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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on November 21, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:

Introduction

Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

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Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

  • Academic style
  • Vague sentences
  • Style consistency

See an example

example of an proposal paper

As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

Methodology

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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Academic Proposals

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This resource introduces the genre of academic proposals and provides strategies for developing effective graduate-level proposals across multiple contexts.

Introduction

An important part of the work completed in academia is sharing our scholarship with others. Such communication takes place when we present at scholarly conferences, publish in peer-reviewed journals, and publish in books. This OWL resource addresses the steps in writing for a variety of academic proposals.

For samples of academic proposals, click here .

Important considerations for the writing process

First and foremost, you need to consider your future audience carefully in order to determine both how specific your topic can be and how much background information you need to provide in your proposal. While some conferences and journals may be subject-specific, most will require you to address an audience that does not conduct research on the same topics as you. Conference proposal reviewers are often drawn from professional organization members or other attendees, while journal proposals are typically reviewed by the editorial staff, so you need to ensure that your proposal is geared toward the knowledge base and expectations of whichever audience will read your work.

Along those lines, you might want to check whether you are basing your research on specific prior research and terminology that requires further explanation. As a rule, always phrase your proposal clearly and specifically, avoid over-the-top phrasing and jargon, but do not negate your own personal writing style in the process.

If you would like to add a quotation to your proposal, you are not required to provide a citation or footnote of the source, although it is generally preferred to mention the author’s name. Always put quotes in quotation marks and take care to limit yourself to at most one or two quotations in the entire proposal text. Furthermore, you should always proofread your proposal carefully and check whether you have integrated details, such as author’s name, the correct number of words, year of publication, etc. correctly.

Methodology is often a key factor in the evaluation of proposals for any academic genre — but most proposals have such a small word limit that writers find it difficult to adequately include methods while also discussing their argument, background for the study, results, and contributions to knowledge. It's important to make sure that you include some information about the methods used in your study, even if it's just a line or two; if your proposal isn't experimental in nature, this space should instead describe the theory, lens, or approach you are taking to arrive at your conclusions.

Reasons proposals fail/common pitfalls

There are common pitfalls that you might need to improve on for future proposals.

The proposal does not reflect your enthusiasm and persuasiveness, which usually goes hand in hand with hastily written, simply worded proposals. Generally, the better your research has been, the more familiar you are with the subject and the more smoothly your proposal will come together.

Similarly, proposing a topic that is too broad can harm your chances of being accepted to a conference. Be sure to have a clear focus in your proposal. Usually, this can be avoided by more advanced research to determine what has already been done, especially if the proposal is judged by an important scholar in the field. Check the names of keynote speakers and other attendees of note to avoid repeating known information or not focusing your proposal.

Your paper might simply have lacked the clear language that proposals should contain. On this linguistic level, your proposal might have sounded repetitious, have had boring wording, or simply displayed carelessness and a lack of proofreading, all of which can be remedied by more revisions. One key tactic for ensuring you have clear language in your proposal is signposting — you can pick up key phrases from the CFP, as well as use language that indicates different sections in academic work (as in IMRAD sections from the organization and structure page in this resource). This way, reviewers can easily follow your proposal and identify its relatedness to work in the field and the CFP.

Conference proposals

Conference proposals are a common genre in graduate school that invite several considerations for writing depending on the conference and requirements of the call for papers.

Beginning the process

Make sure you read the call for papers carefully to consider the deadline and orient your topic of presentation around the buzzwords and themes listed in the document. You should take special note of the deadline and submit prior to that date, as most conferences use online submission systems that will close on a deadline and will not accept further submissions.

If you have previously spoken on or submitted a proposal on the same topic, you should carefully adjust it specifically for this conference or even completely rewrite the proposal based on your changing and evolving research.

The topic you are proposing should be one that you can cover easily within a time frame of approximately fifteen to twenty minutes. You should stick to the required word limit of the conference call. The organizers have to read a large number of proposals, especially in the case of an international or interdisciplinary conference, and will appreciate your brevity.

Structure and components

Conference proposals differ widely across fields and even among individual conferences in a field. Some just request an abstract, which is written similarly to any other abstract you'd write for a journal article or other publication. Some may request abstracts or full papers that fit into pre-existing sessions created by conference organizers. Some request both an abstract and a further description or proposal, usually in cases where the abstract will be published in the conference program and the proposal helps organizers decide which papers they will accept. 

If the conference you are submitting to requires a proposal or description, there are some common elements you'll usually need to include. These are a statement of the problem or topic, a discussion of your approach to the problem/topic, a discussion of findings or expected findings, and a discussion of key takeaways or relevance to audience members. These elements are typically given in this order and loosely follow the IMRAD structure discussed in the organization and structure page in this resource. 

The proportional size of each of these elements in relation to one another tends to vary by the stage of your research and the relationship of your topic to the field of the conference. If your research is very early on, you may spend almost no time on findings, because you don't have them yet. Similarly, if your topic is a regular feature at conferences in your field, you may not need to spend as much time introducing it or explaining its relevance to the field; however, if you are working on a newer topic or bringing in a topic or problem from another discipline, you may need to spend slightly more space explaining it to reviewers. These decisions should usually be based on an analysis of your audience — what information can reviewers be reasonably expected to know, and what will you have to tell them?

Journal Proposals

Most of the time, when you submit an article to a journal for publication, you'll submit a finished manuscript which contains an abstract, the text of the article, the bibliography, any appendices, and author bios. These can be on any topic that relates to the journal's scope of interest, and they are accepted year-round.

Special issues , however, are planned issues of a journal that center around a specific theme, usually a "hot topic" in the field. The editor or guest editors for the special issue will often solicit proposals with a call for papers (CFP) first, accept a certain number of proposals for further development into article manuscripts, and then accept the final articles for the special issue from that smaller pool. Special issues are typically the only time when you will need to submit a proposal to write a journal article, rather than submitting a completed manuscript.

Journal proposals share many qualities with conference proposals: you need to write for your audience, convey the significance of your work, and condense the various sections of a full study into a small word or page limit. In general, the necessary components of a proposal include:

  • Problem or topic statement that defines the subject of your work (often includes research questions)
  • Background information (think literature review) that indicates the topic's importance in your field as well as indicates that your research adds something to the scholarship on this topic
  • Methodology and methods used in the study (and an indication of why these methods are the correct ones for your research questions)
  • Results or findings (which can be tentative or preliminary, if the study has not yet been completed)
  • Significance and implications of the study (what will readers learn? why should they care?)

This order is a common one because it loosely follows the IMRAD (introduction, methods, results and discussion) structure often used in academic writing; however, it is not the only possible structure or even always the best structure. You may need to move these elements around depending on the expectations in your field, the word or page limit, or the instructions given in the CFP.

Some of the unique considerations of journal proposals are:

  • The CFP may ask you for an abstract, a proposal, or both. If you need to write an abstract, look for more information on the abstract page. If you need to write both an abstract and a proposal, make sure to clarify for yourself what the difference is. Usually the proposal needs to include more information about the significance, methods, and/or background of the study than will fit in the abstract, but often the CFP itself will give you some instructions as to what information the editors are wanting in each piece of writing.
  • Journal special issue CFPs, like conference CFPs, often include a list of topics or questions that describe the scope of the special issue. These questions or topics are a good starting place for generating a proposal or tying in your research; ensuring that your work is a good fit for the special issue and articulating why that is in the proposal increases your chances of being accepted.
  • Special issues are not less valuable or important than regularly scheduled issues; therefore, your proposal needs to show that your work fits and could readily be accepted in any other issue of the journal. This means following some of the same practices you would if you were preparing to submit a manuscript to a journal: reading the journal's author submission guidelines; reading the last several years of the journal to understand the usual topics, organization, and methods; citing pieces from this journal and other closely related journals in your research.

Book Proposals

While the requirements are very similar to those of conference proposals, proposals for a book ought to address a few other issues.

General considerations

Since these proposals are of greater length, the publisher will require you to delve into greater detail as well—for instance, regarding the organization of the proposed book or article.

Publishers generally require a clear outline of the chapters you are proposing and an explication of their content, which can be several pages long in its entirety.

You will need to incorporate knowledge of relevant literature, use headings and sub-headings that you should not use in conference proposals. Be sure to know who wrote what about your topic and area of interest, even if you are proposing a less scholarly project.

Publishers prefer depth rather than width when it comes to your topic, so you should be as focused as possible and further outline your intended audience.

You should always include information regarding your proposed deadlines for the project and how you will execute this plan, especially in the sciences. Potential investors or publishers need to know that you have a clear and efficient plan to accomplish your proposed goals. Depending on the subject area, this information can also include a proposed budget, materials or machines required to execute this project, and information about its industrial application.

Pre-writing strategies

As John Boswell (cited in: Larsen, Michael. How to Write a Book Proposal. Writers Digest Books , 2004. p. 1) explains, “today fully 90 percent of all nonfiction books sold to trade publishers are acquired on the basis of a proposal alone.” Therefore, editors and agents generally do not accept completed manuscripts for publication, as these “cannot (be) put into the usual channels for making a sale”, since they “lack answers to questions of marketing, competition, and production.” (Lyon, Elizabeth. Nonfiction Book Proposals Anybody Can Write . Perigee Trade, 2002. pp. 6-7.)

In contrast to conference or, to a lesser degree, chapter proposals, a book proposal introduces your qualifications for writing it and compares your work to what others have done or failed to address in the past.

As a result, you should test the idea with your networks and, if possible, acquire other people’s proposals that discuss similar issues or have a similar format before submitting your proposal. Prior to your submission, it is recommended that you write at least part of the manuscript in addition to checking the competition and reading all about the topic.

The following is a list of questions to ask yourself before committing to a book project, but should in no way deter you from taking on a challenging project (adapted from Lyon 27). Depending on your field of study, some of these might be more relevant to you than others, but nonetheless useful to reiterate and pose to yourself.

  • Do you have sufficient enthusiasm for a project that may span years?
  • Will publication of your book satisfy your long-term career goals?
  • Do you have enough material for such a long project and do you have the background knowledge and qualifications required for it?
  • Is your book idea better than or different from other books on the subject? Does the idea spark enthusiasm not just in yourself but others in your field, friends, or prospective readers?
  • Are you willing to acquire any lacking skills, such as, writing style, specific terminology and knowledge on that field for this project? Will it fit into your career and life at the time or will you not have the time to engage in such extensive research?

Essential elements of a book proposal

Your book proposal should include the following elements:

  • Your proposal requires the consideration of the timing and potential for sale as well as its potential for subsidiary rights.
  • It needs to include an outline of approximately one paragraph to one page of prose (Larsen 6) as well as one sample chapter to showcase the style and quality of your writing.
  • You should also include the resources you need for the completion of the book and a biographical statement (“About the Author”).
  • Your proposal must contain your credentials and expertise, preferably from previous publications on similar issues.
  • A book proposal also provides you with the opportunity to include information such as a mission statement, a foreword by another authority, or special features—for instance, humor, anecdotes, illustrations, sidebars, etc.
  • You must assess your ability to promote the book and know the market that you target in all its statistics.

The following proposal structure, as outlined by Peter E. Dunn for thesis and fellowship proposals, provides a useful guide to composing such a long proposal (Dunn, Peter E. “Proposal Writing.” Center for Instructional Excellence, Purdue University, 2007):

  • Literature Review
  • Identification of Problem
  • Statement of Objectives
  • Rationale and Significance
  • Methods and Timeline
  • Literature Cited

Most proposals for manuscripts range from thirty to fifty pages and, apart from the subject hook, book information (length, title, selling handle), markets for your book, and the section about the author, all the other sections are optional. Always anticipate and answer as many questions by editors as possible, however.

Finally, include the best chapter possible to represent your book's focus and style. Until an agent or editor advises you to do otherwise, follow your book proposal exactly without including something that you might not want to be part of the book or improvise on possible expected recommendations.

Publishers expect to acquire the book's primary rights, so that they can sell it in an adapted or condensed form as well. Mentioning any subsidiary rights, such as translation opportunities, performance and merchandising rights, or first-serial rights, will add to the editor's interest in buying your book. It is enticing to publishers to mention your manuscript's potential to turn into a series of books, although they might still hesitate to buy it right away—at least until the first one has been a successful endeavor.

The sample chapter

Since editors generally expect to see about one-tenth of a book, your sample chapter's length should reflect that in these building blocks of your book. The chapter should reflect your excitement and the freshness of the idea as well as surprise editors, but do not submit part of one or more chapters. Always send a chapter unless your credentials are impeccable due to prior publications on the subject. Do not repeat information in the sample chapter that will be covered by preceding or following ones, as the outline should be designed in such a way as to enable editors to understand the context already.

How to make your proposal stand out

Depending on the subject of your book, it is advisable to include illustrations that exemplify your vision of the book and can be included in the sample chapter. While these can make the book more expensive, it also increases the salability of the project. Further, you might consider including outstanding samples of your published work, such as clips from periodicals, if they are well-respected in the field. Thirdly, cover art can give your potential publisher a feel for your book and its marketability, especially if your topic is creative or related to the arts.

In addition, professionally formatting your materials will give you an edge over sloppy proposals. Proofread the materials carefully, use consistent and carefully organized fonts, spacing, etc., and submit your proposal without staples; rather, submit it in a neat portfolio that allows easy access and reassembling. However, check the submission guidelines first, as most proposals are submitted digitally. Finally, you should try to surprise editors and attract their attention. Your hook, however, should be imaginative but inexpensive (you do not want to bribe them, after all). Make sure your hook draws the editors to your book proposal immediately (Adapted from Larsen 154-60).

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17 Research Proposal Examples

research proposal example sections definition and purpose, explained below

A research proposal systematically and transparently outlines a proposed research project.

The purpose of a research proposal is to demonstrate a project’s viability and the researcher’s preparedness to conduct an academic study. It serves as a roadmap for the researcher.

The process holds value both externally (for accountability purposes and often as a requirement for a grant application) and intrinsic value (for helping the researcher to clarify the mechanics, purpose, and potential signficance of the study).

Key sections of a research proposal include: the title, abstract, introduction, literature review, research design and methods, timeline, budget, outcomes and implications, references, and appendix. Each is briefly explained below.

Watch my Guide: How to Write a Research Proposal

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Research Proposal Sample Structure

Title: The title should present a concise and descriptive statement that clearly conveys the core idea of the research projects. Make it as specific as possible. The reader should immediately be able to grasp the core idea of the intended research project. Often, the title is left too vague and does not help give an understanding of what exactly the study looks at.

Abstract: Abstracts are usually around 250-300 words and provide an overview of what is to follow – including the research problem , objectives, methods, expected outcomes, and significance of the study. Use it as a roadmap and ensure that, if the abstract is the only thing someone reads, they’ll get a good fly-by of what will be discussed in the peice.

Introduction: Introductions are all about contextualization. They often set the background information with a statement of the problem. At the end of the introduction, the reader should understand what the rationale for the study truly is. I like to see the research questions or hypotheses included in the introduction and I like to get a good understanding of what the significance of the research will be. It’s often easiest to write the introduction last

Literature Review: The literature review dives deep into the existing literature on the topic, demosntrating your thorough understanding of the existing literature including themes, strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in the literature. It serves both to demonstrate your knowledge of the field and, to demonstrate how the proposed study will fit alongside the literature on the topic. A good literature review concludes by clearly demonstrating how your research will contribute something new and innovative to the conversation in the literature.

Research Design and Methods: This section needs to clearly demonstrate how the data will be gathered and analyzed in a systematic and academically sound manner. Here, you need to demonstrate that the conclusions of your research will be both valid and reliable. Common points discussed in the research design and methods section include highlighting the research paradigm, methodologies, intended population or sample to be studied, data collection techniques, and data analysis procedures . Toward the end of this section, you are encouraged to also address ethical considerations and limitations of the research process , but also to explain why you chose your research design and how you are mitigating the identified risks and limitations.

Timeline: Provide an outline of the anticipated timeline for the study. Break it down into its various stages (including data collection, data analysis, and report writing). The goal of this section is firstly to establish a reasonable breakdown of steps for you to follow and secondly to demonstrate to the assessors that your project is practicable and feasible.

Budget: Estimate the costs associated with the research project and include evidence for your estimations. Typical costs include staffing costs, equipment, travel, and data collection tools. When applying for a scholarship, the budget should demonstrate that you are being responsible with your expensive and that your funding application is reasonable.

Expected Outcomes and Implications: A discussion of the anticipated findings or results of the research, as well as the potential contributions to the existing knowledge, theory, or practice in the field. This section should also address the potential impact of the research on relevant stakeholders and any broader implications for policy or practice.

References: A complete list of all the sources cited in the research proposal, formatted according to the required citation style. This demonstrates the researcher’s familiarity with the relevant literature and ensures proper attribution of ideas and information.

Appendices (if applicable): Any additional materials, such as questionnaires, interview guides, or consent forms, that provide further information or support for the research proposal. These materials should be included as appendices at the end of the document.

Research Proposal Examples

Research proposals often extend anywhere between 2,000 and 15,000 words in length. The following snippets are samples designed to briefly demonstrate what might be discussed in each section.

1. Education Studies Research Proposals

See some real sample pieces:

  • Assessment of the perceptions of teachers towards a new grading system
  • Does ICT use in secondary classrooms help or hinder student learning?
  • Digital technologies in focus project
  • Urban Middle School Teachers’ Experiences of the Implementation of
  • Restorative Justice Practices
  • Experiences of students of color in service learning

Consider this hypothetical education research proposal:

The Impact of Game-Based Learning on Student Engagement and Academic Performance in Middle School Mathematics

Abstract: The proposed study will explore multiplayer game-based learning techniques in middle school mathematics curricula and their effects on student engagement. The study aims to contribute to the current literature on game-based learning by examining the effects of multiplayer gaming in learning.

Introduction: Digital game-based learning has long been shunned within mathematics education for fears that it may distract students or lower the academic integrity of the classrooms. However, there is emerging evidence that digital games in math have emerging benefits not only for engagement but also academic skill development. Contributing to this discourse, this study seeks to explore the potential benefits of multiplayer digital game-based learning by examining its impact on middle school students’ engagement and academic performance in a mathematics class.

Literature Review: The literature review has identified gaps in the current knowledge, namely, while game-based learning has been extensively explored, the role of multiplayer games in supporting learning has not been studied.

Research Design and Methods: This study will employ a mixed-methods research design based upon action research in the classroom. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test control group design will first be used to compare the academic performance and engagement of middle school students exposed to game-based learning techniques with those in a control group receiving instruction without the aid of technology. Students will also be observed and interviewed in regard to the effect of communication and collaboration during gameplay on their learning.

Timeline: The study will take place across the second term of the school year with a pre-test taking place on the first day of the term and the post-test taking place on Wednesday in Week 10.

Budget: The key budgetary requirements will be the technologies required, including the subscription cost for the identified games and computers.

Expected Outcomes and Implications: It is expected that the findings will contribute to the current literature on game-based learning and inform educational practices, providing educators and policymakers with insights into how to better support student achievement in mathematics.

2. Psychology Research Proposals

See some real examples:

  • A situational analysis of shared leadership in a self-managing team
  • The effect of musical preference on running performance
  • Relationship between self-esteem and disordered eating amongst adolescent females

Consider this hypothetical psychology research proposal:

The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on Stress Reduction in College Students

Abstract: This research proposal examines the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on stress reduction among college students, using a pre-test/post-test experimental design with both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods .

Introduction: College students face heightened stress levels during exam weeks. This can affect both mental health and test performance. This study explores the potential benefits of mindfulness-based interventions such as meditation as a way to mediate stress levels in the weeks leading up to exam time.

Literature Review: Existing research on mindfulness-based meditation has shown the ability for mindfulness to increase metacognition, decrease anxiety levels, and decrease stress. Existing literature has looked at workplace, high school and general college-level applications. This study will contribute to the corpus of literature by exploring the effects of mindfulness directly in the context of exam weeks.

Research Design and Methods: Participants ( n= 234 ) will be randomly assigned to either an experimental group, receiving 5 days per week of 10-minute mindfulness-based interventions, or a control group, receiving no intervention. Data will be collected through self-report questionnaires, measuring stress levels, semi-structured interviews exploring participants’ experiences, and students’ test scores.

Timeline: The study will begin three weeks before the students’ exam week and conclude after each student’s final exam. Data collection will occur at the beginning (pre-test of self-reported stress levels) and end (post-test) of the three weeks.

Expected Outcomes and Implications: The study aims to provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in reducing stress among college students in the lead up to exams, with potential implications for mental health support and stress management programs on college campuses.

3. Sociology Research Proposals

  • Understanding emerging social movements: A case study of ‘Jersey in Transition’
  • The interaction of health, education and employment in Western China
  • Can we preserve lower-income affordable neighbourhoods in the face of rising costs?

Consider this hypothetical sociology research proposal:

The Impact of Social Media Usage on Interpersonal Relationships among Young Adults

Abstract: This research proposal investigates the effects of social media usage on interpersonal relationships among young adults, using a longitudinal mixed-methods approach with ongoing semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data.

Introduction: Social media platforms have become a key medium for the development of interpersonal relationships, particularly for young adults. This study examines the potential positive and negative effects of social media usage on young adults’ relationships and development over time.

Literature Review: A preliminary review of relevant literature has demonstrated that social media usage is central to development of a personal identity and relationships with others with similar subcultural interests. However, it has also been accompanied by data on mental health deline and deteriorating off-screen relationships. The literature is to-date lacking important longitudinal data on these topics.

Research Design and Methods: Participants ( n = 454 ) will be young adults aged 18-24. Ongoing self-report surveys will assess participants’ social media usage, relationship satisfaction, and communication patterns. A subset of participants will be selected for longitudinal in-depth interviews starting at age 18 and continuing for 5 years.

Timeline: The study will be conducted over a period of five years, including recruitment, data collection, analysis, and report writing.

Expected Outcomes and Implications: This study aims to provide insights into the complex relationship between social media usage and interpersonal relationships among young adults, potentially informing social policies and mental health support related to social media use.

4. Nursing Research Proposals

  • Does Orthopaedic Pre-assessment clinic prepare the patient for admission to hospital?
  • Nurses’ perceptions and experiences of providing psychological care to burns patients
  • Registered psychiatric nurse’s practice with mentally ill parents and their children

Consider this hypothetical nursing research proposal:

The Influence of Nurse-Patient Communication on Patient Satisfaction and Health Outcomes following Emergency Cesarians

Abstract: This research will examines the impact of effective nurse-patient communication on patient satisfaction and health outcomes for women following c-sections, utilizing a mixed-methods approach with patient surveys and semi-structured interviews.

Introduction: It has long been known that effective communication between nurses and patients is crucial for quality care. However, additional complications arise following emergency c-sections due to the interaction between new mother’s changing roles and recovery from surgery.

Literature Review: A review of the literature demonstrates the importance of nurse-patient communication, its impact on patient satisfaction, and potential links to health outcomes. However, communication between nurses and new mothers is less examined, and the specific experiences of those who have given birth via emergency c-section are to date unexamined.

Research Design and Methods: Participants will be patients in a hospital setting who have recently had an emergency c-section. A self-report survey will assess their satisfaction with nurse-patient communication and perceived health outcomes. A subset of participants will be selected for in-depth interviews to explore their experiences and perceptions of the communication with their nurses.

Timeline: The study will be conducted over a period of six months, including rolling recruitment, data collection, analysis, and report writing within the hospital.

Expected Outcomes and Implications: This study aims to provide evidence for the significance of nurse-patient communication in supporting new mothers who have had an emergency c-section. Recommendations will be presented for supporting nurses and midwives in improving outcomes for new mothers who had complications during birth.

5. Social Work Research Proposals

  • Experiences of negotiating employment and caring responsibilities of fathers post-divorce
  • Exploring kinship care in the north region of British Columbia

Consider this hypothetical social work research proposal:

The Role of a Family-Centered Intervention in Preventing Homelessness Among At-Risk Youthin a working-class town in Northern England

Abstract: This research proposal investigates the effectiveness of a family-centered intervention provided by a local council area in preventing homelessness among at-risk youth. This case study will use a mixed-methods approach with program evaluation data and semi-structured interviews to collect quantitative and qualitative data .

Introduction: Homelessness among youth remains a significant social issue. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of family-centered interventions in addressing this problem and identify factors that contribute to successful prevention strategies.

Literature Review: A review of the literature has demonstrated several key factors contributing to youth homelessness including lack of parental support, lack of social support, and low levels of family involvement. It also demonstrates the important role of family-centered interventions in addressing this issue. Drawing on current evidence, this study explores the effectiveness of one such intervention in preventing homelessness among at-risk youth in a working-class town in Northern England.

Research Design and Methods: The study will evaluate a new family-centered intervention program targeting at-risk youth and their families. Quantitative data on program outcomes, including housing stability and family functioning, will be collected through program records and evaluation reports. Semi-structured interviews with program staff, participants, and relevant stakeholders will provide qualitative insights into the factors contributing to program success or failure.

Timeline: The study will be conducted over a period of six months, including recruitment, data collection, analysis, and report writing.

Budget: Expenses include access to program evaluation data, interview materials, data analysis software, and any related travel costs for in-person interviews.

Expected Outcomes and Implications: This study aims to provide evidence for the effectiveness of family-centered interventions in preventing youth homelessness, potentially informing the expansion of or necessary changes to social work practices in Northern England.

Research Proposal Template

Get your Detailed Template for Writing your Research Proposal Here (With AI Prompts!)

This is a template for a 2500-word research proposal. You may find it difficult to squeeze everything into this wordcount, but it’s a common wordcount for Honors and MA-level dissertations.

Your research proposal is where you really get going with your study. I’d strongly recommend working closely with your teacher in developing a research proposal that’s consistent with the requirements and culture of your institution, as in my experience it varies considerably. The above template is from my own courses that walk students through research proposals in a British School of Education.

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Home » How To Write A Proposal – Step By Step Guide [With Template]

How To Write A Proposal – Step By Step Guide [With Template]

Table of Contents

How To Write A Proposal

How To Write A Proposal

Writing a Proposal involves several key steps to effectively communicate your ideas and intentions to a target audience. Here’s a detailed breakdown of each step:

Identify the Purpose and Audience

  • Clearly define the purpose of your proposal: What problem are you addressing, what solution are you proposing, or what goal are you aiming to achieve?
  • Identify your target audience: Who will be reading your proposal? Consider their background, interests, and any specific requirements they may have.

Conduct Research

  • Gather relevant information: Conduct thorough research to support your proposal. This may involve studying existing literature, analyzing data, or conducting surveys/interviews to gather necessary facts and evidence.
  • Understand the context: Familiarize yourself with the current situation or problem you’re addressing. Identify any relevant trends, challenges, or opportunities that may impact your proposal.

Develop an Outline

  • Create a clear and logical structure: Divide your proposal into sections or headings that will guide your readers through the content.
  • Introduction: Provide a concise overview of the problem, its significance, and the proposed solution.
  • Background/Context: Offer relevant background information and context to help the readers understand the situation.
  • Objectives/Goals: Clearly state the objectives or goals of your proposal.
  • Methodology/Approach: Describe the approach or methodology you will use to address the problem.
  • Timeline/Schedule: Present a detailed timeline or schedule outlining the key milestones or activities.
  • Budget/Resources: Specify the financial and other resources required to implement your proposal.
  • Evaluation/Success Metrics: Explain how you will measure the success or effectiveness of your proposal.
  • Conclusion: Summarize the main points and restate the benefits of your proposal.

Write the Proposal

  • Grab attention: Start with a compelling opening statement or a brief story that hooks the reader.
  • Clearly state the problem: Clearly define the problem or issue you are addressing and explain its significance.
  • Present your proposal: Introduce your proposed solution, project, or idea and explain why it is the best approach.
  • State the objectives/goals: Clearly articulate the specific objectives or goals your proposal aims to achieve.
  • Provide supporting information: Present evidence, data, or examples to support your claims and justify your proposal.
  • Explain the methodology: Describe in detail the approach, methods, or strategies you will use to implement your proposal.
  • Address potential concerns: Anticipate and address any potential objections or challenges the readers may have and provide counterarguments or mitigation strategies.
  • Recap the main points: Summarize the key points you’ve discussed in the proposal.
  • Reinforce the benefits: Emphasize the positive outcomes, benefits, or impact your proposal will have.
  • Call to action: Clearly state what action you want the readers to take, such as approving the proposal, providing funding, or collaborating with you.

Review and Revise

  • Proofread for clarity and coherence: Check for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
  • Ensure a logical flow: Read through your proposal to ensure the ideas are presented in a logical order and are easy to follow.
  • Revise and refine: Fine-tune your proposal to make it concise, persuasive, and compelling.

Add Supplementary Materials

  • Attach relevant documents: Include any supporting materials that strengthen your proposal, such as research findings, charts, graphs, or testimonials.
  • Appendices: Add any additional information that might be useful but not essential to the main body of the proposal.

Formatting and Presentation

  • Follow the guidelines: Adhere to any specific formatting guidelines provided by the organization or institution to which you are submitting the proposal.
  • Use a professional tone and language: Ensure that your proposal is written in a clear, concise, and professional manner.
  • Use headings and subheadings: Organize your proposal with clear headings and subheadings to improve readability.
  • Pay attention to design: Use appropriate fonts, font sizes, and formatting styles to make your proposal visually appealing.
  • Include a cover page: Create a cover page that includes the title of your proposal, your name or organization, the date, and any other required information.

Seek Feedback

  • Share your proposal with trusted colleagues or mentors and ask for their feedback. Consider their suggestions for improvement and incorporate them into your proposal if necessary.

Finalize and Submit

  • Make any final revisions based on the feedback received.
  • Ensure that all required sections, attachments, and documentation are included.
  • Double-check for any formatting, grammar, or spelling errors.
  • Submit your proposal within the designated deadline and according to the submission guidelines provided.

Proposal Format

The format of a proposal can vary depending on the specific requirements of the organization or institution you are submitting it to. However, here is a general proposal format that you can follow:

1. Title Page:

  • Include the title of your proposal, your name or organization’s name, the date, and any other relevant information specified by the guidelines.

2. Executive Summary:

  •  Provide a concise overview of your proposal, highlighting the key points and objectives.
  • Summarize the problem, proposed solution, and anticipated benefits.
  • Keep it brief and engaging, as this section is often read first and should capture the reader’s attention.

3. Introduction:

  • State the problem or issue you are addressing and its significance.
  • Provide background information to help the reader understand the context and importance of the problem.
  • Clearly state the purpose and objectives of your proposal.

4. Problem Statement:

  • Describe the problem in detail, highlighting its impact and consequences.
  • Use data, statistics, or examples to support your claims and demonstrate the need for a solution.

5. Proposed Solution or Project Description:

  • Explain your proposed solution or project in a clear and detailed manner.
  • Describe how your solution addresses the problem and why it is the most effective approach.
  • Include information on the methods, strategies, or activities you will undertake to implement your solution.
  • Highlight any unique features, innovations, or advantages of your proposal.

6. Methodology:

  • Provide a step-by-step explanation of the methodology or approach you will use to implement your proposal.
  • Include a timeline or schedule that outlines the key milestones, tasks, and deliverables.
  • Clearly describe the resources, personnel, or expertise required for each phase of the project.

7. Evaluation and Success Metrics:

  • Explain how you will measure the success or effectiveness of your proposal.
  • Identify specific metrics, indicators, or evaluation methods that will be used.
  • Describe how you will track progress, gather feedback, and make adjustments as needed.
  • Present a detailed budget that outlines the financial resources required for your proposal.
  • Include all relevant costs, such as personnel, materials, equipment, and any other expenses.
  • Provide a justification for each item in the budget.

9. Conclusion:

  •  Summarize the main points of your proposal.
  •  Reiterate the benefits and positive outcomes of implementing your proposal.
  • Emphasize the value and impact it will have on the organization or community.

10. Appendices:

  • Include any additional supporting materials, such as research findings, charts, graphs, or testimonials.
  •  Attach any relevant documents that provide further information but are not essential to the main body of the proposal.

Proposal Template

Here’s a basic proposal template that you can use as a starting point for creating your own proposal:

Dear [Recipient’s Name],

I am writing to submit a proposal for [briefly state the purpose of the proposal and its significance]. This proposal outlines a comprehensive solution to address [describe the problem or issue] and presents an actionable plan to achieve the desired objectives.

Thank you for considering this proposal. I believe that implementing this solution will significantly contribute to [organization’s or community’s goals]. I am available to discuss the proposal in more detail at your convenience. Please feel free to contact me at [your email address or phone number].

Yours sincerely,

Note: This template is a starting point and should be customized to meet the specific requirements and guidelines provided by the organization or institution to which you are submitting the proposal.

Proposal Sample

Here’s a sample proposal to give you an idea of how it could be structured and written:

Subject : Proposal for Implementation of Environmental Education Program

I am pleased to submit this proposal for your consideration, outlining a comprehensive plan for the implementation of an Environmental Education Program. This program aims to address the critical need for environmental awareness and education among the community, with the objective of fostering a sense of responsibility and sustainability.

Executive Summary: Our proposed Environmental Education Program is designed to provide engaging and interactive educational opportunities for individuals of all ages. By combining classroom learning, hands-on activities, and community engagement, we aim to create a long-lasting impact on environmental conservation practices and attitudes.

Introduction: The state of our environment is facing significant challenges, including climate change, habitat loss, and pollution. It is essential to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills to understand these issues and take action. This proposal seeks to bridge the gap in environmental education and inspire a sense of environmental stewardship among the community.

Problem Statement: The lack of environmental education programs has resulted in limited awareness and understanding of environmental issues. As a result, individuals are less likely to adopt sustainable practices or actively contribute to conservation efforts. Our program aims to address this gap and empower individuals to become environmentally conscious and responsible citizens.

Proposed Solution or Project Description: Our Environmental Education Program will comprise a range of activities, including workshops, field trips, and community initiatives. We will collaborate with local schools, community centers, and environmental organizations to ensure broad participation and maximum impact. By incorporating interactive learning experiences, such as nature walks, recycling drives, and eco-craft sessions, we aim to make environmental education engaging and enjoyable.

Methodology: Our program will be structured into modules that cover key environmental themes, such as biodiversity, climate change, waste management, and sustainable living. Each module will include a mix of classroom sessions, hands-on activities, and practical field experiences. We will also leverage technology, such as educational apps and online resources, to enhance learning outcomes.

Evaluation and Success Metrics: We will employ a combination of quantitative and qualitative measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the program. Pre- and post-assessments will gauge knowledge gain, while surveys and feedback forms will assess participant satisfaction and behavior change. We will also track the number of community engagement activities and the adoption of sustainable practices as indicators of success.

Budget: Please find attached a detailed budget breakdown for the implementation of the Environmental Education Program. The budget covers personnel costs, materials and supplies, transportation, and outreach expenses. We have ensured cost-effectiveness while maintaining the quality and impact of the program.

Conclusion: By implementing this Environmental Education Program, we have the opportunity to make a significant difference in our community’s environmental consciousness and practices. We are confident that this program will foster a generation of individuals who are passionate about protecting our environment and taking sustainable actions. We look forward to discussing the proposal further and working together to make a positive impact.

Thank you for your time and consideration. Should you have any questions or require additional information, please do not hesitate to contact me at [your email address or phone number].

About the author

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Muhammad Hassan

Researcher, Academic Writer, Web developer

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What (Exactly) Is A Research Proposal?

A simple explainer with examples + free template.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | June 2020 (Updated April 2023)

Whether you’re nearing the end of your degree and your dissertation is on the horizon, or you’re planning to apply for a PhD program, chances are you’ll need to craft a convincing research proposal . If you’re on this page, you’re probably unsure exactly what the research proposal is all about. Well, you’ve come to the right place.

Overview: Research Proposal Basics

  • What a research proposal is
  • What a research proposal needs to cover
  • How to structure your research proposal
  • Example /sample proposals
  • Proposal writing FAQs
  • Key takeaways & additional resources

What is a research proposal?

Simply put, a research proposal is a structured, formal document that explains what you plan to research (your research topic), why it’s worth researching (your justification), and how  you plan to investigate it (your methodology). 

The purpose of the research proposal (its job, so to speak) is to convince  your research supervisor, committee or university that your research is  suitable  (for the requirements of the degree program) and  manageable  (given the time and resource constraints you will face). 

The most important word here is “ convince ” – in other words, your research proposal needs to  sell  your research idea (to whoever is going to approve it). If it doesn’t convince them (of its suitability and manageability), you’ll need to revise and resubmit . This will cost you valuable time, which will either delay the start of your research or eat into its time allowance (which is bad news). 

A research proposal is a  formal document that explains what you plan to research , why it's worth researching and how you'll do it.

What goes into a research proposal?

A good dissertation or thesis proposal needs to cover the “ what “, “ why ” and” how ” of the proposed study. Let’s look at each of these attributes in a little more detail:

Your proposal needs to clearly articulate your research topic . This needs to be specific and unambiguous . Your research topic should make it clear exactly what you plan to research and in what context. Here’s an example of a well-articulated research topic:

An investigation into the factors which impact female Generation Y consumer’s likelihood to promote a specific makeup brand to their peers: a British context

As you can see, this topic is extremely clear. From this one line we can see exactly:

  • What’s being investigated – factors that make people promote or advocate for a brand of a specific makeup brand
  • Who it involves – female Gen-Y consumers
  • In what context – the United Kingdom

So, make sure that your research proposal provides a detailed explanation of your research topic . If possible, also briefly outline your research aims and objectives , and perhaps even your research questions (although in some cases you’ll only develop these at a later stage). Needless to say, don’t start writing your proposal until you have a clear topic in mind , or you’ll end up waffling and your research proposal will suffer as a result of this.

Need a helping hand?

example of an proposal paper

As we touched on earlier, it’s not good enough to simply propose a research topic – you need to justify why your topic is original . In other words, what makes it  unique ? What gap in the current literature does it fill? If it’s simply a rehash of the existing research, it’s probably not going to get approval – it needs to be fresh.

But,  originality  alone is not enough. Once you’ve ticked that box, you also need to justify why your proposed topic is  important . In other words, what value will it add to the world if you achieve your research aims?

As an example, let’s look at the sample research topic we mentioned earlier (factors impacting brand advocacy). In this case, if the research could uncover relevant factors, these findings would be very useful to marketers in the cosmetics industry, and would, therefore, have commercial value . That is a clear justification for the research.

So, when you’re crafting your research proposal, remember that it’s not enough for a topic to simply be unique. It needs to be useful and value-creating – and you need to convey that value in your proposal. If you’re struggling to find a research topic that makes the cut, watch  our video covering how to find a research topic .

Free Webinar: How To Write A Research Proposal

It’s all good and well to have a great topic that’s original and valuable, but you’re not going to convince anyone to approve it without discussing the practicalities – in other words:

  • How will you actually undertake your research (i.e., your methodology)?
  • Is your research methodology appropriate given your research aims?
  • Is your approach manageable given your constraints (time, money, etc.)?

While it’s generally not expected that you’ll have a fully fleshed-out methodology at the proposal stage, you’ll likely still need to provide a high-level overview of your research methodology . Here are some important questions you’ll need to address in your research proposal:

  • Will you take a qualitative , quantitative or mixed -method approach?
  • What sampling strategy will you adopt?
  • How will you collect your data (e.g., interviews, surveys, etc)?
  • How will you analyse your data (e.g., descriptive and inferential statistics , content analysis, discourse analysis, etc, .)?
  • What potential limitations will your methodology carry?

So, be sure to give some thought to the practicalities of your research and have at least a basic methodological plan before you start writing up your proposal. If this all sounds rather intimidating, the video below provides a good introduction to research methodology and the key choices you’ll need to make.

How To Structure A Research Proposal

Now that we’ve covered the key points that need to be addressed in a proposal, you may be wondering, “ But how is a research proposal structured? “.

While the exact structure and format required for a research proposal differs from university to university, there are four “essential ingredients” that commonly make up the structure of a research proposal:

  • A rich introduction and background to the proposed research
  • An initial literature review covering the existing research
  • An overview of the proposed research methodology
  • A discussion regarding the practicalities (project plans, timelines, etc.)

In the video below, we unpack each of these four sections, step by step.

Research Proposal Examples/Samples

In the video below, we provide a detailed walkthrough of two successful research proposals (Master’s and PhD-level), as well as our popular free proposal template.

Proposal Writing FAQs

How long should a research proposal be.

This varies tremendously, depending on the university, the field of study (e.g., social sciences vs natural sciences), and the level of the degree (e.g. undergraduate, Masters or PhD) – so it’s always best to check with your university what their specific requirements are before you start planning your proposal.

As a rough guide, a formal research proposal at Masters-level often ranges between 2000-3000 words, while a PhD-level proposal can be far more detailed, ranging from 5000-8000 words. In some cases, a rough outline of the topic is all that’s needed, while in other cases, universities expect a very detailed proposal that essentially forms the first three chapters of the dissertation or thesis.

The takeaway – be sure to check with your institution before you start writing.

How do I choose a topic for my research proposal?

Finding a good research topic is a process that involves multiple steps. We cover the topic ideation process in this video post.

How do I write a literature review for my proposal?

While you typically won’t need a comprehensive literature review at the proposal stage, you still need to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the key literature and are able to synthesise it. We explain the literature review process here.

How do I create a timeline and budget for my proposal?

We explain how to craft a project plan/timeline and budget in Research Proposal Bootcamp .

Which referencing format should I use in my research proposal?

The expectations and requirements regarding formatting and referencing vary from institution to institution. Therefore, you’ll need to check this information with your university.

What common proposal writing mistakes do I need to look out for?

We’ve create a video post about some of the most common mistakes students make when writing a proposal – you can access that here . If you’re short on time, here’s a quick summary:

  • The research topic is too broad (or just poorly articulated).
  • The research aims, objectives and questions don’t align.
  • The research topic is not well justified.
  • The study has a weak theoretical foundation.
  • The research design is not well articulated well enough.
  • Poor writing and sloppy presentation.
  • Poor project planning and risk management.
  • Not following the university’s specific criteria.

Key Takeaways & Additional Resources

As you write up your research proposal, remember the all-important core purpose:  to convince . Your research proposal needs to sell your study in terms of suitability and viability. So, focus on crafting a convincing narrative to ensure a strong proposal.

At the same time, pay close attention to your university’s requirements. While we’ve covered the essentials here, every institution has its own set of expectations and it’s essential that you follow these to maximise your chances of approval.

By the way, we’ve got plenty more resources to help you fast-track your research proposal. Here are some of our most popular resources to get you started:

  • Proposal Writing 101 : A Introductory Webinar
  • Research Proposal Bootcamp : The Ultimate Online Course
  • Template : A basic template to help you craft your proposal

If you’re looking for 1-on-1 support with your research proposal, be sure to check out our private coaching service , where we hold your hand through the proposal development process (and the entire research journey), step by step.

Literature Review Course

Psst… there’s more!

This post is an extract from our bestselling Udemy Course, Research Proposal Bootcamp . If you want to work smart, you don't want to miss this .

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50 Comments

Myrna Pereira

I truly enjoyed this video, as it was eye-opening to what I have to do in the preparation of preparing a Research proposal.

I would be interested in getting some coaching.

BARAKAELI TEREVAELI

I real appreciate on your elaboration on how to develop research proposal,the video explains each steps clearly.

masebo joseph

Thank you for the video. It really assisted me and my niece. I am a PhD candidate and she is an undergraduate student. It is at times, very difficult to guide a family member but with this video, my job is done.

In view of the above, I welcome more coaching.

Zakia Ghafoor

Wonderful guidelines, thanks

Annie Malupande

This is very helpful. Would love to continue even as I prepare for starting my masters next year.

KYARIKUNDA MOREEN

Thanks for the work done, the text was helpful to me

Ahsanullah Mangal

Bundle of thanks to you for the research proposal guide it was really good and useful if it is possible please send me the sample of research proposal

Derek Jansen

You’re most welcome. We don’t have any research proposals that we can share (the students own the intellectual property), but you might find our research proposal template useful: https://gradcoach.com/research-proposal-template/

Cheruiyot Moses Kipyegon

Cheruiyot Moses Kipyegon

Thanks alot. It was an eye opener that came timely enough before my imminent proposal defense. Thanks, again

agnelius

thank you very much your lesson is very interested may God be with you

Abubakar

I am an undergraduate student (First Degree) preparing to write my project,this video and explanation had shed more light to me thanks for your efforts keep it up.

Synthia Atieno

Very useful. I am grateful.

belina nambeya

this is a very a good guidance on research proposal, for sure i have learnt something

Wonderful guidelines for writing a research proposal, I am a student of m.phil( education), this guideline is suitable for me. Thanks

You’re welcome 🙂

Marjorie

Thank you, this was so helpful.

Amitash Degan

A really great and insightful video. It opened my eyes as to how to write a research paper. I would like to receive more guidance for writing my research paper from your esteemed faculty.

Glaudia Njuguna

Thank you, great insights

Thank you, great insights, thank you so much, feeling edified

Yebirgual

Wow thank you, great insights, thanks a lot

Roseline Soetan

Thank you. This is a great insight. I am a student preparing for a PhD program. I am requested to write my Research Proposal as part of what I am required to submit before my unconditional admission. I am grateful having listened to this video which will go a long way in helping me to actually choose a topic of interest and not just any topic as well as to narrow down the topic and be specific about it. I indeed need more of this especially as am trying to choose a topic suitable for a DBA am about embarking on. Thank you once more. The video is indeed helpful.

Rebecca

Have learnt a lot just at the right time. Thank you so much.

laramato ikayo

thank you very much ,because have learn a lot things concerning research proposal and be blessed u for your time that you providing to help us

Cheruiyot M Kipyegon

Hi. For my MSc medical education research, please evaluate this topic for me: Training Needs Assessment of Faculty in Medical Training Institutions in Kericho and Bomet Counties

Rebecca

I have really learnt a lot based on research proposal and it’s formulation

Arega Berlie

Thank you. I learn much from the proposal since it is applied

Siyanda

Your effort is much appreciated – you have good articulation.

You have good articulation.

Douglas Eliaba

I do applaud your simplified method of explaining the subject matter, which indeed has broaden my understanding of the subject matter. Definitely this would enable me writing a sellable research proposal.

Weluzani

This really helping

Roswitta

Great! I liked your tutoring on how to find a research topic and how to write a research proposal. Precise and concise. Thank you very much. Will certainly share this with my students. Research made simple indeed.

Alice Kuyayama

Thank you very much. I an now assist my students effectively.

Thank you very much. I can now assist my students effectively.

Abdurahman Bayoh

I need any research proposal

Silverline

Thank you for these videos. I will need chapter by chapter assistance in writing my MSc dissertation

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How to Write a Proposal and Get What You Want (Free Templates)

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A proposal has a lot of different purposes, but there’s only one good way to write one: the way that pulls together all of the information in a concise and persuasive way and helps you get what you want … whether that’s a whole new software system, or just a tweak to your marketing strategy.

This Process Street article isn’t about a business proposal — also known as a quote — but instead about the document required when formally pitching an idea for action and execution by managers or department heads .

To explain how to write a proposal document and get what you want, we’ll go through the following:

Free proposal writing template

When are proposals necessary, why are proposals important, examples of proposals, how to write a proposal: step-by-step, last steps before submitting the proposal, more free proposal writing checklists, even more free proposal writing checklists, customize your proposal checklists with process street.

Let’s get started.

If you fancy taking a quick look at a free interactive template, that will help you write your proposals right away, feel free to dive straight into this!

Writing a Proposal: Step-by-Step Guide

There are more templates, like this one, further down in this post, so stick around.

Any project you don’t have the clearance or authority to start without a higher-up’s approval, you need to submit a proposal for.

According to SSWM , a proposal is “a detailed description of a series of activities aimed at solving a certain problem”.

That problem  could be anything, from:

  • Process improvement
  • Cost reduction
  • A new marketing strategy

If it’s an idea you need to ask permission to execute, or to get action on, it needs a proposal.

A proposal is a way to pitch an idea and state your requirements, so it’s important for supervisors because they can get information in writing (not casually in the elevator), and be able to act knowing the full implications of their decision.

They’re also a chance for you to make a structured, logical argument and lay down everything in favor of your idea. A well-written proposal shows your manager you care about the cause, and it’s not just a mid-meeting whim you blurted out.

To write a top proposal you need to scrutinize it before you present it.

It’s a broad topic, but it’s best explained with examples.

  • Proposal for Process Improvement
  • Proposal for Server Replacement
  • Proposal for Cost Savings

Below is a simple proposal example with some basic sections.

example of an proposal paper

Now let’s take a look at how to write a proposal — whether it’s as simple as the one above, or more complex.

Here’s the general structure of a proposal:

example of an proposal paper

As you can see, a proposal generally consists of:

  • Introduction : A brief overview of the problem, solution, costs, and benefits.
  • Issue : The main definition of the issue, including subject, purpose, main argument, background information and importance.
  • Solution : The main definition of the solution, including your step-by-step plan, the benefits, and how potential obstacles will be overcame.
  • Qualifications : Overview of the personnel required, experience.
  • Conclusion of the costs and benefits, and wrap-up : Balance the cost against the benefit, reinforce your point one last time.

1. Identify and define your reader

Just like with any kind of persuasion, it helps if you understand how to appeal to your audience. Who will be reading your proposal and deciding if it’s accepted or rejected? What do they care about? What kind of language and benefits would resonate with them? This is the first step because it’s an important thing to keep in mind as you go along and as information that informs the way you write from here on.

2. Define the problem your proposal will solve

Who : Who will the proposal affect?

What : What’s the reason for you to write the proposal in the first place? Explain the current situation and the problems that come with it.

3. Define the solution

How : How are you going to solve the problem? Explain step-by-step in detail.

Who : Identify the personnel you need, along with their prior experience to add persuasion to the proposal

4. Conclusion: costs, benefits and wrap-up

Reiterate : The purpose and main argument

Costs : Break down the projected costs involved for different elements of the project

Benefits : Break down the benefits to the organization, monetary and non-monetary, to persuade the reader there’ll be a return on investment

Thanks : Thank the reader for their time.

Contact information : Where can the reader get in touch with you? Make sure to be crystal clear to make the details easily discoverable.

Clear writing is your best friend when you’re trying to write persuasively. For that reason, there are a few checks to run before you submit your proposal.

Remember, what’s clear to you might not always be clear to other people.

1 .Check for jargon (then destroy it)

Although jargon is popular in the business world, not everyone shares the equal love for it. It’s terms like right-size, blue sky (verb), turn-key, and synergize. They might mean something to you, or make you feel intelligent, but there are simpler alternatives that will help people understand what you mean !

2. Change the passive voice to the active voice

The passive voice is defined as :

“The noun or noun phrase that would be the object of an active sentence (such as Our troops defeated the enemy) appears as the subject of a sentence with passive voice (e.g. The enemy was defeated by our troops).”.

It’s a long-winded way of expressing something that could be expressed in simple terms:

passivevoice

The passive voice sounds distant and even deceptive, and, since the reader might even just be skimming your proposal, you don’t want to add extra words to cloud your point.

3. Proofread the proposal

Install a tool like Grammarly and check the proposal in an online text editor. Grammarly will manage to pick up on anything that is grammatically incorrect and sometimes even flags up stylistically poor phrases. Poor spelling and grammar will only discredit the value of what you’re saying and could be a problem that leads to your proposal being rejected.

As promised, check out the below five templates that have each been designed by the team at Process Street — makers of the finest remote work software for processes around — to help you write winning proposals.

Proposal Template Checklist Process

This proposal template is a checklist that should be used alongside the proposal document you are planning to submit. Use it to make sure that all the elements have been considered, that the proposal contains everything it needs to and that it meets all set requirements.

Click here to access the Proposal Template Checklist Process!

Business Proposal Template Checklist

Whether your business proposal is solicited or unsolicited, use this business proposal template checklist to ensure you include all the required information in your proposal and cover key areas such as these the problem the organization is facing, the proposed solution, the budget, and a key CTA.

Click here to access the Business Proposal Template Checklist!

How to Write a Grant Proposal Checklist

Use this template to make sure your grant proposal includes all the relevant information, that it contains everything it needs to, and that it meets all stated RFP requirements.

Click here to access the How to Write a Grant Proposal Checklist!

Research Proposal Example Checklist

Use this template to convince others that you have a worthwhile research project and that you have the competence and the work-plan to complete it.

Click here to access the Research Proposal Example Checklist!

Project Proposal Template Checklist

Use this template, alongside the proposal document you are planning to submit, to set the project vision, define the project requirements, describe the deliverables, and specify the deadlines.

Click here to access the Project Proposal Template Checklist!

If you’re looking for more inspiration, give these alternative proposal writing templates a go too.

  • Bid Proposal Template Checklist
  • Budget Proposal Template
  • Construction Proposal Template Checklist
  • Consulting Proposal Template Checklist
  • Continuation Project Proposal Template
  • Contractor Proposal Template Checklist
  • Event Proposal Template Checklist
  • Marketing Proposal Template Checklist
  • Project Proposal Template
  • Renewal Project Proposal Template
  • Simple Proposal Format Checklist
  • Sponsorship Proposal Template Checklist
  • Supplemental Project Proposal Template
  • Website Proposal Template Checklist

If the above templates don’t quite fit your company, industry, or the proposal document you are writing, don’t worry!

Process Street to the rescue!

Process Street is super-powered checklists . We are a super-charged, state of the art BPM SaaS platform which allows you to create templates and run individual checklists from these. You can check tasks off as you work through them, set deadlines, request approvals, assign various tasks , and work through your proposal workflows with ease.

Watch this to get an idea about who we are and what we do:

To help you customize your proposal writing template, and make your proposal wriitng easier, you can use all these different types of Process Street features:

  • Dynamic due dates
  • Task permissions
  • Conditional logic
  • Approval tasks
  • Embed widget
  • Role assignments

You can also connect your templates to thousands of apps through Zapier , webhooks, or API access to automate your proposal processes and workflows.

If you’re unfamiliar with process automation, what it means, and the benefits it can bring to your business, watch this Process Street webinar on automation:

Remember, if you want to get access to any of our proposal writing checklists, just click the links above and they will be added to your Process Street account where you can use them over and over again. Or, if you haven’t yet signed up for a Process Street account, click here and start your free trial.

Has this guide helped you out? I’d love to hear about it in the comments.

Get our posts & product updates earlier by simply subscribing

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Benjamin Brandall

Benjamin Brandall is a content marketer at Process Street .

90 Comments

I am strongly looking forward to learning how to write a proposal, thanks

Thanks Honar, it’s an honor to have you here 😉

I am looking forward to learning how to write a great proposal. Thanks for posting this site.

Practice makes perfect, just keep it up and you will get there!

Looking forward for you to checklist and using it to edit my proposal…. thx a lot

Awesome, and remember you can sign up for a free account for life, no credit card required to run up to 5 checklists for proposals or anything else!. Check out more about Process Street here: https://www.process.st/product/

I really loved your paper on how to write a proposal. I looked up others and found total satisfaction when I came across yours! Thanks again Tanya Palacios

We are very pleased to hear that.

thanks a lot for helping me understand proposal writing more clearly. Am very grateful.

Of course, proposal writing can be tricky, but if you follow the templates we provide you will quickly see it’s not that difficult. Proposals follow the same structure most of the time, once you learn that structure it’s easy to create proposals quickly.

Very nice and excellent advice and coaching on proposals writing. I will always keep in touch for more information.

Excellent writing Benjamin. Definitely agree with the destroying jargons part. There’s no need for these kinds of words for project proposals. Anyway, here’s an informative step-by-step guide that I’d like to share regarding writing project proposals: https://www.freenvoices.com/how-to-write-project-proposal . I believe that this will complement your well-written article and your readers too. 🙂

Great post Evatt, thanks for sharing!

I am in the process of drafting a proposal for a multi-million deal. Looking forward to getting pointers to make my proposal a seller!

After reading your post,it now became crystal clear that proposals are not easy…But thanks alot. You’re a good teacher

Hey Vitalis, yes they take some practice but you will get there. Just keep it up!

i want to write proposal for study PhD but i dont know how to write it can you send to me example thank you very much best regards

Hi Mays, There’s some good advice here in regards to writing a PhD proposal: https://www.findaphd.com/advice/finding/writing-phd-research-proposal.aspx

My personal advice would be to really demonstrate strength when outlining your methodology. This section is a great opportunity to display deep knowledge of methodological approaches and their academic grounding. Make sure to cite the foundational texts for the approach you want to take and to reference current academic discussions pertinent to your particular application of that approach. If you can find a recently published PhD thesis which takes a similar methodological approach to you own then you can read through their methodology section to give yourself both inspiration and a great starting point for building a methodology reading list for yourself.

Best of luck!

Además, asimismo desarrolla otros proyectos de formación en línea sobre marketing digital y nuevas tecnologías con la finalidad de instruir a emprendedores de qué forma crear un proyecto digital para vender sus conocimientos.

Your blog is very informative. Nice you tried to provide a crystal clear information on this topic!

Nice one, at least have got an idea now about proposal writing

Appreciate the guidelines on how to write an explicit formal proposal.

You are most welcome Ogoh, we’d love any feedback you may have in the future!

Appreciate for providing knowledge on proposal writing

I’m really happy to learn from this paper.I’ve increased my knowledge in proposal writing.Thanks

Wow! You’re really doing a nice work, really haven’t got it detailed and simplified before.

Nice job. I am a professional proposal writer in lagos Nigeria and I must confess that you have done a good job on this article. I learnt a few new things. Keep up the god work

Thanks Mr Sam, always good to have the support of an expert.

the explanation is very complete I am happy to be able to find articles on various types of letters and I can learn here thanks for all the articles

We tried our best Zaki, thanks for the kind words

nice suggestions. thanks

Thanx for the great work U have done towards my exprienc on Proposal writing.May God bless U.

You did a great job in outlining all the nitty-gritty of writing a great proposal in this article. Kudos!

Thank for sharing this knowledge

It was a pleasure!

Write a comment…great work but I need a proposal on how to start car wash business inside school

Thank you for the little experience I have achieved on proposal writing. Can you give me a broad idea on a proposal I wan to write, I want to do a Clean City proposal…

Hey Darious, check out these posts we wrote on sustainability: https://www.process.st/corporate-sustainability/ https://www.process.st/sustainable-business/

so grateful for the information.

Very happy to learn how to write a proposal from you.

Very happy to help you 🙂

Very informative, really appreciated your expertise. I learned quite a bit. Thank you, I’m all set, also number two (2.) Change the passive voice to the active voice is something for me to remember when I’m writing.

Yes that’s a great tip!

It is really great, I would like to know more about writing a great proposal about enhancing bank customer service

Sounds like an important project, you might also enjoy this post: https://www.process.st/enterprise-risk-management/

I sincerely appreciate you for this brilliant presentation. I still need to know more about the solicited proposals. Thanks!

I would like to know how to write a good proposal .

I’m looking forward to be the best in writing proposal, in the organization

Good luck with your endeavors Paul!

I want to learn how to write project proposals

I have an idea of how to write the proposal but would am unsure and would rather see what the experts have to say about it. Thanks!

I want to write a proposal to get a generator for my hospital as a back up

This piece has given me a clearer understanding on how to and what to look out for in writing a proposal. But I will be more grateful if u can give me a template and points on how to write a proposal to a state government to train their young people on drug abuse and how to minimize the current menace it is causing to our society. Thanks, it was a nice experience.

Glad to hear you liked it. We don’t have any templates specific to that use case, but we will look to create some more soon. Cheers, Adam

Glad you enjoyed the experience 🙂

Thanks very much for the well explained presentation.

Hello. This is very good and helpful, I need help to write a proposal for freelancing and content writing. Thanks

I’m not sure if this is what you’re looking for, but we have an article here about pitching to TechCrunch: https://www.process.st/write-for-techcrunch/

I hope it helps!

Cheers, Adam

You are most welcome!

I never knew on how to write a proposal but now I have got something from you thank you. But I would like an example of a professional proposal …… as for me am writing a proposal on the need to make clubs for youth of East Africa based science, technology and arts plz I need it very soon even today

We don’t currently have any examples for you, but we are working on a set of processes to follow to help people write proposals like these. It should be published in a few weeks.

For the time being, perhaps look at what different organizations say they want. Here are a few examples from the UK:

– Warwickshire Community And Voluntary Action (CAVA) have this document where they ask people to send them proposals to start youth programmes. They explain what they are looking for and how they will judge the proposal.

– Here is another example but this time from an organization in Manchester, UK. This has instructions and requirements, and you can use its specifications as inspiration for how to create your proposal.

I hope some of this makes the proposal writing process clearer.

Best of luck, Adam

This may also help: https://www.process.st/proposal-template/

Good luck with your proposal Naomi! Sounds like it’s for a great cause..

Thats great. I have learned alot thanks.

I need to know how to write a proposal writing. Can u give an example plzz…..

Hi Sapioamoa, you can find a collection of examples here: https://www.process.st/proposal-template/

I hope this helps! Adam

i thank you for that and now i am requesting for help, i am a student first year and my ambition is to help the orphans i would like you to help me how to write a proposal of that kind. thank you.

Hey Deo. It sounds like you’re doing great work. Check out these proposal templates . They should help you!

thank you so much sir

Living in a rural setting in Uganda- am writing a proposal to ask for financial donations to buy agricultural inputs, medical assistance etc for my community- this website has helped to put ideas together and to hopefully come out with a winner! Thank you!.

That’s great to hear we’ve been able to help! Best of luck Catherine!

am very greatful to receive such an skillful knowledge from you,but may i pls receive a sample of how to write a proposal for starting a small scale printing firm just in kenya.

thank you in advance

Thanks for the kind comment, Elijah. You might be able to find some more useful information in our most recent article about proposals (with lots more templates) here: https://www.process.st/proposal-template/

Nice one. Thanks for this.

Glad to hear it helped, Deji!

Glad you enjoyed this, Lillian! ⭐️

This is what i was looking for so long. Thanks for summing up all these informations about how to write a proposal. I’m really glad that you add these free template 🙂

Awesome, glad you enjoyed the templates. Was there a particular one that you found most helpful?

Are you still free to give feedback? Happy New Year btw.

Sure we are here to give feedback! Just leave your question about proposal writing in the comments and we will get back to you as soon as we can.

I feel this is among the most vital information for me.

And i’m glad reading your article. But want to statement on few normal things, The web site style is perfect, the articles is truly excellent : D. Excellent activity, cheers

Glad to hear you enjoyed it!

Hi,have learned a lot from you,could you please help me to write a proposal how to spend on projects in a christian organization Thanks

Not sure how that would be any different, but if you have a specific question about writing proposals I’d be happy to answer it 🙂

Thanks sir for your post. I’am very greatful to receive such an skillful knowledge from you

Any organization needs a visual identity these days. It includes a unique logo, colors, wordmark, typeface, and some visual elements like illustrations and iconography that makes a memorable first impression and sets the brand apart from the competitors.

Am glad to have gotten more ideas than I expected on how to write a proposal. All in one article.

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How to Write a Proposal

Last Updated: January 1, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Dave Labowitz . Dave Labowitz is a Business Coach who helps pre-entrepreneurs, solopreneurs/entrepreneurs, and team leaders start, scale, and lead their businesses and teams. Before beginning his coaching career, Dave was a startup executive who spent over a decade building high-growth companies. Dave’s “path less traveled” life includes adventures such as dropping out of high school, co-authoring a book in the Smithsonian Institute, and getting his MBA at Pepperdine’s Graziadio Business School. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 3,989,764 times.

Writing a good proposal is a critical skill in many occupations, from school to business management to geology. The goal of a proposal is to gain support for your plan by informing the appropriate people. Your ideas or suggestions are more likely to be approved if you can communicate them in a clear, concise, engaging manner. Knowing how to write a persuasive, captivating proposal is essential for success in many fields. There are several types of proposals, such as science proposals and book proposals, but each following the same basic guidelines.

Sample Proposals

example of an proposal paper

Planning Your Proposal

Step 1 Define your audience.

  • Who will be reading your proposal? What level of familiarity with your topic will they have? What might you need to define or give extra background information about?
  • What do you want your audience to get from your proposal? What do you need to give your readers, so they can make the decision you want them to make?
  • Refine your tone to meet your audience's expectations and desires. What do they want to hear? What would be the most effective way of getting through to them? How can you help them understand what you're trying to say?

Step 2 Define your issue.

  • What is the situation this issue applies to?
  • What are the reasons behind this?
  • Are we certain that those, and not others, are the real reasons? How are we sure of it?
  • Has anyone ever tried to deal with this issue before?
  • If yes: has it worked? Why?
  • If no: why not?

Tip: Use your summary to show that you've conducted in-depth research to evaluate and understand the issue. Include only the information that's most relevant to your topic, and avoid writing a summary that's obvious to anyone in the field.

Step 3 Define your solution.

  • Your proposal needs to define a problem and offer a solution that will convince uninterested, skeptical readers to support it. Your audience may not be the easiest crowd to win over. Is the solution you're offering logical and feasible? What's the timeline for your implementation?
  • Consider thinking about your solution in terms of objectives. Your primary objective is the goal that you truly must achieve with your project. Secondary objectives are other goals that you hope your project achieves.
  • Another helpful way of thinking about your solution is in terms of "outcomes" and "deliverables." Outcomes are the quantifiable results of your objectives. For example, if your proposal is for a business project and your objective is "increase profit," an outcome might be "increase profit by $100,000." Deliverables are products or services that you will deliver with your project. For example, a proposal for a science project could "deliver" a vaccine or a new drug. Readers of proposals look for outcomes and deliverables because they are easy ways of determining what the "worth" of the project will be.

Step 4 Keep elements of style in mind.

  • How are you going to be persuasive? Convincing proposals can use emotional appeals, but should always rely on facts as the bedrock of the argument. For example, a proposal to start a panda conservation program could mention how sad it would be for the children of future generations to never see a panda again, but it shouldn't stop there. It would need to base its argument on facts and solutions for the proposal to be convincing.

Avoid writing in jargon and using obscure abbreviations or needlessly complex language. Instead, write in plain, direct language as much as possible.

For example, instead of saying "rectification of a workplace imbalance," you could simply write, "let employees go."

Step 5 Make an outline.

  • Your outline should consist of your problem, your solution, how you'll solve it, why your solution is best, and a conclusion. If you're writing an executive proposal, you'll need to include things like a budget analysis and organizational details.

Writing Your Own Proposal

Step 1 Start with a firm introduction.

  • If you have any stark facts that shed some light on why the issue needs to be addressed and addressed immediately, it's a safe bet that's something you can start with. Whatever it is, make sure what you start out with is a fact and not an opinion.

Step 2 State the problem.

  • Emphasize why your problem needs to be solved and needs to be solved now. How will it affect your audience if left alone? Make sure to answer all questions and cover them with research and facts. Use credible sources liberally.

Tip: Make the issue as relevant to the audience as you can. Tie it to their interest or goal as directly as you can. Make it specific to them, and avoid relying solely on generic appeal to emotions or values.

Step 3 Propose solutions.

  • Discuss the larger impact of your ideas. Ideas that seem of limited applicability aren't as likely to spark enthusiasm in readers as ideas that could have widespread effects. Example: "Greater knowledge of tuna behavior can allow us to create a more comprehensive management strategy and ensure canned tuna for future generations."
  • Addressing why you will do something is as significant as stating what you will do. Presume that your readers are skeptical and will not accept your ideas at face value. If you're proposing to do a catch-and-release study of 2,000 wild tuna, why? Why is that better than something else? If it's more expensive than another option, why can't you use the cheaper option? Anticipating and addressing these questions will show that you've considered your idea from all angles.
  • Your readers should leave your paper assured that you can solve the problem effectively. Literally, everything you write should either address the problem or how to solve it.
  • Research your proposal extensively. The more examples and facts you can give your audience, the better -- it'll be much more convincing. Avoid your opinions and rely on the hard research of others.
  • If your proposal doesn't prove that your solution works, it's not an adequate solution. If your solution isn't feasible, nix it. Think about the results of your solution, too. Pre-test it if possible and revise your solution if need be.

Step 4 Include a schedule and budget.

  • Your readers probably understand that your budget may change, especially if this is a startup project, but they want to see that you at least have a cohesive plan. They have to see that you know directionally where you're going to spend the money and how long it's going to last.
  • When do you envision the project starting? At what pace will it progress? How does each step build on the other? Can certain things be done simultaneously? Being as meticulous as possible will give your readers confidence that you've done your homework and won't waste their money.
  • Make sure your proposal makes sense financially. If you're proposing an idea to a company or a person, consider their budget. If they can't afford your proposal, it's not an adequate one. If it does fit their budget, be sure to include why it's worth their time and money.

Tip: Stay away from vague or unrelated objectives! Include details, responsibilities, and time commitments for departments and individual staff.

Step 5 Wrap up with a conclusion.

  • If you have extra content that doesn't exactly fit into your proposal, you may want to add an appendix. But know that if your paper is too bulky, it may scare people off. If you're in doubt, leave it out.
  • If you have two or more appendices attached to your proposal, letter them A, B, etc. This can be used if you have data sheets, reprints of articles, or letters of endorsement and the like.

Step 6 Edit your work.

  • Have another set of eyes (or two) read over your work. They'll be able to highlight issues your mind has grown blind to. There may be issues that you haven't completely addressed or questions you've left open-ended.
  • Eliminate jargon and clichés! These make you look lazy and can get in the way of understanding. Don't use a long word when a short word will do just as well.
  • Avoid the passive voice whenever possible. Passive voice uses forms of "to be" verbs and can make your meaning unclear. Compare these two sentences: "The window was broken by the zombie" and "The zombie broke the window." In the first, you don't know who broke the window: was it the zombie? Or was the window by the zombie and just happened to also be broken? In the second, you know exactly who did the breaking and why it's important.
  • Use strong, direct language and avoid muddling your proposal with qualifiers and extra phrasing. For example, instead of using phrases like "I believe that...," or "this solution may aid...," say, "The plan will significantly reduce poverty rates."

Step 7 Proofread your work.

  • Any mistakes on your end will make you look less educated and less credible, reducing your likelihood of getting approved.
  • Make sure that your formatting is in line with whatever the guidelines require.

Community Q&A

wikiHow Staff Editor

  • Use language that everyone can understand. Keep to short sentences that are clear and to the point. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Any discussion of financial or other resources should be conducted carefully and should present a realistic picture of the expense required. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Do not try to use very twisty and tacky words, which are not used in a normal conversation, thinking that it would be useful and impressive. Don't beat around the bush. Go to the main point straight away using simple words. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

example of an proposal paper

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Write a Proposal to Management

  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/grants-2/
  • ↑ http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2004/nsf04016/nsf04016.pdf
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/academicwriting
  • ↑ https://www.northwestern.edu/climb/Research%20Proposal%20Writing/A%20Basic%20Research%20Proposal%20Outline.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/cfwriters/Graduate_Student_Writing_Resources/GrantOutline.pdf
  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185918
  • ↑ https://advice.writing.utoronto.ca/revising/revising-and-editing/
  • ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/editing-and-proofreading/

About This Article

Dave Labowitz

To write a proposal, start with an introduction that clearly states the purpose of your proposal. Then, explain the problem at hand and why it needs to be solved right now. Go on to detail your proposed solutions to the problem and why you've chosen those solutions. Also, don't forget to include a schedule and budget. To conclude your proposal, briefly summarize the key points you want readers to walk away understanding. For help formatting and outlining your proposal, read the article! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Jun 21, 2023

Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay

Dive into the power of persuasive writing through captivating proposal essay examples. Explore ideas that inspire, enrich your work, and unlock impactful proposal crafting. Prepare to elevate your writing and leave a lasting impression!

Writing a compelling proposal essay often presents a challenge for many students. A large proportion can't distinguish a research paper proposal from a proposal essay, and even more find difficulty in creating persuasive ideas for their essays. If this situation resonates with you, rest assured you're not alone.

In this extensive guide, we aim to simplify the process of writing a proposal essay. We provide a host of resources such as examples of proposal essays, a carefully constructed outline template, and proven writing techniques. Our guide, honed through years of experience in academic writing, is specifically designed to help you achieve high grades in your proposal essay assignment.

Embark on this journey with us to uncover the nuances of crafting an excellent proposal essay. Armed with the correct resources and guidance, you will transition from uncertainty to confidence, ready to produce an impressive proposal essay. Let's start delving into the craft of writing an engaging proposal essay.

What is a Proposal Essay?

An essay proposal is a document that outlines the content and purpose of your proposed essay. Whereas a thesis conveys the central concept of your study, an essay proposal summarizes the intent and substance of a specific essay.

A proposal essay also serves as a detailed plan of action addressing a particular problem. The writer identifies a problem, suggests a solution, and provides evidence to persuade the reader to agree with the proposed solution or idea. In essence, your role as a writer is to convince the reader that your concept is exceptional and that they should support its execution.

These essays function as a strategic tool, enabling you to sell an idea, belief, or yourself in a manner that not only piques the reader's interest but also convinces them of your capability to bring the proposed plan to fruition. Although proposal essays are frequently associated with business and economics disciplines, they extend beyond these fields.

Proposal essays fundamentally promote critical thinking and problem-solving skills among students. They allow you to venture beyond the structured academic syllabus and engage with real-world issues that require innovative solutions. Writing a proposal essay, therefore, is an opportunity to demonstrate your analytical acumen and your capacity to think creatively.

How to Write a Proposal Essay

Writing a compelling proposal essay requires careful planning, thorough research, and meticulous execution. Here are the steps to ensure your proposal essay stands out:

1. Understand Your Audience: Begin by identifying your target audience. Who are they, and what is their role in the context of your proposal? What are their needs, concerns, or interests? Understanding your audience's perspectives helps in tailoring your message, increasing the chances of your proposal being accepted.

2. Research Thoroughly: Deep and broad research is crucial. Even if you're well-versed with the topic, there is always more to learn. Look at what experts in the field have said and how your proposal aligns or diverges from their views. This research will not only fortify your arguments but also make your essay more credible and authoritative.

3. Create a Detailed Plan: Once you've completed your research, start to structure your essay. Begin with an introduction where you present the problem or issue. Then, propose your solution in the body paragraphs, where each paragraph should focus on a single point or argument, supported by evidence. Finally, wrap up your proposal in the conclusion by summarizing your key points and reinforcing the significance of your solution.

4. Write Your First Draft: Start writing your essay based on the plan you have created. Be clear and concise, avoid jargon, and make sure your arguments are logically constructed and easy to follow.

5. Revise and Edit: After completing your first draft, it's important to revisit it with a critical eye. Look for areas where your argument can be strengthened, check for coherence and flow, correct grammatical errors, and ensure your language is clear and precise. It may be helpful to have others review your work for a fresh perspective.

6. Proofread: Once you're satisfied with the content of your essay, proofread it one final time to catch any minor mistakes or inconsistencies. Remember, a polished essay demonstrates your diligence and commitment to quality.

By following these steps, you can create a persuasive, well-structured proposal essay that effectively communicates your idea and its value.

Structure of a Proposal Essay

Writing a proposal essay requires a specific structure that enables you to present your idea clearly and persuasively. Here's an overview of the necessary elements:

1. Introduction: Your introduction sets the stage for your proposal. It should include a captivating hook that draws readers in, and a clear thesis statement that summarizes your proposal. For Example: A feasible approach to decreasing the alarming mortality rate among young mothers is by equipping parents with necessary skills to support their teenage daughters who become pregnant.

2. Problem Statement: After the introduction, delve deeper into the problem your proposal aims to solve. Describe its nature, roots, and implications. Clarify why it's critical to address this problem, how it affects your readers, and what benefits solving it would bring.

3. Proposal Statement: In this section, elucidate your proposal in detail. Describe the solution you've come up with, highlighting both its benefits and potential drawbacks. Ensure you present your idea as the optimal solution to the problem at hand.

4. Implementation Plan: Next, explain how you plan to execute your proposal. This should be a clear and comprehensive guide demonstrating the practicability of your solution. Identify potential obstacles that might arise during implementation and include steps to overcome them. Discuss why your approach is unique and why previous attempts to solve the problem have failed.

5. Expected Outcome: Here, discuss the positive results you expect from the implementation of your proposal. Provide a clear, concise picture of the improvements and advantages your solution will bring. 6. Evaluation: In this section, provide an estimate of the resources, including time, money, and expertise, necessary to implement your proposal. Discuss its feasibility within the current situation and address possible objections or criticisms from those who might disagree with your proposal.

7. Timeline and Required Resources: Clearly specify the resources required to implement your proposal, such as manpower, funds, and equipment. Include a timeline if possible, giving a chronological order of the steps to be taken.

8. Conclusion: Summarize the key points of your essay and reaffirm the significance of your proposal. This is your final opportunity to convince your readers, so end with a powerful call to action.

Avoid introducing new ideas in the conclusion, as it can confuse readers and may unnecessarily elongate your essay. Stick to wrapping up what you've already presented and reemphasizing its importance.

Proposal Essay Examples 

In the following section, we present a collection of Proposal Essay Examples. These essays serve as excellent references for those looking to understand the structure and content of a compelling proposal.

 Each one addresses a unique and important topic, provides an insightful problem statement, proposes thoughtful solutions, and concludes by summarizing the main points. These examples illustrate the effective strategies used in proposal writing to engage readers and convincingly present an argument. 

Let's delve into these intriguing examples to inspire and enhance your proposal writing skills.

1. Reducing Plastic Waste: A Proposal for Action

Introduction:

With the escalating global environmental crisis, the specter of plastic waste looms large. Forecasts from the United Nations indicate that, failing to reduce plastic waste, we'll have more plastic than fish in the oceans by 2050. This proposal aims to present tangible solutions to this predicament.

Problem Statement:

The unchecked production and disposal of plastic products significantly contribute to plastic waste, endangering the environment and marine life. Given the lifespan of plastic waste—lasting centuries—it's crucial to devise an effective solution to curb plastic production.

Suggested measures to combat plastic waste include:

Government-imposed ban on single-use plastic items, such as straws, cups, and cutlery.

Government incentives encouraging the use of reusable products.

Awareness campaigns conducted by the government and NGOs about the environmental impact of plastic waste.

Investments in improved waste management systems for the proper handling of plastic waste.

Conclusion:

Reducing plastic waste is an urgent priority. By implementing the proposed measures, we can alleviate the issue, protect our environment and marine life, and build a more sustainable future.

2. Dangers of Texting While Driving

Despite countless warnings and campaigns, texting while driving remains a widespread, dangerous habit. This essay investigates the perils of this behavior and proposes measures to mitigate it.

Texting while driving constitutes a severe distraction, often leading to road accidents. Studies even rank it as more dangerous than drunk driving, as it considerably delays a driver's reaction time.

To address this peril, the following steps are suggested:

Launching educational programs and campaigns to inform drivers about the risks of texting while driving.

Implementing stricter penalties for drivers caught in the act.

Promoting technologies that restrict texting while driving.

Texting while driving is a lethal habit that warrants immediate attention. By raising awareness, enforcing stricter rules, and employing technology, we can significantly cut down road accidents due to distracted driving.

3. The Causes of Homelessness

Homelessness, affecting millions worldwide, is a complex and pressing social issue. This essay explores the causes behind homelessness and suggests viable solutions.

Causes of Homelessness:

Poverty, mental illness, addiction, and family breakdowns constitute the four primary triggers of homelessness.

To alleviate homelessness, the following steps are suggested:

Stimulate the supply of affordable housing by offering financial incentives to developers and reducing zoning restrictions.

Facilitate access to mental health services, addiction treatment, and support services for individuals and families experiencing homelessness.

Alleviate poverty by raising the minimum wage, providing job training, and enhancing access to education and healthcare.

Addressing homelessness calls for a comprehensive and coordinated effort. By implementing the proposed measures, we can significantly reduce homelessness, emphasizing our collective responsibility to extend support to those grappling with this issue.

Final Words

In conclusion, crafting a persuasive proposal essay involves thoughtful planning, in-depth research, and adept writing techniques. With Jenni.ai's cutting-edge AI tools at your disposal, this process becomes simpler, enabling you to create standout proposal essays. Take this opportunity to enhance your writing skills and leave an enduring impression on your audience. Experience the transformative capabilities of Jenni.ai today!

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EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

The use of artificial intelligence in the EU will be regulated by the AI Act, the world’s first comprehensive AI law. Find out how it will protect you.

A man faces a computer generated figure with programming language in the background

As part of its digital strategy , the EU wants to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) to ensure better conditions for the development and use of this innovative technology. AI can create many benefits , such as better healthcare; safer and cleaner transport; more efficient manufacturing; and cheaper and more sustainable energy.

In April 2021, the European Commission proposed the first EU regulatory framework for AI. It says that AI systems that can be used in different applications are analysed and classified according to the risk they pose to users. The different risk levels will mean more or less regulation. Once approved, these will be the world’s first rules on AI.

Learn more about what artificial intelligence is and how it is used

What Parliament wants in AI legislation

Parliament’s priority is to make sure that AI systems used in the EU are safe, transparent, traceable, non-discriminatory and environmentally friendly. AI systems should be overseen by people, rather than by automation, to prevent harmful outcomes.

Parliament also wants to establish a technology-neutral, uniform definition for AI that could be applied to future AI systems.

Learn more about Parliament’s work on AI and its vision for AI’s future

AI Act: different rules for different risk levels

The new rules establish obligations for providers and users depending on the level of risk from artificial intelligence. While many AI systems pose minimal risk, they need to be assessed.

Unacceptable risk

Unacceptable risk AI systems are systems considered a threat to people and will be banned. They include:

  • Cognitive behavioural manipulation of people or specific vulnerable groups: for example voice-activated toys that encourage dangerous behaviour in children
  • Social scoring: classifying people based on behaviour, socio-economic status or personal characteristics
  • Biometric identification and categorisation of people
  • Real-time and remote biometric identification systems, such as facial recognition

Some exceptions may be allowed for law enforcement purposes. “Real-time” remote biometric identification systems will be allowed in a limited number of serious cases, while “post” remote biometric identification systems, where identification occurs after a significant delay, will be allowed to prosecute serious crimes and only after court approval.

AI systems that negatively affect safety or fundamental rights will be considered high risk and will be divided into two categories:

1) AI systems that are used in products falling under the EU’s product safety legislation . This includes toys, aviation, cars, medical devices and lifts.

2) AI systems falling into specific areas that will have to be registered in an EU database:

  • Management and operation of critical infrastructure
  • Education and vocational training
  • Employment, worker management and access to self-employment
  • Access to and enjoyment of essential private services and public services and benefits
  • Law enforcement
  • Migration, asylum and border control management
  • Assistance in legal interpretation and application of the law.

All high-risk AI systems will be assessed before being put on the market and also throughout their lifecycle.

General purpose and generative AI

Generative AI, like ChatGPT, would have to comply with transparency requirements:

  • Disclosing that the content was generated by AI
  • Designing the model to prevent it from generating illegal content
  • Publishing summaries of copyrighted data used for training

High-impact general-purpose AI models that might pose systemic risk, such as the more advanced AI model GPT-4, would have to undergo thorough evaluations and any serious incidents would have to be reported to the European Commission.

Limited risk

Limited risk AI systems should comply with minimal transparency requirements that would allow users to make informed decisions. After interacting with the applications, the user can then decide whether they want to continue using it. Users should be made aware when they are interacting with AI. This includes AI systems that generate or manipulate image, audio or video content, for example deepfakes.

On December 9 2023, Parliament reached a provisional agreement with the Council on the AI act . The agreed text will now have to be formally adopted by both Parliament and Council to become EU law. Before all MEPs have their say on the agreement, Parliament’s internal market and civil liberties committees will vote on it.

More on the EU’s digital measures

  • Cryptocurrency dangers and the benefits of EU legislation
  • Fighting cybercrime: new EU cybersecurity laws explained
  • Boosting data sharing in the EU: what are the benefits?
  • EU Digital Markets Act and Digital Services Act
  • Five ways the European Parliament wants to protect online gamers
  • Artificial Intelligence Act

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The Telegraph

Church of England may ban parishioners who bully vicars

The Church of England will consider banning parishioners who bully their vicars.

The proposal comes as a string of “devastating” and “unacceptable” instances have emerged in papers submitted to the General Synod , the Church’s lawmaking body, which is set to convene later this month.

The papers cite examples of vicars being “hounded out of office” by aggressive congregants, with some parishes having a reputation for “breaking clergy”, leaving their vacancies impossible to fill. As a result, Synod will hear measures in favour of legal sanctions for bullying – including the possibility of disqualification from holding office within the Church, as well as a new code of conduct for Parochial Church Councils (PCC).

The calls for a new code of conduct come amid claims that meetings descend into “aggressive”, “psychologically damaging” and “physically threatening behaviour” with parishioners slamming fists on tables, “continually interrupting when others speak”, withholding keys to store rooms, blocking each other on email and repeatedly trolling and harassing others by printing out messages after being blocked.

The Archdeacon of Blackburn, the Venerable Mark Ireland, called for the Synod to recognise “that bullying is unacceptable behaviour within the Church of God, whether by clergy or lay people” and for it to be tackled.

He also warned against the “unfairness” that arises from clergy being subject to penalties for bullying “that include prohibition and removal from office”, while there is no means of disqualifying a churchwarden, PCC member or other lay officer who is guilty of bullying from holding office. As a result, he said that they too should be “disqualified from holding office”.

He added that the impact of bullying and harassment can be “devastating, on mental health, on physical health, on the breakdown of relationships, and the blighting of local Christian communities”.

“If a churchwarden or lay officer is exercising controlling or bullying behaviour it is not just the priest who is the victim – the rest of the PCC and the congregation also experience the same behaviour and are frightened to speak out or stand up to a person who is abusing their power or role.

“Indeed there are some parishes which bishops are reluctant to recommend to prospective applicants, knowing that a series of previous incumbents have been hounded out of office.”

He added: “I have been inundated with distressing correspondence from clergy and clergy spouses who have been subjected to bullying and harassment… At the same time there are many disturbing examples of lay officers bullying other lay members of the congregation.”

The Revd Dr Sara Batts-Neale, from the Chelmsford Diocese, also called for the new PCC code of conduct, which would consider the possibility of a disciplinary process for removal from the PCC.

She warned that some meetings take place in a “psychologically unsafe environment” for both lay and ordained participants, warning that “the imperative to forgiveness can sometimes normalise bad behaviour when it is seen to be consequence free”.

She added that a PCC meeting “should not be a psychologically damaging or physically threatening environment for any participant. Aggressive behaviour in meetings (slamming fists on tables and continually interrupting when others speak) or outside meetings (emailing repeatedly, and when blocked on email, printing and delivering copies of a message).

“Repeatedly poor behaviours sidetrack meetings, waste the time and energy of all participants, and detract from the church’s ability to share the gospel and nurture disciples,” she added.

In one parish cited as an example, a PCC member refused to share the keys to the cupboard that stored all the resources for children’s work. “Thus, whilst the dispute was ongoing, no children’s work was able to happen”.

William Nye, the Church’s secretary-general and most senior lay official, said that if evidence showed that there was “bad behaviour or unchristian behaviour in parochial church councils, that would be a serious issue”.

He added that the Church had been looking at encouraging people to “treat one another better rather than devising punitive sanctions against bad behaviour”.

The motions from both the Archdeacon and the Diocese of Chelmsford will be heard and debated at the convening of Synod later this month.

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Synod documents cite examples of vicars being 'hounded out of office' by aggressive congregants, with some parishes having a reputation for 'breaking clergy' - iStock

Gaza ceasefire debate - live updates: Government 'will play no part' in votes amid anger with Speaker

The Commons is set to vote on motions regarding a ceasefire in Gaza, but the government will boycott them amid anger with the Speaker for selecting multiple amendments for MPs to consider - an unusual move.

Wednesday 21 February 2024 18:25, UK

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  • MPs debating Gaza ceasefire motion - watch and follow live
  • Government boycotts votes amid anger with Speaker
  • Tories and SNP furious with decision that breaks convention
  • 'Lots of tears' amid claims Labour threatened Speaker's position
  • Explained: Why Speaker's unusual move has sparked such anger
  • Sam Coates:  An unedifying day for politics - it's going to be a mess
  • Live reporting by  Ben Bloch   and (earlier)  Tim Baker ,  Emily Mee   and  Bhvishya Patel

Tory MP William Wragg is raising a point of order in the House of Commons.

He says he is "hugely disappointed by what has transpired" and the House is "not showing ourselves... anywhere near the best of what we are capable of to the country" (see previous post).

The senior Tory goes on to say that he has tabled an early day motion on the matter, and asks if government ministers are eligible to sign such a motion.

He does not state exactly what the early day motion is, and nor does the Deputy Speaker clarify whether government ministers can sign early day motions.

As we reported, there has anger throughout the day from SNP and Tory MPs that Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle made the controversial decision to select amendments both by Labour and the government to the SNP's Gaza ceasefire motion.

For context, the convention has been that if the government tabled an amendment to an opposition day motion, amendments from other parties would not be accepted.

In another highly unusual move, leader of the Commons Penny Mordaunt is giving a statement in the House about the matter.

She says: "I know that the Speaker is a servant of this House, and he takes his responsibilities to us extremely seriously."

That duty, she says, is "what commands our respect of him".

She says ensuring that all views are heard from all parties can be "difficult" for the government on opposition days because they are "deliberately confected to try and engineer the greatest possible backlash against members".

Ms Mordaunt goes on: "But we, on this side of the House, have never asked that the procedures of this House be upturned to mitigate against such pressures, even when we have faced extreme abuse."

"Mr Speaker has stated in the decision that he has taken today, and that he is entitled to take, that he wished for all propositions on the order paper to be put to the House."

But she said the decision has "raised temperatures" and put MPs in "difficult positions".

She notes that the clerk advised that the decision breached conventions, and that consequences of the decision "may be that the government is not able to respond to opposition day motions, and as such, the government does not have confidence that it will be able to vote on its own motion".

She goes on: "For that reason, the government will play no further part in the decision this House takes on today's proceedings."

Ms Mordaunt says the topic of a ceasefire has become a "row within the Labour Party" and the Speaker has "inserted himself into that row" and "undermined the confidence of this House".

As we reported, there is fury from SNP and Tory MPs that Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle made the controversial decision to select amendments both by Labour and the government to the SNP's Gaza ceasefire motion.

There have been reports swirling all afternoon that the fury is at such a level that some MPs may try to declare no confidence in the Speaker and remove him.

While we do not have confirmation there is an organised effort under way, our chief political correspodent Jon Craig  reports  the leader of the Commons, Penny Mordaunt, is set to raise a point of order about the Speaker's controversial decision shortly.

The debate continues in the House of Commons, and former Tory minister and one-time leadership contender Rehman Chishti has had his say.

The Gillingham and Rainham MP told the House: "I will be voting for motions which call for immediate humanitarian ceasefire, or which call for immediate ceasefire, because the time has come, if not now then when?"

Mr Chishti also called on the government to outline its definition of a two-state solution.

He said: "The UK needs to put its position … firmly out there with regards to what we see as a two-state solution and a Palestinian state, and that has to be in line with the 1967 borders."

He added: "Today is the time to ensure we deliver a ceasefire and lasting peace in the region."

Tonight's vote, of course, will not actually have a direct effect on what happens in the region, but it would express the view of UK members of parliament.

Our weeknight politics show  Politics Hub With Sophy Ridge  is live on Sky News from 7pm.

The fast-paced show dissects the inner workings of Westminster, with interviews, insights, and analysis - bringing you, the audience, into the corridors of power.

Tonight, watch and follow live as MPs vote on SNP, Labour, and government motions on a Gaza ceasefire, including analysis and reaction.

Sophy Ridge will be based in our studio, while our political editor Beth Rigby, deputy political editor Sam Coates , and chief political correspodent Jon Craig  will be live in the studio and from Central Lobby, just outside the Commons chamber, to bring reaction from MPs across the House.

Tune in to watch on Sky News from 7pm, with live updates right here in the Politics Hub.

Watch Politics Hub With Sophy Ridge Monday to Thursday on Sky channel 501, Virgin channel 602, Freeview channel 233, on the  Sky News website  and  app  or on  YouTube .

Tory MP Mark Logan has told the House he will be rebelling against the government tonight and voting for any motion that calls for an immediate ceasefire.

Speaking in the Commons, the Bolton North East MP said: "What I said in private scores of time before today, I now say in public: I want, my constituents want, and Gaza needs, an immediate ceasefire."

He said with so many deaths in Gaza, "playing around with words is just playing around with people's lives".

He went on: "Israel has gone too far. It's disproportionate - it's not gone too far just today, it's gone too far already for months."

With the number of deaths, he questioned: "How can we have any trust and belief that the people, the 1.5 million people now in Rafah, will also be left untouched?"

He accepted any vote "may be signalling to an extent", but added: "That signal has to be given... that has to happen today."

Mr Logan continued: "I no longer, in good conscience, can continue on backing in public the line we have taken on this side of the House, regrettably. Because even from a geostrategic perspective, I don't see what... favours this does for Israel."

He added Hamas needs to be "obliterated" and the SNP's motion "could have gone further to call out" the proscribed terror group.

But more broadly, he said: "I think this is the time for the United Kingdom to step up and take a leadership position with other middle powers, and not wait for America.

"It's in my own good conscience, I cannot acquiesce to the government's position any more on Gaza. The people of Bolton certainly cannot."

An accusation flying around this afternoon has been that Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle was pressurised by Labour to allow its amendment on a ceasefire in the Israel-Hamas war to go to a vote.

The convention has been that if the government tabled an amendment to an opposition day motion (today's being the SNP's), amendments from other opposition parties would not be accepted.

But Sir Lindsay surprised MPs by breaking with that today.

However, sources close to the Speaker have rejected accusations that he was pressurised by Labour.

Sky News understands he had the safety of MPs in mind when he broke with convention today (see previous post).

A Labour spokesperson has also rejected any accusation that the party pressured the Speaker.

We've just had a bit more detail about Commons Speaker Sir Lindsay Hoyle's controversial decision to select amendments both by Labour and the government to the SNP's Gaza ceasefire motion.

Sky News understands Sir Lindsay had MPs' safety at the forefront of his mind when he decided on this unusual step.

It comes amid growing concerns for MPs' personal safety after incidents of confrontations and protests following the escalation of tensions in the Middle East.

It is understood Sir Lindsay did not make the decision to accept both Labour and the government's amendments lightly, and did so the widest possible debate could be had and all MPs' voices could be heard.

Nonetheless, there is palpable anger from the Tories and the SNP that he broke with convention in a way that had the effect of avoiding a Labour rebellion against Sir Keir Starmer - and his post could be under threat.

You can read our full explainer on the situation here .

Former minister Kit Malthouse has given his view on the Israel-Hamas war in a speech in the Commons.

He said he visited Israel and the Palestinian territories last week and visited the sites of "mass murder" in the Kibbitzim in southern Israel and "heard with horror the accounts of the victims and bereaved relatives".

He also said he saw artillery landing on Gaza, and heard gunfire and drones flying over when he "contemplated the futility of 30,000 dead, and with horror, thought of the assault upon Rafah and its 600,000 children".

Mr Malthouse said it is "widely accepted across the world" that there can be "no military victory over Hamas" because the war is "a recruiting sergeant for that appalling organisation".

"Anybody who is interested in the security of Israel in the future has to recognise that this conflict is making things worse, not better, and that the security of the Palestinians is required for the security of Israel into the future," he said.

On his return to the UK, he said, he found parliamentarians "trapped in a crazy battle of semantics".

"I do not, I have to say, understand the difference between a ceasefire, a pause, a cessation, a truce, qualified by sustainable, credible, whatever it is, humanitarian, one that lasts," he adds.

"The British people think our moral compass is spinning in this house, that we have no clue what we're doing any more. 

"And yet they see the bodies of shredded children coming across the media pretty much every day."

He said the public wants the "killing to stop", for the hostages to be returned, and for aid to flow into Gaza.

Hitting out at political game-playing, he said their job as MPs is to vote for the outcomes they want, not "some clever process by which we might get there".

Mr Malthouse concluded: "It is time for the bloodshed to stop and for the talking to begin. And in this House and in this country, we must do what we can to make that so."

Our political correspondent Jon Craig is reporting for us live from Central Lobby, just outside the House of Commons chamber, where MPs are debating Israel-Hamas war ceasefire motions.

He caught up a few minutes ago with veteran Tory MP Sir Desmond Swayne, who was heard shouting in the chamber as the Speaker announced he was breaking with convention to allow all three of the SNP, Labour, and Tory motions to be debated and voted on.

Asked what he shouted, he said he was "using irony" in a call to "bring back Bercow".

John Bercow was the Speaker during the Brexit years, and came in for criticism for making what were perceived as political interventions against Brexit.

Sir Desmond said he shouted to bring the former Speaker back "because of the shades of the last time Mr Bercow made a decision that surprised the Commons, and indeed, clearly surprised the clerk and [did not align with] the normal expectation of the way things are done".

He recognised that the debate over parliamentary procedure is "a Westminster bubble story", and notes there is barely a "cigarette paper" between the three main parties.

"Nevertheless, there was a highly-charged atmosphere because Sir Keir Starmer… was on the hook, and Sir Lindsay [Hoyle, the Speaker] has got him off it."

He said it has angered the Tories, the SNP, and the Labour left.

Asked if he thinks Sir Lindsay should be removed as Speaker, as some have suggested, Sir Desmond replied: "For this, certainly not."

He said the Speaker has "brought a useful change in the atmosphere of the House", and notes he does have the discretion to take the action he did today.

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  1. Best way to propose your Girlfriend in winter🤣🤣 a modest proposal

  2. How to write a good proposal (Tips)

  3. rs thesis proposal paper revisions

  4. How to Write Chapter II Theoretical Background/Review of Related Literature and Studies

  5. Tip for Proposal Writing

  6. PROPOSAL ::how to write project proposal for finial year project

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  1. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Introduction Literature review Research design Reference list While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take. Table of contents Research proposal purpose

  2. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper

    Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you'll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they're government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research.

  3. Sample Academic Proposals

    Sample Academic Proposals Select the Sample Academic Proposals PDF in the Media box above to download this file and read examples of proposals for conferences, journals, and book chapters.

  4. Research Proposal Example (PDF + Template)

    Detailed Walkthrough + Free Proposal Template. If you're getting started crafting your research proposal and are looking for a few examples of research proposals, you've come to the right place. In this video, we walk you through two successful (approved) research proposals, one for a Master's-level project, and one for a PhD-level ...

  5. Academic Proposals

    For samples of academic proposals, click here. Important considerations for the writing process First and foremost, you need to consider your future audience carefully in order to determine both how specific your topic can be and how much background information you need to provide in your proposal.

  6. How to Write a Research Proposal

    Write with Grammarly What is the goal of a research proposal? In a research proposal, the goal is to present the author's plan for the research they intend to conduct. In some cases, part of this goal is to secure funding for said research.

  7. 17 Research Proposal Examples (2024)

    Key sections of a research proposal include: the title, abstract, introduction, literature review, research design and methods, timeline, budget, outcomes and implications, references, and appendix. Each is briefly explained below. Watch my Guide: How to Write a Research Proposal How to Write a Research Proposal - Complete Template Watch on

  8. How To Write A Proposal

    Body: Provide supporting information: Present evidence, data, or examples to support your claims and justify your proposal. Explain the methodology: Describe in detail the approach, methods, or strategies you will use to implement your proposal.

  9. What Is A Research Proposal? Examples + Template

    The purpose of the research proposal (its job, so to speak) is to convince your research supervisor, committee or university that your research is suitable (for the requirements of the degree program) and manageable (given the time and resource constraints you will face). The most important word here is "convince" - in other words, your ...

  10. How to Write a Research Proposal in 2024: Structure, Examples & Common

    A quality example of a research proposal shows one's above-average analytical skills, including the ability to coherently synthesize ideas and integrate lateral and vertical thinking. Communication skills. The proposal also demonstrates your proficiency to communicate your thoughts in concise and precise language.

  11. PDF A Sample Research Proposal with Comments

    The proposal should discuss problem statement, objectives, research methodology, research activities, and a time schedule in about 3-5 pages. A sample proposal is attached here for your reference.

  12. PDF How to Write a Paper Proposal

    The purpose writing a paper proposal is to give your professor, TA, and/or peers an opportunity to provide feedback on your topic, argument, and research goals. Perhaps most importantly, a paper proposal requires you to narrow your topic and begin formulating the argument you'll make.

  13. How to Write a Proposal and Get What You Want (Free Templates)

    The passive voice sounds distant and even deceptive, and, since the reader might even just be skimming your proposal, you don't want to add extra words to cloud your point. 3. Proofread the proposal. Install a tool like Grammarly and check the proposal in an online text editor.

  14. Sample Proposal Argument

    Argumentative Purposes » Sample Proposal Argument Sample Proposal Argument Now that you have had the chance to learn about writing a proposal argument, it's time to see what one might look like. Below, you'll see a sample proposal argumentative essay written using APA 7 th edition formatting guidelines.

  15. How to Write a Proposal Paper With Purpose

    Point #1: Know your audience. If you're writing a proposal for business purposes, your proposal might be written for a client or for your employer. If you're writing a proposal paper for a class, you need to check your assignment guidelines to see if your professor has already given you an audience. If you don't have an assigned audience ...

  16. How to Write a Proposal: 12 Steps (with Pictures)

    6. Edit your work. Be meticulous in writing, editing, and designing the proposal. Revise as necessary to make it clear and concise, ask others to critique and edit it, and make sure the presentation is attractive and engaging as well as organized and helpful. Have another set of eyes (or two) read over your work.

  17. PDF Research Paper Proposal

    Write your Research Paper Proposal in the following format: Paragraph of introduction to your topic. Research Hypothesis—expressed three ways : As a one-sentence hypothesis As a research question As a title for your paper Essential Disciplines and Sub-Disciplines

  18. How to Write a Project Proposal (Examples & Templates)

    The six major types of project proposals include: solicited, unsolicited, informal, renewal, continuation and supplemental project proposal. Six steps to writing a project proposal: write the executive summary, explain the project background, present a solution, and define the project deliverables and resources needed.

  19. How To Write a Project Proposal (With Tips and Example)

    Section 1: Executive summary. Write an introductory section, called the executive summary, to summarize your project. Just like the introduction of an essay, this section should aim to catch your recipient's attention and encourage them to read on. Your executive summary should include details about the following:

  20. Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay

    Proposal Essay Examples: Convincing Ideas for Your Research Paper or Essay Dive into the power of persuasive writing through captivating proposal essay examples. Explore ideas that inspire, enrich your work, and unlock impactful proposal crafting. Prepare to elevate your writing and leave a lasting impression!

  21. How to Write a Project Proposal (Examples & Template Included)

    Here's a step-by-step guide to writing a persuasive priority proposal. 1. Write an Executive Summary. The executive summary provides a quick overview of the main elements of your project proposal, such as your project background, project objectives and project deliverables, among other things.

  22. How to Write a Business Proposal (+ Examples & FREE Templates)

    It can be general like this business proposal example: CREATE THIS PROPOSAL TEMPLATE Or it can be more specific, like this business proposal template which focuses on proposing a project for the Newton Center Rail: CREATE THIS PROPOSAL TEMPLATE Or this business proposal sample, which presents a plan for a social media strategy and campaign:

  23. Sample papers

    The following two sample papers were published in annotated form in the Publication Manual and are reproduced here as PDFs for your ease of use. The annotations draw attention to content and formatting and provide the relevant sections of the Publication Manual (7th ed.) to consult for more information.. Student sample paper with annotations (PDF, 4.95MB)

  24. EU AI Act: first regulation on artificial intelligence

    This includes AI systems that generate or manipulate image, audio or video content, for example deepfakes. Next steps. On December 9 2023, Parliament reached a provisional agreement with the Council on the AI act. The agreed text will now have to be formally adopted by both Parliament and Council to become EU law.

  25. The UK's evolving pro-innovation approach to AI regulation

    The UK government published its original AI Regulation White Paper in March 2023 — for a full summary, see our earlier article here. In short, this proposed that existing regulators be empowered to fold a set of five cross-cutting principles into their remits: Safety, security and robustness; Appropriate transparency and explainability; Fairness

  26. Church of England may ban parishioners who bully vicars

    The proposal comes as a string of "devastating" and "unacceptable" instances have emerged in papers submitted to the General Synod, the Church's lawmaking body, which is set to convene ...

  27. Politics latest: Big day for Keir Starmer as MPs set to vote on Gaza

    After these, according to the order paper, there is a ten minute rule motion - where an MP can propose a debate. This will last for up to 20 minutes, naturally.