How to do Footnotes In A Paper

Create chicago-style footnotes in google docs, sharing buttons:.

00:00 This video will show you how to set page numbers and create footnotes for a paper written in

00:06 Chicago note-bibliography style using Google Drive.

00:09 Okay, so I've got a title page here because my paper is more than 5 pages long, and if

00:15 I have a title page, there's a special way to do the page numbers in Chicago.

00:19 So I've double clicked to open up my header.

00:22 I'm turning off "different first page," and then I go to Insert > Header and page number

00:28 > Page number, and then I click this one on the top right that has no number on the title

00:34 page and starts numbering the first page of text with the number one.

00:39 Okay?

00:40 That's what it should look like in Chicago style.

00:42 Now I can double click onto my document to open that part up.

00:46 And now let's look at a citation.

00:49 So what I've got here is a citation in MLA format, which a lot of students are more familiar

00:53 with.

00:54 "According to researchers Amy Brown and Michelle Lee, 'A restrictive maternal child-feeding

00:58 style has been linked with increased levels of eating in the absence of hunger'" and 108

01:03 is the page number.

01:05 Now in Chicago style, I'm gonna use a footnote instead of a parenthetical citation like this.

01:12 Now on this paper I have a bibliography page at the end.

01:15 That has the more detailed information--the publication information about the source,

01:20 so I don't need the kind of long detailed footnotes that you might see on the OWL Purdue

01:26 website.

01:27 I can use a shortened version, so let's go up here and do that.

01:32 So what I want to do is I put my cursor right here after the period, and I click Insert

01:37 > Footnote.

01:38 Okay?

01:39 So that automatically takes me down to the bottom of the page, and it numbers them automatically

01:45 for me.

01:46 I type the author's name.

01:48 This has two authors, so I'll type them both.

01:50 And then I need the title of the article.

01:54 I don't need the whole title--the first three or four words is just fine.

01:59 So I'll just copy that.

02:00 Then I do comma, quotation mark, and that was page 108, and a period.

02:08 Okay?

02:09 So let's go back up to this part with the footnote and fix this.

02:12 So since we're not doing MLA format, we don't need the page number here, and since we don't

02:18 have the parenthetical citation, the period should go before the quotation mark.

02:24 So it's period, quotation mark, number.

02:28 Now let's look down at the formatting of the footnote at the bottom here.

02:31 So there's a problem with the font here.

02:35 So we will highlight this and we'll make sure that all of it is in Times New Roman, and

02:40 we can use 10 point, it's a little bit smaller, for the footnotes.

02:44 We can also see that it's right next to, it's single spaced, with the next citation.

02:51 So we can go Format > and Line spacing > and Add space after paragraph to space those out.

03:00 We also want to indent this.

03:02 And so if we click on it and we come up here to the ruler, we drag the left indent over

03:09 to the half inch mark.

03:10 And that fixes it.

03:11 We've got the author, the title, and the page number.

03:14 So to recap: You add a page number from the Insert menu, choose the option that has no

03:21 page number on the first page.

03:23 Then you click Insert to insert the footnote.

03:27 Then on the bottom you write the author, the title, and the page number separated with

03:33 commas.

03:34 And then you adjust the font and the indent.

03:37 I hope that helps!

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How to Insert Footnote in Word

How to Use Footnotes in Research Papers

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A footnote is a reference, explanation, or comment 1 placed below the main text on a printed page. Footnotes are identified in the text by a numeral  or a  symbol .  

In research papers and reports , footnotes commonly acknowledge the sources of facts and quotations that appear in the text.

" Footnotes are the mark of a scholar," says Bryan A. Garner. "Overabundant, overflowing footnotes are the mark of an insecure scholar — often one who gets lost in the byways of analysis and who wants to show off" ( Garner's Modern American Usage , 2009).

Examples and Observations

1 "The footnote has figured prominently in the fictions of such leading contemporary novelists as Nicholson Baker 2 , David Foster Wallace 3 , and Dave Eggers. These writers have largely revived the digressive function of the footnote." (L. Douglas and A. George, Sense and Nonsensibility: Lampoons of Learning and Literature . Simon and Schuster, 2004)

2 "[T]he great scholarly or anecdotal footnotes of Lecky, Gibbon, or Boswell, written by the author of the book himself to supplement, or even correct over several later editions, what he says in the primary text, are reassurances that the pursuit of truth doesn't have clear outer boundaries: it doesn't end with the book; restatement and self-disagreement and the enveloping sea of referenced authorities all continue. Footnotes are the finer-suckered surfaces that allow tentacular paragraphs to hold fast to the wider reality of the library." (Nicholson Baker, The Mezzanine . Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1988)

3 "One of the odd pleasures in reading the work of the late David Foster Wallace is the opportunity to escape from the main text to explore epic footnotes , always rendered at the bottoms of pages in thickets of tiny type." (Roy Peter Clark, The Glamour of Grammar . Little, Brown, 2010)

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how to do footnotes in a paper

How to Write Footnotes

Information on how to write footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes, a type of citation format, are most often used for history and philosophy papers. As such, scientists rarely encounter it, but it is still useful to know how to follow the practice.

This article is a part of the guide:

Browse Full Outline

Many biology journals, for example, prefer footnotes because they allow annotation of the in-text citation on the same page.

Whilst footnotes are a little more cumbersome than the 'author/date' system, they are useful where sources require elaboration and short explanatory notes.

how to do footnotes in a paper

What is a Footnote

The footnote takes the form of a superscripted number, just after a paraphrased piece of information. Subsequently, a cross-reference to this number is inserted at the bottom of the same page.

In fact, for dissertations and theses, many writers use footnotes to keep track of their citations , adding a short note of what exactly each one adds to the paper.

Once the paper is complete, the writer converts them to endnotes at the end or every chapter, or even removes them all together, and uses a standard APA or MLA bibliography instead.

how to do footnotes in a paper

Automatically Inserting Footnotes

The reason that footnotes are still popular in some fields is that most word processing programs now include a function that makes it very easy to include footnotes in any paper.

In Microsoft Word, clicking Insert > Reference > Footnote allows you to insert footnotes automatically, and automatically numbers them. This function is so useful, that even if you cut and paste, and swap information around, it automatically adjusts the footnotes.

This is why it is an excellent resource for keeping track of your sources during the course of a research paper .

How to Write Footnotes - Protocols

If you are using footnotes, the common convention is to insert a full citation, including author, year and the title of the book, followed by the page number. Afterwards, the surname of the author and the page number is sufficient.

Older journals often use the word ibid, to show that a footnote uses the same source as the previous one, but this has become much rarer.

Martyn Shuttleworth (Nov 21, 2009). How to Write Footnotes. Retrieved May 25, 2023 from

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how to do footnotes in a paper

How to Do Footnotes

Last Updated: April 8, 2023 References Approved

Sample Footnotes

Placing citations, supplementing text.

This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 81% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,358,504 times. Learn more...

Footnotes are used generally in academic and professional writing to cite sources or add supplemental information to the main text of a paper. Academic citation styles, such as the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA), discourage the use of extensive footnotes. Others, such as Chicago style, require them. [1] X Research source

how to do footnotes in a paper

Tip: Footnotes are typically a smaller font size than the main text of your paper. Typically, you won't need to change the default size on the word processing app you're using to write your paper – it will do this automatically when you create a footnote.

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Footnote Number in Line with Text: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms. 1.

Superscripted Footnote Number: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms. 1

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Tip: Some citation styles recommend using the abbreviation "id." or "ibid." if you cite to the same source in footnotes immediately following. Others, notably the Chicago Manual of Style, require the use of a shortened citation instead.

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Tip: Keep your footnotes as brief as possible, especially with supplemental footnotes. Don't stray too far off topic or go into a tangent that is only marginally related to the topic of your paper.

Image titled Do Footnotes Step 13

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how to do footnotes in a paper

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About This Article

Jennifer Mueller, JD

To use footnotes as citations, find a sentence you want to cite and insert a "1" at the end of it using the footnote setting in your word processor. Then, insert your citation next to the corresponding "1" at the bottom of the page, like "Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115." When you're finished, move onto the next sentence you need to cite and repeat the process. To learn how to use footnotes to clarify information in your paper, read the article! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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How do you use footnotes in a paper APA?

T o create a footnote in APA style, you’ll add a superscript number after the punctuation. The exceptions are dashes and parentheses. Place footnote numbers before dashes and inside parentheses. See how this works in the example.

Can I use footnotes in APA Style?

APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.

What is an APA paper supposed to look like?

General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), with 1″ margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. Times New Roman font. Include a page header (also known as the “running head”) at the top of every page.

Which citation format uses footnotes?

Typically, Oxford, Chicago and Turabian will use footnotes for in-text citations. MLA and APA will also use footnotes but to provide content or copyright information, and not typically for attribution.

What writing format uses footnotes?

The Chicago citation style is the method established by the University of Chicago Press for documenting sources used in a research paper and is probably the most commonly used footnote format.

What format uses footnotes?

How do you use footnotes correctly?

Using footnotes or endnotes involves placing a superscript number at the end of a sentence with information (paraphrase, quotation or data) that you wish to cite. The superscript numbers should generally be placed at the end of the sentence to which they refer.

How do you use footnotes in APA format?

Where do you put footnotes in a research paper?

What is APA style used for in research papers?

What are additional marginal notes in apa format.

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  1. How To Do Footnotes In Term Paper

    In research papers and reports. footnotes commonly acknowledge the sources of facts and quotations that appear in the text. “ Footnotes are the mark of a scholar. “ says Bryan A. Garner

  2. How do you use footnotes in a paper APA?

    To create a footnote in APA style, you'll add a superscript number after the punctuation. APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce

  3. how to footnote a research paper

    Randolph Webb from Detroit was looking for how to footnote a research paper Kirby Wilkinson found the answer to a search query how to footnote a research paper