists study this phenomenon in the future, they should pay attention to structural drivers.

61. Provided that

Example: Provided that nothing changes, the effects on society will be negative.

Example: Should the distribution change, it is fair to expect…

63. Even if

Example: Even if more experiments are conducted, human behaviour remains hard to predict.

Example: Often, this issue was flagged by interviewees themselves.

65. Commonly

Example: Commonly, this criterion is used for categorising plants.

66. Overall

Example: Overall the data confirmed the hypothesis.

67. Typically

Example: Typically emotions run high in such situations.

68. Generally

Example: Generally speaking, scholars address this issue from two angles.

Example: Mainly researchers in the global North discuss this phenomenon.

Example: Mostly, these results cannot be replicated outside of the lab.

71. Even if

Example: This is hard to prove. Even if the study sample is large enough.

72. Regardless of

Example: Regardless of their genetic makeup, mice showcased the same symptoms.

Example: Albeit experiencing setbacks, successful students do not get discouraged.

74. Admittedly

Example: Admittedly, the validity of this study should be increased.

75. Nonetheless

Example: Nonetheless, this study can be seen as a valuable contribution to the international literature.

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Formal Linking Words / Cohesive Devices

Linking words can also be referred to as connectors, conjunctions, and cohesive devices. This webpage includes a useful lesson on helping improve students’ knowledge of these linking words. It includes a lesson plan using a kinaesthetic matching activity and worksheet.

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Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

By: Author Sophia

Posted on Last updated: October 26, 2023

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Linking words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join two or more sentences or clauses.

We can use linking words to give a result , add information , summarize , give illustrations , emphasize a point , sequence information , compare or to contrast idea .

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

In this article, you will learn about the most common linking words and phrases:

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Giving a Result

Usage : To provide the result of what has been stated or has occurred

Linking W ords :

  • As a result
  • As a consequence
  • Consequently
  • For this reason
  • His wife left him.  As a result , he became very depressed.
  • She has lived in France, and  as a consequence  she speaks French fluently.
  • We do not have enough money.  T herefore  we cannot afford to buy the new car.
  • We do not own the building.  Thus , it would be impossible for us to make any major changes to it.
  • There has been a great deal of rain and  consequently  the reservoirs are full.
  • The customer was displeased with her meal,  hence  the chef prepared a replacement.
  • For this reason , they are not a good choice for exterior use.
  • Due to  a broken wing, this bird can’t fly.

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Adding Information

Usage : To add to what has been previously stated

Linking Words:

  • Additionally / an additional
  • Furthermore
  • As well as that
  • In addition
  • In addition to this
  • Apart from this
  • Additionally , the bus service will run on Sundays, every two hours.
  • He said he had not discussed the matter with her.  Furthermore , he had not even contacted her.
  • We are unable to repair this watch.  Also , this is the fourth time this has happened.
  • I love wearing earrings. I design and make them  too .
  • We went to the park today.  As well as that , we did some shopping.
  • Along with  parties and parliaments, elections have lost their charm.
  • I can’t afford to go to the concert.  Besides , I don’t really like classical music.
  • You haven’t paid the rent yet.   In addition , you owe me money.
  • The report is badly presented.  Moreover , it contains inaccuracies.
  • John’s grades are terrible because he has been so lazy these days.  In addition to this , his relationship to his parents got worse.
  • Apart from this  paragraph, the report contains a number of sensible initiatives.

Adding information

Summarizing

Usage : To sump up what has been previously stated

Linking words :

  • In conclusion
  • To summarize
  • To conclude
  • In conclusion , walking is a cheap, safe, enjoyable and readily available form of exercise.
  • To summarize , this is a clever approach to a common problem.
  • The food was good and we loved the music.  Altogether  it was a great evening.
  • His novels belong to a great but vanished age. They are,  in short , old-fashioned.
  • To sum up , there are three main ways of tackling the problem…
  • In summary , this was a disappointing performance.
  • Briefly , our team is now one of the best in the world.
  • To conclude , I want to wish you all a very happy holiday season.

Giving Examples

Usage : To provide examples

Linking words:

  • For example/ For instance
  • In this case
  • Proof of this
  • There are many interesting places to visit in the city,  for example / for instance , the botanical garden or the art museum.
  • I prefer to wear casual clothes,  such as  jeans and a sweatshirt.
  • Including  Christmas Day and Boxing Day, I’ve got a week off work.
  • We need to concentrate on our target audience,  namely  women aged between 20 and 30.
  • I think I would have made a difference  in this case .
  • This building are a living  proof of this  existence, so we must preserve it.
  • I also make other jewellery  like  rings and bracelets.

Emphasizing a Point

Usage : To put forward a point or idea more forcefully

  • Undoubtedly
  • Particularly / in particular
  • Importantly
  • Without a doubt
  • It should be noted
  • Unquestionably
  • Undoubtedly , the story itself is one of the main attractions.
  • I don’t mind at all.  Indeed , I would be delighted to help.
  • Obviously , we don’t want to spend too much money.
  • I love silver earrings,  in particular  ones from Mexico
  • The car is quite small,  especially  if you have children.
  • Clearly , this will cost a lot more than we realized.
  • More importantly , can he be trusted?
  • He’s an  absolutely  brilliant cook.
  • I  definitely  remember sending the letter.
  • We still believe we can win this series  without a doubt .
  • I’m  neve r  surprised at what I do.
  • It should be noted  that   if you have something to note, then note it
  • Unquestionably , teaching has been a paramount part of his career.
  • Above all , this forest is designed for wear and tear.
  • This is  positively  the worst thing that I can even imagine.

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Sequencing Ideas

Usage : To indicate the order of what is being said

  • First/ firstly (Second/ secondly, Third/ thirdly, Finally)
  • At this time
  • Subsequently
  • Lastly and most importantly
  • Last but not least
  • First and foremost
  • Firstly , I prefer the train because I can see the landscape.
  • At this time , the young man leapt into the air and flew off towards sunset.
  • They arrived on Monday evening and we got there the  following  day.
  • I had visited them three days  previously .
  • Your name is  before  mine on the list.
  • Subsequently , new guidelines were issued to all employees.
  • Above all , keep in touch.
  • Lastly, and most importantly , you should be optimistic.
  • Last but not least , I find I seriously cannot relate to women.
  • We will continue to focus on our players  first and foremost .

Sequencing Ideas

Comparing Ideas

Usage:  To show how things are similar

  • Compare / compare(d) to(with)
  • By the same token
  • In the same way
  • Correspondingly
  • Similarly , the basketball and hockey games draw nearly full attendance.
  • Equally , not all customers are honest.
  • Her second marriage was  likewise  unhappy.
  • She’s  just as  smart as her sister.
  • Working with housecats is  just like  working with lions or tigers.
  • Some people say I have a running style  similar to  him.
  • Having a power is not  the same as  using the power.
  • He gets the ball off quickly  compared to  two years ago.
  • Teenagers should be more respectful;  by the same token , parents should be more understanding.
  • Alex enjoys telling jokes;  in the same way/similarly/likewise ,his son adores funny stories.
  • Correspondingly , the roles each of them played were soon different.

Contrasting Ideas

Usage : To show how things are different

  • Nevertheless
  • On the other hand
  • Nonetheless
  • Despite / in spite of
  • In contrast (to)
  • Alternatively
  • Differing from
  • Contrary to
  • Unlike  most systems, this one is very easy to install.
  • There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law.  Nevertheless , it is important that we try.
  • Laptops are convenient;  O n the other hand , they can be expensive.
  • The problems are not serious.  Nonetheless , we shall need to tackle them soon.
  • Despite/ In spite of  the rain, I went for a walk.
  • In contrast to  the diligent bee, the butterfly flies hither and yon with no apparent purpose.
  • The agency will make travel arrangements for you.  Alternatively , you can organize your own transport.
  • Northern European countries had a great summer.  On the contrary/conversely , Southern Europe had poor weather.
  • Even so , many old friends were shocked at the announcement.
  • Differing from  his white colleagues, he preferred instructing his scholars to the ambition of acquiring personal renown.
  • The situation in Ireland is quite  contrary to  this principle.

Useful Linking Words and Phrases

Linking Words for Essays | Images

Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language:

Linking Words for Essays

Other linking words to give an example or an illustration:

  • In  this  case,
  • In  another  case
  • Take  the  case  of
  • To  illustrate
  • As  an
  • Illustration
  • To  take  another  example
  • That  is
  • As  shown  by
  • As  illustrated  by
  • As expressed by

Linking Words for Essays

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Sunday 26th of November 2023

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Momovi Burain

Thursday 10th of November 2022

Very very educational

Sunday 16th of October 2022

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Tuesday 23rd of August 2022

good website with good information

Friday 21st of January 2022

dijah said it is goooooooooooooooooood

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Connecting ideas

How to connect ideas at the sentence and paragraph level in academic writing.

What is cohesion?

Cohesion refers to the way we use vocabulary and grammatical structures to make connections between the ideas within a text. It provides flow and sequence to your work and helps make your paragraphs clear for the reader.

Cohesive devices are words and expressions that show relationships between parts of text and ideas, such as cause and effect, time, addition, or comparison and contrast.

Watch the video to learn how to make your ideas link together and your narrative flow.

How can I create cohesion?

Let’s look at types of cohesive devices.

Linking words

Academic writing usually deals with complex ideas. To enable the reader to follow your thoughts, they need to be clearly and smoothly linked. To join ideas and sentences, we use a number of connecting words and phrases. For example:

Additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore.

If, in that case, provided that, unless.

Correspondingly, equally, for the same reason, in a similar manner, in comparison, in the same way, on the one hand, similarly.

Alternatively, although, but, conversely, despite, even so, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, on the contrary, contrary to, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, on the other hand, rather, still, though, yet, whereas, while.

Again, in fact, interestingly, indeed, it should be noted (that), more important(ly), most importantly, to repeat, (un)fortunately, unquestionably.

A further instance of this is..., an example of this is…, for example, for instance, such as, thus, as follows.

In other words, more simply, namely, simply put, to put it differently / another way, such as, that is.

A / the consequence of, because, due to, for, the effect of …, since, the result of …

Accordingly, as a result/consequence, consequently, for this reason, hence, so, therefore, thus.

Admittedly, although, clearly though, even though, however, indeed, obviously.

As a rule, for the most part, generally, in general, in most cases, normally, on the whole, usually.

First, second, third (etc), next, before, earlier, finally, following, given the above, later, meanwhile, subsequently, then, to conclude, while.

A note about presentation and style

Check a usage guide for exact rules for punctuation. Many introductory phrases have a comma after them. For example, 'therefore,' and 'in addition,'.

Referring backwards

To avoid repeating words and phrases many times, we use cohesive devices to make references to other parts of a text, such as:

  • Pronouns: it, he, she, his, her, they, their
  • Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
  • Articles: a, the
  • Adverbs: previously, subsequently

The Australian prime minister has called an early election. The date was selected to coincide with the start of the Olympic Games. This decision was based on the views of his ministerial advisors, who predicted that voter confidence in the government’s policies would be strong at this time . As previously mentioned , decisions on the timing of elections are based on predictions of voter confidence in the existing government.

In the example above:

  • The date - refers back to the election date
  • This decision - refers to the prime minister calling an early election
  • His - refers to the Australian prime minister
  • this time - refers to the start of the Olympic Games
  • As previously mentioned - refers to all of the earlier information about the selection of election dates

Looking forward

We often use words and phrases to highlight new information for the reader. This helps make a smooth transition from one point to another. Such phrases include: the following, as follows, below, next, subsequently .

The following dates have been proposed for the forthcoming election: September 8, September 15 and 3 October.

The next issue to be discussed is the influence of the media on voter confidence in the government.

Connecting paragraphs

Apart from using the linking words / phrases above, showing the link between paragraphs could involve writing ‘hand-holding’ sentences. These are sentences that link back to the ideas of the previous paragraph. For instance, when outlining the positive and negative issues about a topic you could use the following:

Example (from beginning of previous paragraph):

  • One of the main advantages of X is…

When you are ready to move your discussion to the negative issues, you could write one of the following as a paragraph opener:

  • Having considered the positive effects of X, negative issues may now need to be taken into account…
  • Despite the positive effects outlined above, negative issues also need to be considered...

It is always important to make paragraphs part of a coherent whole text; they must not remain isolated units.

Checking for paragraph links in your own work

When you are editing your next written assignment, ask yourself the following questions as you read through your work (Gillett, Hammond, & Martala, 2009):

  • Does the start of my paragraph give my reader enough information about what the paragraph will be about?
  • Does my paragraph add to or elaborate on a point made previously and, if so, have I made this explicit with an appropriate linking word / phrase?
  • Does my paragraph introduce a completely new point or a different viewpoint to before and, if so, have I explicitly shown this with a suitable connective?
  • Have I used similar connectives repeatedly? If yes, try to vary them using the above list.

Strategies to improve cohesion

  • Select a piece of writing, preferably from a textbook or journal article, from your area of study.
  • Choose a paragraph and underline or highlight all the different forms of cohesion used, such as using linking words, referring backwards, looking forwards or adding synonyms.
  • Which forms are the most common?
  • Choose a couple that you think are effective and practice using them in your own writing.
  • Try to use a variety of ways to show the relationship between your ideas.

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English Language

Linking Words

Also called Connecting words — Overview

Linking & Connecting Words

It is essential to understand how Linking Words , as a part of speech, can be used to combine ideas in writing - and thus ensure that ideas within sentences and paragraphs are elegantly connected - for the benefit of the reader. This will help to improve your writing (e.g. essay, comment, summary (scientific) review, (research) paper, letter, abstract, report, thesis, etc.). It is also fundamental to be aware of the sometimes subtle meaning of these "small" words within the English language.

"Linking Words" is used as a term to denote a class of English words which are employed to link or connect parts of speech or even whole sentences. They are also called connecting words. There are 2 categories of Linking Words (or Connecting Words):

English Conjunctions & Cohesive Devices

Conjunctions

Transition words, connecting words, relations between words.

A concept is an idea - and what is an idea? A thought which is in or on our mind. And what is that? Arguably, even more difficult to describe - if not impossible. So, to make it easier, how do we express ideas? With words - and more often than not - with attitude, gesture, movement, and any other kind of physiological behavior.

So, a concept can be expressed as something between a single word, and an elaborate and in extenso described philosophy.

A concept by itself does not necessarily communicate a clear, unambiguous, understandable meaning. Therefore, especially in written communication, it is more than helpful, to use words, which can join ideas (expressed in different words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs). For this, we need linking words or linking phrases. These are a set of words used to join concepts and to express the relationships between concepts. Depending on the linking words selected, the connection between the concepts becomes more apparent, clear, vivid, self-explanatory, definite or on the contrary, more nebulous, vague, inexplicit, ambiguous or obscure.

Complete List of Linking & Connecting Words

Please feel free to download this concise and comprehensive guide as a 2 page cheat sheet Linking Words & Connecting Words — the PDF contains all the Conjunctions & Transitional devices listed on these 2 pages.

Writing Tip : Finding the right word for a text, letter, review or essay not only involves your brain 's intuition and memory, but in these days frequently the use of search engines (although Synonym Lists can be a big help either). Read this concise article, peppered with examples, of How to Choose the Right Words for Best Search Results and your results will vastly improve.

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Linking words – How to improve your writing

Linking words, also known as linkers, cohesive devices, connectors and transition words, are a vital part of writing. Often when we teach English, we feed vocabulary and phrases to students which, if we’re not careful, can start sounding forced. For me, linking words are the exception to that. I find that a solid lesson with these special words can almost certainly help improve a students writing regardless of the level. It’s not just because it appears in writing marking scales for every official exam there is, it’s because they actually work. Without linking words, texts can feel dull and disconnected. That’s definitely not the image we want to give when trying to prove our level of English.

link

What are linking words?

There are linking words and phrases for different purposes. You can find exhaustive lists of linking words examples all over the web, but the important thing is using them to good effect.

If your writing was like the human body, the content words would be the flesh and the paragraph structure would be the skeleton. Linkers are like the joints of your writing. They help to connect the different parts together and interact with each other. An essay with good cohesive devices will flow and be easy to read. In fact, it’s practically impossible to write without them.

Linking words at different levels

Let’s use Cambridge writing scales as a guide for what we should be using at different levels. At B1 Preliminary (PET) candidates are expected to use basic linking words. Basic linking words are essentially and , so , but and because . At B2 First (FCE) level, a variety of linking words should be used. While by C1 Advanced (CAE), candidates are using cohesive devices to generally good effect.

Although the terminology shifts between levels, the concept is the same. An exam candidate’s writing should be connected together in a way that makes it flow from one section to another using words that help to achieve said outcome. Notice that it’s not until C2 Proficiency (CPE) level that candidates should be able to use cohesive devices with flexibility.

For more information about how Cambridge writing is marked, check out the different scales here .

If you’re looking to improve your writing for the Cambridge Advanced exam, consider our book Cambridge Advanced Writing Plus .

Linking words examples

There are so many transition words you can use in your writing, but having a ridiculously long list isn’t the best option in this case (and I’m normally a big fan of lists). When I teach writing, I tend to focus on a selection of common and useful linking words. These can be associated with their purpose. Words similar to and are used to add additional information. Words similar to but are used to contrast ideas. Words similar to so provide result and those similar to because develop reason.

This list is not exhaustive, but it’s enough for 90% of learners who are using linking words in English. These are good cohesive devices for an essay, a formal letter or a report. They can be used in a wide range of styles and contexts. Keep in mind that linking words and phrases are also a strong indication of formality in a text, but they aren’t the only factor.

The other essential factor to consider with linkers is how to use them in a sentence. Different ones need different grammatical structures surrounding them. This is what the activity below focusses on in detail.

The materials

There is little doubt that any exam preparation course will include a lesson on producing cohesive writing. These materials associate complex linkers with simple comparison words before putting them to use. We’ll consider both the meaning and the use of linking words and phrases. The topic focuses on money and wealth, which can pop up anywhere from B1 level onwards. Use them to improve writing skills, especially in formal writings like essays, reports and proposals.

EXAM PART : Writing

EXAM SKILLS : Using cohesive devices to improve organisation

TOPIC: Money

TIME: 60 minutes

PREPARATION: One copy of the worksheet per student

linking words examples linking words activities

La Trobe University Library

  • Introduction
  • Academic language

Linking words

  • Using sources
  • Reporting verbs
  • Common mistakes

Linking words show the relationships between ideas. Linking words serve different functions, such as to compare ideas or to give examples, and can go at the start or in the middle of a sentence. Check a dictionary like the Cambridge Dictionary to see examples of how to use a particular linking word.

The following table shows some common linking words and example sentences:

See the Word and PDF documents below for a downloadable version of the common linking words.

  • Linking words [Word - 94KB]
  • Linking words [PDF - 110KB]

Further resources

  • Manchester Academic Phrasebank A bank of useful phrases for academic writing

Pathfinder link

Still have questions? Do you want to talk to an expert? Peer Learning Advisors or Academic Skills and Language Advisors  are available.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Migrant. In Glossary . https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/Lookup/3415.0Glossary12017?OpenDocument  Used under CC BY 4.0 license

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2021). Migration, Australia .  https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/people/population/migration-australia/latest-release Used under CC BY 4.0 license

World Health Organization. (2021).  2021 Global conference on health and climate change .  https://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2021/11/06/default-calendar/2021-global-conference-on-health-and-climate-change  Used under  CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO  license

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English Study Online

Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

By: Author English Study Online

Posted on Last updated: November 15, 2023

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Linking words are essential components of any language, and English is no exception. They are words or phrases that help connect ideas and sentences in a coherent and logical manner. In other words, they act as bridges between different parts of a text, making it easier for readers to follow the writer’s train of thought. In this article, we will explore the concept of linking words and their importance in the English language.

Table of Contents

What are Linking Words?

In English, linking words are words or phrases that help connect ideas and sentences when speaking or writing. They are also known as transition words or connecting words. Linking words are used to make communication smoother and more logical when moving from one idea to another.

Using linking words can make your writing more coherent and easier to follow. They help to create a sense of flow and guide the reader through your ideas. Without linking words, your writing can feel disjointed and confusing.

Some common examples of linking words include “however,” “therefore,” “in addition,” “moreover,” “nevertheless,” and “consequently.” These words can be used to show contrast, add information, provide examples, or indicate a cause and effect relationship, among other things.

linking words

List of Linking Words

Here is the list of linking words:

  • In addition
  • Furthermore
  • Not only … but also
  • Besides this
  • In the same way
  • In the first stage
  • To begin with
  • Another reason
  • Another advantage
  • At this point
  • Following this
  • A further reason
  • In the final stage
  • The final reason

Consequence

  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • It follows that
  • In that case
  • On the other hand
  • In spite of
  • On the contrary
  • Nonetheless
  • Even though
  • In contrast
  • Alternatively
  • Undoubtedly
  • The reason why
  • In other words
  • In order to
  • Provided that
  • Depending on

Types of Linking Words

In this section, we will discuss the three main types of linking words: coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and correlative conjunctions.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions are used to connect two or more items of equal importance. They are also known as FANBOYS, which stands for For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, and So.

Here are some examples of coordinating conjunctions in use:

  • I want to go to the beach, but it’s raining outside.
  • She is studying hard, so she can get into a good university.
  • Do you want pizza or pasta for dinner tonight?

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions are used to connect a subordinate clause to a main clause. The subordinate clause is less important than the main clause and cannot stand alone as a sentence.

Here are some examples of subordinating conjunctions in use:

  • Although it was raining, we decided to go for a walk.
  • I will call you when I arrive at the airport.
  • Because she was feeling sick, she stayed home from work.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs to connect two items of equal importance. They are used to show a relationship between two ideas.

Here are some examples of correlative conjunctions in use:

  • Either you can come with me, or I will go alone.
  • Not only did she finish her work, but she also helped her colleagues.
  • Whether you like it or not, you have to attend the meeting.

Linking Words for Addition

When writing in English, it is important to use a variety of linking words to connect your ideas and make your writing flow smoothly. In this section, we will cover some of the most commonly used linking words for addition.

The word “and” is one of the most basic linking words for addition. It is used to connect two ideas that are similar or related. For example:

  • We went to the store and bought some groceries.
  • The weather was warm and sunny.

“Also” is another common linking word for addition. It is used to add information that is similar or related to what has already been said. For example:

  • I enjoy playing basketball. Also, I like to watch it on TV.
  • She is a great singer. Also, she plays the guitar very well.

“Moreover” is a more formal linking word for addition. It is used to add information that is not only related but also emphasizes or strengthens the point being made. For example:

  • She is not only a great singer but moreover, she is an accomplished songwriter.
  • The company not only increased its profits this year but moreover, it also expanded its market share.

Using a variety of linking words for addition can make your writing more interesting and engaging. By connecting your ideas smoothly, you can help your readers follow your train of thought and better understand your message.

Linking Words for Contrast

When we want to show a contrast between two ideas, we can use linking words. These words help to connect two statements that are different from each other. Here are a few common linking words for contrast:

We use “but” when we want to show that two ideas are different or opposite. For example:

  • I wanted to go to the beach, but it started raining.
  • She’s a great cook, but she doesn’t like to bake.

We use “however” to introduce a contrasting idea. For example:

  • The movie was really long. However, it was also really interesting.
  • She’s not very tall. However, she’s a great basketball player.

On the Other Hand

We use “on the other hand” to introduce a contrasting idea that is different from the one we just mentioned. For example:

  • I don’t like coffee. On the other hand, I love tea.
  • He’s not very good at math. On the other hand, he’s a great writer.

Linking Words for Cause and Effect

In English, we use linking words to connect ideas and show the relationship between them. One common type of linking word is for cause and effect. In this section, we will cover some of the most commonly used linking words for cause and effect.

The word “because” is used to show the cause of something. It is often used to explain why something happened. For example, “I couldn’t go to the party because I was feeling sick.” In this sentence, “because” shows the reason why the person couldn’t go to the party.

The word “therefore” is used to show the effect of something. It is often used to indicate a logical conclusion based on the information presented. For example, “I studied hard for the exam, therefore I got a good grade.” In this sentence, “therefore” shows the logical conclusion that the person got a good grade because they studied hard.

The word “consequently” is used to show the result of something. It is often used to indicate a cause and effect relationship between two events. For example, “The weather was bad, consequently the game was cancelled.” In this sentence, “consequently” shows the result of the bad weather, which was the cancellation of the game.

Using Linking Words in Sentences

Linking words are an essential part of English writing and speaking. They help connect ideas and make your sentences flow smoothly. In this section, we will explore how to use linking words in sentences.

In the Beginning of a Sentence

Linking words can be used at the beginning of a sentence to introduce a new idea or to connect it to the previous one. Here are some examples:

  • Furthermore , we need to consider the environmental impact of our actions.
  • In addition , we should also take into account the economic implications of this decision.
  • On the other hand , some people argue that this policy will have negative consequences.

In the Middle of a Sentence

Linking words can also be used in the middle of a sentence to connect two ideas or to add more information. Here are some examples:

  • The government needs to invest in renewable energy sources,  such as  wind and solar power.
  • The company is expanding its operations,  therefore , it needs to hire more employees.
  • The new regulations will affect all businesses,  regardless of  their size or industry.

At the End of a Sentence

Linking words can also be used at the end of a sentence to summarize or to draw a conclusion. Here are some examples:

  • We need to take action to reduce our carbon footprint.  Otherwise , we will face dire consequences.
  • The company has implemented several cost-cutting measures.  As a result , it has been able to increase its profits.
  • The research shows that there is a strong correlation between exercise and mental health.  In conclusion , we should all make an effort to stay physically active.

In conclusion, linking words are an important tool for any English speaker or writer. They help make your sentences more coherent and easier to understand. By using them correctly, you can improve your communication skills and express your ideas more effectively.

Practice Exercises with Linking Words with answers

We understand that learning linking words can be challenging, but with practice, you can master them. In this section, we have provided practice exercises with answers to help you improve your understanding of linking words.

Fill in the Blanks

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate linking word from the list below:

  • She worked hard, __________ she failed the test.
  • I love chocolate __________ I know it’s not good for my health.
  • He is very intelligent, __________ he lacks common sense.
  • She is a great athlete, __________ she is also an excellent student.
  • He didn’t study for the exam, __________ he failed.

Matching Exercises

Match the sentences in column A with the appropriate linking word in column B.

Sentence Construction

Construct a sentence using the linking word provided.

  • He didn’t study for the exam; __________, he failed.
  • She loves to play soccer; __________, she also enjoys playing basketball.
  • He is an excellent student; __________, he is also a great athlete.
  • He is very busy; __________, he always finds time for his family.
  • She didn’t get enough sleep; __________, she was tired all day.

Practice makes perfect, so keep practicing until you feel confident using linking words.

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Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

Posted on Last updated: July 20, 2019

Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

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Linking Words ! This page provides a list of useful linking words for writing essays in English for ESL learners.

Table of Contents

Linking Words

Linking words or transition words are words phrases used to connect one idea to the next. Learn linking words list in English.

  • In addition
  • Furthermore
  • Not only … but also
  • Besides this
  • In the same way
  • On the other hand
  • In spite of
  • On the contrary
  • Nonetheless
  • Even though
  • In contrast
  • Alternatively
  • In the first stage
  • To begin with
  • Another reason
  • Another advantage
  • At this point
  • Following this
  • A further reason
  • In the final stage
  • The final reason

CONSEQUENCE

  • As a result
  • Consequently
  • It follows that
  • In that case
  • Undoubtedly
  • The reason why
  • In other words
  • In order to
  • Provided that
  • Depending on
  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
  • To recapitulate

Linking Words & Phrases | Infographic

Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

Golani .Chandrakant

Monday 6th of November 2023

Increase of vocabulary, Increase of knowledge

Pombé Guirki Dimitri

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i dont know what to say but waaaaasssssuuuuupppp

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Thank you for sharing - now I have a full picture what is linking word at all, how many linking words there are and how it is used. :)

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  • Linking Words & Connector Words: Ultimate List With Examples
  • Learn English
  • James Prior
  • No Comments
  • Updated July 14, 2023

Linking words

Linking words and connector words are essential tools for effective communication and writing. They play a crucial role in connecting ideas, enhancing coherence, and guiding the flow of information. Whether you’re writing an essay, giving a presentation, or engaging in a conversation, using appropriate linking words can greatly improve the clarity and effectiveness of your message.

In this ultimate list of linking words, we have compiled a comprehensive collection of linking words along with examples to help you understand their usage and apply them in various contexts. From words that highlight contrast and similarity to those that indicate cause and effect or order of importance, this list covers a wide range of linking words to suit different purposes.

Ready to link your words? Let’s get started!

Table of Contents

What are linking words?

Linking words, also known as connector words or transition words, are words or phrases that connect ideas or parts of a text, providing coherence and smoothness to the overall flow of information. They serve as bridges between sentences, paragraphs, or even larger sections of a document, helping to establish relationships, indicate contrasts, add information, show cause and effect, provide examples, and more.

Here are some common categories of linking words with examples:

Linking words for addition

Addition: Words that show the addition of information or ideas.

These linking words and phrases can help you add information, reinforce ideas, or provide further examples in your writing or conversation. Use them appropriately to expand on your points and enhance the overall coherence and richness of your communication.

  • She is fluent in English, and additionally, she speaks French and Spanish.
  • The report highlights the benefits of renewable energy; furthermore, it emphasizes the importance of conservation.
  • The new system not only improves efficiency but moreover, it reduces costs.
  • In addition to his regular job, he volunteers at a local charity.
  • She not only excels in academics but also actively participates in extracurricular activities.
  • The team consists of experienced professionals as well as enthusiastic newcomers.
  • The company values teamwork; likewise, it fosters individual growth and development.
  • Besides working full-time, he manages to pursue his hobbies and spend time with famil
  • The website offers free shipping; what’s more, customers can enjoy a 30-day money-back guarantee.
  • On top of their regular duties, employees are encouraged to take part in professional development opportunities.
  • Developing strong interpersonal skills is equally important as acquiring technical knowledge.
  • The event attracted a large audience, not to mention the media coverage it received.
  • Along with the new software update, customers will also receive enhanced customer support.
  • The company achieved its sales targets for the year; what is more, it surpassed them by 20%.
  • The team completed the project ahead of schedule; besides that, they received positive feedback from the client.
  • The company’s commitment to quality, coupled with its competitive pricing, sets it apart from its competitors.

Linking words for contrast

Contrast: Words that highlight differences or contrasting ideas.

These linking words and phrases can help you express contrasting ideas and show the differences between two or more concepts or situations. Remember to use them appropriately based on the context and your intended meaning.

  • She studied hard; however, she didn’t pass the exam.
  • John loves traveling; on the other hand, his sister prefers staying at home.
  • The weather was terrible; nevertheless, they decided to go for a walk.
  • He had a sprained ankle; nonetheless, he played in the soccer match.
  • Despite the rain, they went to the beach.
  • In spite of the traffic, they arrived on time.
  • Although it was late, they continued with their work.
  • Even though she was tired, she went to the gym.
  • I enjoy reading, while my brother prefers watching movies.
  • Sarah loves cooking, whereas her husband prefers eating out.
  • Unlike his friends, Mark is not a fan of horror movies.
  • She hates winter; conversely, I love it.
  • She expected him to be upset; on the contrary, he was happy.
  • They planned to go to the cinema, but instead, they stayed home and watched a movie.
  • The cat is small and playful, in contrast to the dog, which is big and lazy.
  • He enjoys sports; conversely, his sister prefers art.
  • On one hand, the book is interesting; on the other hand, it’s quite lengthy.
  • They could go by car, or alternatively, they could take the train.
  • The movie received mixed reviews; nevertheless, it became a box office hit.
  • She didn’t pass the test, but in any case, she learned a lot from studying.

Linking words for similarity

Similarity: Words that highlight similarities or shared ideas.

These linking words and phrases can help you express similarities between two or more ideas, situations, or individuals. Use them appropriately based on the context to highlight shared characteristics or experiences.

  • Sarah enjoys reading; likewise, her brother is an avid reader.
  • John and Emily both love hiking; similarly, they enjoy spending time in nature.
  • Just as Sarah likes swimming, in the same way, her best friend enjoys diving.
  • Jack has a passion for photography, similarly to his sister who is also an enthusiast.
  • Just like her mother, Jane has a talent for playing the piano.
  • The two artists approach their work in a similar vein, both using vibrant colors and bold brushstrokes.
  • Mark loves cooking, and by the same token, he also enjoys experimenting with new recipes.
  • As the workload increased, the stress levels of the employees correspondingly rose.
  • Both Sarah and Emily are equally skilled in playing the guitar.
  • The designer creates unique clothing pieces, and in a similar fashion, the jewelry maker crafts one-of-a-kind accessories.
  • Just as the sun rises in the morning, the moon appears in the evening.
  • The teacher explains complex concepts in a simple and understandable way, in the same manner as her colleague.
  • He enjoys hiking and camping, and his friends, likewise, too, share his enthusiasm for outdoor activities.
  • Just as a bird builds its nest with care and precision, in the same way, an architect plans and constructs a building.
  • The two books explore themes of love and loss, along similar lines, inviting readers to contemplate the human experience.
  • As with all great artists, Picasso’s work continues to inspire and influence generations.
  • Exercise is essential for physical health, and just as importantly, it is crucial for mental well-being.
  • Much like a puzzle, life consists of various pieces that fit together to form a bigger picture.

Linking words for cause and effect

Cause and Effect: Words that demonstrate cause and effect relationships.

These linking words and phrases can help you express the cause-and-effect relationship between events or actions. Use them appropriately based on the context to convey the reason and result of a particular situation or occurrence.

  • He failed the exam because he didn’t study.
  • They arrived early since they left home on time.
  • As a result of heavy rainfall, the streets were flooded.
  • The event was canceled due to bad weather conditions.
  • The store was closed, therefore, they had to find another place to shop.
  • He missed the train, consequently, he arrived late to the meeting.
  • Owing to a power outage, the concert was postponed.
  • She didn’t have enough sleep, thus, she felt tired throughout the day.
  • He couldn’t attend the party, for this reason, he sent his apologies.
  • The storm caused damage to the houses, resulting in the need for repairs.
  • The baby was hungry, so she started crying.
  • Lack of exercise and poor diet often leads to weight gain.
  • They missed the train because of heavy traffic.
  • The roads were icy, this is why there were many accidents.
  • They spent all their money, as a consequence, they couldn’t afford the trip.
  • He quit smoking, and since then, he feels healthier.
  • The company introduced a new product, and in turn, its sales increased.
  • She studied hard so that she could pass the exam.

Linking words for time and sequence

Time and sequence: Words that indicate time or sequence of events or actions.

These linking words and phrases can help you express the chronological order and sequence of events or actions. Use them appropriately to guide your audience through the progression of ideas or to outline the steps in a process or narrative.

  • Firstly, let’s discuss the main causes of climate change.
  • Secondly, we need to consider the potential solutions to the problem.
  • Next, we will move on to the implementation phase of the project.
  • We need to complete the research phase first. Then, we can start analyzing the data.
  • After that, we can proceed with the construction of the building.
  • The company experienced financial difficulties. Subsequently, they had to lay off several employees.
  • The team was working on the project. Meanwhile, the marketing department was preparing the promotional materials.
  • The two processes are happening simultaneously, ensuring efficient production.
  • The report will be ready in a week. In the meantime, please proceed with the other tasks.
  • During the meeting, we will discuss the budget and timeline.
  • While he was studying, his friends were playing video games.
  • Please wait here until your name is called.
  • We need to complete the paperwork before the deadline.
  • She attended the conference, and afterward, she shared her insights with the team.
  • Finally, we reached an agreement after a long negotiation process.
  • In the end, they decided to cancel the project due to budget constraints.
  • The presentation was engaging, and at the same time, informative.
  • Initially, he struggled with the new software, but with practice, he became proficient.
  • At first, the project seemed overwhelming, but with proper planning, it became manageable.

Linking words for order of importance

Order of Importance: Words that highlight the hierarchy or ranking of ideas based on their significance.

These linking words and phrases can help you establish the order of importance when presenting ideas or arguments. Use them to emphasize the significance of certain points, highlight key considerations, or guide the reader’s attention to the most critical aspects.

  • Most importantly, we need to prioritize the safety of our employees.
  • Above all, we must prioritize the needs of our customers.
  • The company’s success primarily depends on effective leadership and strategic planning.
  • First and foremost, we need to address the urgent issue of inflation.
  • The new policy chiefly focuses on reducing waste and promoting sustainability.
  • Notably, the project resulted in significant cost savings for the organization.
  • Above anything else, maintaining a high standard of quality is our top priority.
  • It is essential to note that effective communication is the foundation of strong relationships.
  • It is worth mentioning that the company’s ethical practices have earned it a positive reputation.

Linking words for exemplification

Example: Words that provide examples or illustrate a point.

These linking words and phrases can help you introduce examples and provide further clarification or evidence to support your statements. Use them to enhance your explanations and illustrate your points effectively.

Here’s a list of linking words and phrases that are commonly used to illustrate an example, along with examples:

  • There are many fruits you can choose from, for example, apples, oranges, and bananas.
  • Many countries have implemented environmental policies; for instance, Sweden has significantly reduced its carbon emissions.
  • I enjoy outdoor activities such as hiking, cycling, and swimming.
  • The party was attended by several guests, including friends, family, and colleagues.
  • He has many hobbies, like painting, playing the guitar, and photography.
  • The company provides various employee benefits, as an illustration, health insurance, retirement plans, and paid time off.
  • Let me give you an example to illustrate my point.
  • There are several endangered species in the area, namely the African elephant, the Bengal tiger, and the giant panda.
  • The city offers various attractions, in particular, museums, parks, and historical landmarks.
  • The project requires specific skills, specifically programming and data analysis.
  • By way of example, let’s consider the case of a successful startup that disrupted the market.
  • To give an example, let’s say you want to improve your fitness; you can try activities like jogging, swimming, or joining a gym.
  • The experiment was conducted to demonstrate the effects of temperature on plant growth.
  • As a case in point, many countries have implemented renewable energy initiatives to combat pollution.
  • I will use a specific scenario to exemplify how the new policy can be implemented effectively.
  • The job requires strong communication skills, in essence, the ability to express ideas clearly and persuasively.
  • The city has invested in renewable energy projects to reduce its carbon footprint. One example of this is the installation of solar panels on public buildings.
  • To be specific, the company offers three main product lines: electronics, appliances, and furniture.
  • The data collected serves as proof that the new marketing strategy is effective.
  • In a similar manner, many companies have embraced remote work as a response to the pandemic.

Linking words for focusing

These linking words and phrases can help you direct attention or emphasize a specific aspect of your discussion or argument. Use them appropriately to highlight the main points or focus areas, ensuring clarity and precision in your communication.

Here’s a list of linking words and phrases that are commonly used to express focusing or directing attention, along with examples:

  • Specifically, we need to address the issue of employee turnover in our department.
  • The marketing team has made significant progress, particularly in digital advertising.
  • In particular, we need to improve our customer service to enhance customer satisfaction.
  • Notably, the company achieved a record-breaking sales figure in the last quarter.
  • This task requires attention to detail, especially when dealing with sensitive data.
  • Specifically speaking, the new software update addresses the security vulnerabilities.
  • Above all, we must prioritize the safety of our employees.
  • The company’s success mainly relies on customer satisfaction and brand reputation.
  • The primary goal of our project is to reduce waste and promote sustainability.
  • Essentially, our focus should be on optimizing operational efficiency.
  • Individually, each team member plays a crucial role in achieving our objectives.
  • Precisely, we need to adhere to the project timeline to meet the deadline.
  • Specifically, with regards to customer feedback, we have received positive reviews.
  • The new product line has a sleek design, not to mention its advanced features.
  • It is worth noting that the market trends are shifting towards online shopping.
  • Above everything else, we need to prioritize the quality of our products.
  • In essence, our primary objective is to provide exceptional customer service.
  • To be more precise, we should focus on improving our supply chain management.
  • In specific terms, the sales team needs to focus on building client relationships.
  • More importantly, we need to address the concerns raised by our customers.

Linking words for conclusion

Conclusion: Words that summarize or conclude a text.

These linking words and phrases can help you signal the conclusion of your argument, presentation, or essay. Use them to summarize key points, restate your main argument, or provide a final thought or recommendation.

  • In conclusion, it is evident that deforestation poses a significant threat to our planet.
  • To sum up, the project was a great success, exceeding all expectations.
  • Ultimately, the decision lies in your hands.
  • All in all, it was a memorable vacation filled with adventure and relaxation.
  • Lastly, I would like to thank everyone for their hard work and dedication.
  • In summary, the findings of the study suggest a strong correlation between exercise and mental well-being.
  • To conclude, the evidence supports the hypothesis that regular exercise improves cardiovascular health.
  • The data collected consistently points to the same conclusion; therefore, we can confidently assert our findings.
  • In essence, the research demonstrates that social media has a profound impact on interpersonal relationships.
  • The campaign received widespread support, and as a result, donations increased significantly.
  • In a nutshell, the project aims to promote sustainability through renewable energy initiatives.
  • The experiments consistently yielded similar results; thus, we can draw a definitive conclusion.
  • The evidence strongly suggests a link between smoking and lung cancer; hence, it is crucial to raise awareness about the risks.
  • In light of these findings, it is necessary to reconsider the current educational policies.
  • The company faced financial challenges, and consequently, had to downsize its workforce.
  • In conclusion, it can be stated that effective communication is the key to successful teamwork.
  • Taking all factors into account, it is clear that globalization has both positive and negative consequences.
  • The lack of investment resulted in decreased productivity, as a consequence, the company experienced a decline in profits.
  • The study findings reveal a correlation between stress levels and sleep quality; thus, it can be inferred that managing stress positively affects sleep.
  • Given these points, it is evident that the project should be prioritized for its long-term benefits.

If you’d like more examples, check out this list of other ways to say in conclusion .

Conclusion: Ready to link your words?

These are just some examples of linking words, and there are numerous other linking words and phrases available for different purposes and contexts. Using them appropriately can greatly enhance the clarity and coherence of your writing or speech. So, if you want to become more fluent in English, it’s time to start thinking about linking words!

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50 linking words to use in academic writing

It’s very common for students to use long words they don’t understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and convoluted, and uses a lot of jargon. This leads many students to fall into a trap of imagining that the longer the word, the more impressive and intelligent their writing will seem.

We often see long sentences and multisyllabic words where shorter sentences and simpler words would do. Some students even use Microsoft Word’s thesaurus function to replace a common word with a more complicated word. This is a risky move, because unless you’re very careful, the new word may not carry quite the same meaning as the original, even if it’s similar.

The result can range from funny to confusing, which defeats the purpose of academic writing: to be as clear and concise as possible, using just the right words to convey your argument. Using uncommon words, instead of making your paper seem smarter, generally detracts from your ideas.

To avoid this, using linking or transition words that signpost your arguments can help to clarify your views and show the reader what to expect from certain paragraphs or sentences. These words give structure to the whole, helping you to organise your ideas and assist the reader in understanding them.

We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing.

CLICK HERE to download these FREE flashcards

Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language.

Describing similarities

Correspondingly

Not only… but also

In the same way

Showing cause and effect

Consequently

As a result

Hence (never ‘hence why’)

Since (try to avoid ‘as’ when showing cause and effect)

Accordingly

This suggests that

It follows that

For this reason

Comparing and contrasting

Alternatively

On the other hand

On the contrary

Showing limitation or contradiction

Despite/in spite of

While (not whilst!)

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

50 linking words to use in academic writing

Emphasis, addition or examples

To illustrate

Further (not ‘furthermore’)

First, second and third (not firstly, secondly and thirdly)

For instance

In addition

To summarise

It can be concluded that

As can be seen

Given the above

As described

The best way to get better at writing academic language is to read academic writing. You’ll pick up all sorts of useful tips from published papers in your area of study.

essay linking words list

Updated 31 January 2023 Ellen McRae, PhD, AE (IPEd), MNZSTI Senior Managing Editor

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  • Common linking words

All sentences in a paragraph need to relate to the main idea in the topic sentence. The reader should be able to see how each sentence flows from the previous one and how each is connected to the topic sentence. Linking words and phrases weave sentences together to create a cohesive paragraph.

Linking words and phrases

  • Paragraph structure
  • Paragraphs activity
  • Topic sentences
  • Why use linking words?

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Linking Words for Essay Writing: Useful Paragraph Phrases

Linking Words for Essay Writing: Useful Paragraph Phrases

Importance of Linking Words in Essay Writing

Importance of Linking Words in Essay Writing

An essay is an important piece of writing when a student is seeking college admission. It needs to have a clear flow so that the readability is perfect. Rightly so, the sentences you construct need to flow and lead to each other seamlessly.

Linking or transition words come in handy to make your essay have comprehensible sentences.  The words act as the ideal connectors and bridges that eliminate sentence isolation.

essay linking words list

Factually, both writing and speaking need linking words that will help the audience form a clear relationship between ideas. Listeners and readers are able to comprehend responses when the right linking words are in place.

What are Linking Words in Essay Writing?

Linking words are the uniformity basis of an essay. When these words are in an essay, they showcase a connection between sentences. As usual, a typical essay consists of different sections and paragraphs.

linking words+examples

If there are no transition words, the sentences will appear incoherent and messy. The use of linking words clearly show the relationship existing between all sections and paragraphs in an essay.

When writing your essay, make use of linking words as a bridge between the concepts you are writing and ideas in your essay. The readers will enjoy a cohesive piece of essay with texts that are flowing smoothly.

The assessment team has a lot of essays to read and you can make their work easy by using your linking words appropriately. If this is not the case, your professor will have to go through a lot of stress in trying to understand your essay.

Basically, if you want to impress your readers and consequently improve your scores, practice the best linking words skills.

Reasons for Using Linking Words in Essay Writing

Only proper usage of linking words will help you come up with a compelling essay. After toiling to conduct research for your essay, improper structure of sentences will make your efforts go to waste. 

using linking words

Good students endeavor and strive to create an appealing and expressive essay. A thorough use of the right linking words will make your presentation and persuasion of ideas flow perfectly.

Linking words are very crucial in any type of essay . If you do not want your texts to appear clucky, transition words ought to be in place.

 Here are more reasons why you need linking words in your essay:

1. Flow of order and sequence

An essay needs flow of texts, ideas and thoughts otherwise it will lose its quality. Therefore, writers need to make huge efforts and use the right linking words that will bring a sequence of order in the essay.

Such words include next, then, firstly, secondly, afterwards, finally and afterwards. Other transition words to use include concurrently, at the same time, earlier, first of all, following this and for now.

A good sequence order in your essay is also enhanced when you use words such as lastly, in the end, in the beginning or once upon a time.

2. Showcasing comparison        

There are essays that will require the writer to show comparison. Linking words play an important role in contrast and argumentative essays .

If you need to bring out comparison clearly, consider the use of words such as similarly, equally, comparable, in the same time and likewise.

 Apart from same as, other words or phrases to use include just like, just as and comparably.

3. Contrasting

a contrasting sentence

Transition words are the best when you want to bring out contrast in a sentence. In most of the cases, place then at the beginning or in the middle of your sentence to create the right contrast.

However, despite this, yet, whereas and alternatively are some of the words you can use.

4. Illustration of examples

There are places in your essay where you will have to give examples. Obviously, most essays will need illustration of evidence with the use of linking words.

Giving examples without these words will make your text to sound blunt.

Linking words such as for instance, in the case of, and for instance will make it easy to introduce your examples.

5. Including additions

You will also need to use linking words when putting additions in your essays. These words will ensure that you have added a txt with the correct meaning to your essay.

Furthermore, also, secondly, in addition and moreover are some of the linking words to use.

6. Introduction of cause and effects

Cause and effects in an essay can help the writer draw a sensible conclusion. In essence, it helps to bring about good connection of the essay when a conclusion is being added. Therefore, the relationship between cause and effect is better shown using the right linking words.

Owing to, thus, since, as a result of and because are some of the transition words you can use. Other words to use include stems from, leads to, results from, for this reason etc.

7. For conclusion purposes

Starting an impressive essay can only be better if the conclusion is attractive. It is good to bring about the conclusion using appropriate linking words that are not common.

You can conclude your essay using words such as finally, in conclusion, summarizing, in summary and briefly. 

As a writer, you need to bear in mind that adjusting and positioning these words is a must if you are to impress your readers.

Conclusion linking words

Dos of Using Linking Words

  • Adjust and position your linking words properly otherwise the reader will not be impressed.
  • Do mix up the linking words you use.  Using one word several times can be very annoying to the reader. Since the transition phrases are many, mix them up in your essay to avoid repetition.
  • Be accurate in using these words when connecting your ideas in an essay. Know the difference between these phrases to understand the meaning correctly.
  • You can use these words when you want to accentuate a point. In other words, use them to stress something important in your writing.

30 Examples of Linking Words for Essay Writing

  • On the flipside
  • On the contrary
  • By and large   
  • As a consequence of
  • In conclusion
  • Following this
  • At this point of time
  • In the same way
  • As an example
  • In other words
  • To put it differently
  • Under the circumstances
  • That is to say
  • With this intention
  • Subsequently
  • In order to
  • Of less importance
  • What’s more
  • Furthermore
  • Alternatively
  • In spite of
  • To illustrate
  • To demonstrate
  • In the middle of
  • For the avoidance of doubt

Wrapping Up on Linking words on Essay Writing

You can’t overlook the significance of linking words in essay writing. Transition words are important in bringing ideas together so that they appear as a whole in your essay.

All in all, an essay that flows well must incorporate the right transition words to link arguments and actions. The readers will be able to connect an event that took place because of a consequence of a different action.

Essays need to have a flow of ideas with each one building on the other. Yet still, organization of thoughts in essay writing is valuable and this is where linking words play a critical role.

To sum it up, the more your thoughts are in good organization, the smoother your essay will flow. When you use linking words appropriately, your piece will have a logical structure that is appealing to the reader.

Josh Jasen

When not handling complex essays and academic writing tasks, Josh is busy advising students on how to pass assignments. In spare time, he loves playing football or walking with his dog around the park.

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  1. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

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  2. Linking Words List in English

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  3. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays

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  4. Linking Words, Connecting Words: Full List and Useful Examples • 7ESL

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  5. Linking Words for Writing Essay

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  6. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

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  1. Writing a paragraph

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  6. Band 9 LINKING WORDS for IELTS Writing Task 2

COMMENTS

  1. Linking Words

    Like. Too. As. As well as. Moreover. Here are some examples of additive linking words in a sentence. The group found that a constructivist approach leads to higher test scores. Moreover, essay examinations show higher levels of learning. The resort has tennis courts.

  2. Mega linking words list to use in an essay

    Essays commonly use linking words in the following places: The beginning of a paragraph. Beginning of a statement that expands on an argument or presents something new. At the start of a concluding statement. However, you need to use the right to link it from one another sentences or paragraphs.

  3. Transition Words & Phrases

    Transition words and phrases (also called linking words, connecting words, or transitional words) are used to link together different ideas in your text. ... Transition sentences are used to start a new paragraph or section in an essay. They help the reader understand connections between ideas. 540. How to Write Topic Sentences | 4 Steps ...

  4. 50 linking words to use in academic writing

    50 linking words to use in academic writing. academic writing. linkers. essay writing. thesis. ESL. English. It's very common for students to use long words they don't understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and ...

  5. Linking/transition words

    Linking/Transition Words. Transitions link one main idea to another separated by a semi-colon or full-stop. When the transition word is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma: Among other functions, they can signal cause and effect or sequencing (see examples in the table below). Additional comments or ideas.

  6. All About Linking Words, With Examples

    How to use linking words. Linking words generally come before a new idea as a way to introduce it. This includes new clauses, new sentences, and new paragraphs, as well as standalone words and phrases. When a linking word or phrase begins a sentence, clarity is usually helped if you place a comma after it. Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches ...

  7. Linking Words, Connecting Words: Full List and Useful Examples

    Linking Words to Add more Information. These words simply add additional information to your sentence or paragraph to show that two ideas are similar. Here are some examples: It started to rain and I got soaked - 'and' is the linking word that connects the two ideas of the individual being in the rain and getting soaked.

  8. The Ultimate List of Linking Words for Your Essay

    Types and List of Linking Words to Use in Essays. Below you'll find the ultimate list of transition words for essays by categories. Choose the role you need a word to play (reason, contrast, emphasis, restatement, etc.) and consider the corresponding table of transitions. If you need the whole transition words list in one place, jump to the ...

  9. 75 linking words for academic writing (+examples)

    Linking words play an important role in academic writing: They connect different paragraphs, sections or ideas in a text. Therefore, they considerably improve the readability and argumentation of academic texts such as a thesis, dissertation, essay or journal publication. This list of 75 linking words includes examples of how they can be used in academic

  10. Linking words in academic writing / AEUK

    Linking: Cohesion & Coherence Worksheet. This worksheet helps to consolidate what is 'cohesion' with a focus on pronouns, word forms and summary nouns. It also includes a coherence sheet on key connections and two practice activities. Example Level: ***** [B2/C1] / Webpage Link / TEACHER MEMBERSHIP / INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERSHIP.

  11. PDF Linking words and phrases

    They show the relationships between the ideas and are the glue that holds your assignment together. The table below provides an overview of commonly-used linking words. List/sequence words: orders the information in a sequence. Efect/results: something brought by a cause. Emphasis: special importance or significance. first. so. undoubtedly.

  12. Useful Linking Words and Phrases to Use in Your Essays

    36256. Linking words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join two or more sentences or clauses. We can use linking words to give a result, add information, summarize, give illustrations, emphasize a point, sequence information, compare or to contrast idea.

  13. Connecting ideas

    To join ideas and sentences, we use a number of connecting words and phrases. For example: Addition To add an idea. Additionally, and, also, apart from this, as well (as), in addition, moreover, further, furthermore. Condition to provide a condition. If, in that case, provided that, unless. For comparison To show how things are similar.

  14. Linking Words

    Linking & Connecting Words. It is essential to understand how Linking Words, as a part of speech, can be used to combine ideas in writing - and thus ensure that ideas within sentences and paragraphs are elegantly connected - for the benefit of the reader.This will help to improve your writing (e.g. essay, comment, summary (scientific) review, (research) paper, letter, abstract, report, thesis ...

  15. Linking Words for Essays: How to Link Those Paragraphs and Sentences

    Words and Phrases for Opposing, Limiting, and Contradicting. When using these words or phrases, you should be connecting paragraphs that show evidence that is contrary to the prior material or pointing out alternatives. This will show your readers that the essay has shifted to a different line of reasoning.

  16. Linking words

    An essay with good cohesive devices will flow and be easy to read. In fact, it's practically impossible to write without them. Linking words at different levels. Let's use Cambridge writing scales as a guide for what we should be using at different levels. At B1 Preliminary (PET) candidates are expected to use basic linking words.

  17. Linking words

    Linking words show the relationships between ideas. Linking words serve different functions, such as to compare ideas or to give examples, and can go at the start or in the middle of a sentence. Check a dictionary like the Cambridge Dictionary to see examples of how to use a particular linking word. The following table shows some common linking ...

  18. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essay in English

    Without linking words, your writing can feel disjointed and confusing. Some common examples of linking words include "however," "therefore," "in addition," "moreover," "nevertheless," and "consequently.". These words can be used to show contrast, add information, provide examples, or indicate a cause and effect ...

  19. Useful Linking Words for Writing Essays in English

    Linking Words ! This page provides a list of useful linking words for writing essays in English for ESL learners. Linking Words Linking words or transition words are words phrases used to connect one idea

  20. Linking Words & Connector Words: Ultimate List With Examples

    Whether you're writing an essay, giving a presentation, or engaging in a conversation, using appropriate linking words can greatly improve the clarity and effectiveness of your message. In this ultimate list of linking words, we have compiled a comprehensive collection of linking words along with examples to help you understand their usage ...

  21. 50 linking words to use in academic writing

    These words give structure to the whole, helping you to organise your ideas and assist the reader in understanding them. We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing. CLICK HERE to download these FREE flashcards. Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language.

  22. Common linking words

    RTO Code: 3046. Open Universities Australia. All sentences in a paragraph need to relate to the main idea in the topic sentence. The reader should be able to see how each sentence flows from the previous one and how each is connected to the topic sentence. Linking words and phrases weave sentences together to create a cohesive paragraphs.

  23. Linking Words for Essay Writing: Useful Paragraph Phrases

    Linking words play an important role in contrast and argumentative essays. If you need to bring out comparison clearly, consider the use of words such as similarly, equally, comparable, in the same time and likewise. Apart from same as, other words or phrases to use include just like, just as and comparably. 3.