How to do Footnotes In A Paper
Create chicago-style footnotes in google docs, sharing buttons:.
00:00 This video will show you how to set page numbers and create footnotes for a paper written in
00:06 Chicago note-bibliography style using Google Drive.
00:09 Okay, so I've got a title page here because my paper is more than 5 pages long, and if
00:15 I have a title page, there's a special way to do the page numbers in Chicago.
00:19 So I've double clicked to open up my header.
00:22 I'm turning off "different first page," and then I go to Insert > Header and page number
00:28 > Page number, and then I click this one on the top right that has no number on the title
00:34 page and starts numbering the first page of text with the number one.
00:40 That's what it should look like in Chicago style.
00:42 Now I can double click onto my document to open that part up.
00:46 And now let's look at a citation.
00:49 So what I've got here is a citation in MLA format, which a lot of students are more familiar
00:54 "According to researchers Amy Brown and Michelle Lee, 'A restrictive maternal child-feeding
00:58 style has been linked with increased levels of eating in the absence of hunger'" and 108
01:03 is the page number.
01:05 Now in Chicago style, I'm gonna use a footnote instead of a parenthetical citation like this.
01:12 Now on this paper I have a bibliography page at the end.
01:15 That has the more detailed information--the publication information about the source,
01:20 so I don't need the kind of long detailed footnotes that you might see on the OWL Purdue
01:27 I can use a shortened version, so let's go up here and do that.
01:32 So what I want to do is I put my cursor right here after the period, and I click Insert
01:37 > Footnote.
01:39 So that automatically takes me down to the bottom of the page, and it numbers them automatically
01:45 for me.
01:46 I type the author's name.
01:48 This has two authors, so I'll type them both.
01:50 And then I need the title of the article.
01:54 I don't need the whole title--the first three or four words is just fine.
01:59 So I'll just copy that.
02:00 Then I do comma, quotation mark, and that was page 108, and a period.
02:09 So let's go back up to this part with the footnote and fix this.
02:12 So since we're not doing MLA format, we don't need the page number here, and since we don't
02:18 have the parenthetical citation, the period should go before the quotation mark.
02:24 So it's period, quotation mark, number.
02:28 Now let's look down at the formatting of the footnote at the bottom here.
02:31 So there's a problem with the font here.
02:35 So we will highlight this and we'll make sure that all of it is in Times New Roman, and
02:40 we can use 10 point, it's a little bit smaller, for the footnotes.
02:44 We can also see that it's right next to, it's single spaced, with the next citation.
02:51 So we can go Format > and Line spacing > and Add space after paragraph to space those out.
03:00 We also want to indent this.
03:02 And so if we click on it and we come up here to the ruler, we drag the left indent over
03:09 to the half inch mark.
03:10 And that fixes it.
03:11 We've got the author, the title, and the page number.
03:14 So to recap: You add a page number from the Insert menu, choose the option that has no
03:21 page number on the first page.
03:23 Then you click Insert to insert the footnote.
03:27 Then on the bottom you write the author, the title, and the page number separated with
03:34 And then you adjust the font and the indent.
03:37 I hope that helps!
How to Use Footnotes in Research Papers
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- An Introduction to Punctuation
- Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
- M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
- B.A., English, State University of New York
A footnote is a reference, explanation, or comment 1 placed below the main text on a printed page. Footnotes are identified in the text by a numeral or a symbol .
In research papers and reports , footnotes commonly acknowledge the sources of facts and quotations that appear in the text.
" Footnotes are the mark of a scholar," says Bryan A. Garner. "Overabundant, overflowing footnotes are the mark of an insecure scholar — often one who gets lost in the byways of analysis and who wants to show off" ( Garner's Modern American Usage , 2009).
Examples and Observations
- " Footnotes: vices . In a work containing many long footnotes, it may be difficult to fit them onto the pages they pertain to, especially in an illustrated work."
- " Content footnotes supplement or simplify substantive information in the text; they should not include complicated, irrelevant, or nonessential information..." " Copyright permission footnotes acknowledge the source of lengthy quotations, scale and test items, and figures and tables that have been reprinted or adapted."
- Content Footnotes "What, after all, is a content footnote but material that one is either too lazy to integrate into the text or too reverent to discard? Reading a piece of prose that constantly dissolves into extended footnotes is profoundly disheartening. Hence my rule of thumb for footnotes is exactly the same as that for parentheses . One should regard them as symbols of failure. I hardly need to add that in this vale of tears failure is sometimes unavoidable."
- Footnote Forms All notes have the same general form: 1. Adrian Johns. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 623. If you cite the same text again, you can shorten subsequent notes: 5. Johns. Nature of the Book , 384-85.
- The Disadvantages of Footnotes "More than one recent critic has pointed out that footnotes interrupt a narrative . References detract from the illusion of veracity and immediacy . . . . (Noel Coward made the same point more memorably when he remarked that having to read a footnote resembles having to go downstairs to answer the door while in the midst of making love.)"
- Belloc on Footnotes "[L]et a man put his foot-notes in very small print indeed at the end of a volume, and, if necessary, let him give specimens rather than a complete list. For instance, let a man who writes history as it should be written — with all the physical details in evidence, the weather, the dress, colors, everything — write on for the pleasure of his reader and not for his critic. But let him take sections here and there, and in an appendix show the critic how it is being done. Let him keep his notes and challenge criticism. I think he will be secure. He will not be secure from the anger of those who cannot write clearly, let alone vividly, and who have never in their lives been able to resurrect the past, but he will be secure from their destructive effect."
- The Lighter Side of Footnotes "A footnote is like running downstairs to answer the doorbell on your wedding night."
1 "The footnote has figured prominently in the fictions of such leading contemporary novelists as Nicholson Baker 2 , David Foster Wallace 3 , and Dave Eggers. These writers have largely revived the digressive function of the footnote." (L. Douglas and A. George, Sense and Nonsensibility: Lampoons of Learning and Literature . Simon and Schuster, 2004)
2 "[T]he great scholarly or anecdotal footnotes of Lecky, Gibbon, or Boswell, written by the author of the book himself to supplement, or even correct over several later editions, what he says in the primary text, are reassurances that the pursuit of truth doesn't have clear outer boundaries: it doesn't end with the book; restatement and self-disagreement and the enveloping sea of referenced authorities all continue. Footnotes are the finer-suckered surfaces that allow tentacular paragraphs to hold fast to the wider reality of the library." (Nicholson Baker, The Mezzanine . Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1988)
3 "One of the odd pleasures in reading the work of the late David Foster Wallace is the opportunity to escape from the main text to explore epic footnotes , always rendered at the bottoms of pages in thickets of tiny type." (Roy Peter Clark, The Glamour of Grammar . Little, Brown, 2010)
- Hilaire Belloc, On , 1923
- Chicago Manual of Style , University of Chicago Press, 2003
- Anthony Grafton, The Footnote: A Curious History . Harvard University Press, 1999.
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6th ed., 2010.
- Paul Robinson, "The Philosophy of Punctuation." Opera, Sex, and Other Vital Matters . University of Chicago Press, 2002.
- Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations , 7th ed. University of Chicago Press, 2007 .
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How to Write Footnotes
Information on how to write footnotes and endnotes. Footnotes, a type of citation format, are most often used for history and philosophy papers. As such, scientists rarely encounter it, but it is still useful to know how to follow the practice.
This article is a part of the guide:
- Outline Examples
- Example of a Paper
- Write a Hypothesis
Browse Full Outline
- 1 Write a Research Paper
- 2 Writing a Paper
- 3.1 Write an Outline
- 3.2 Outline Examples
- 4.1 Thesis Statement
- 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
- 5.2 Abstract
- 5.3 Introduction
- 5.4 Methods
- 5.5 Results
- 5.6 Discussion
- 5.7 Conclusion
- 5.8 Bibliography
- 6.1 Table of Contents
- 6.2 Acknowledgements
- 6.3 Appendix
- 7.1 In Text Citations
- 7.2 Footnotes
- 7.3.1 Floating Blocks
- 7.4 Example of a Paper
- 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
- 7.6.1 Citations
- 7.7.1 Writing Style
- 7.7.2 Citations
- 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
- 8.1.2 Advantages
- 8.1.3 Disadvantages
- 8.2 Publication Bias
- 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
- 9.1 Article Writing
- 9.2 Ideas for Topics
Many biology journals, for example, prefer footnotes because they allow annotation of the in-text citation on the same page.
Whilst footnotes are a little more cumbersome than the 'author/date' system, they are useful where sources require elaboration and short explanatory notes.
What is a Footnote
The footnote takes the form of a superscripted number, just after a paraphrased piece of information. Subsequently, a cross-reference to this number is inserted at the bottom of the same page.
In fact, for dissertations and theses, many writers use footnotes to keep track of their citations , adding a short note of what exactly each one adds to the paper.
Once the paper is complete, the writer converts them to endnotes at the end or every chapter, or even removes them all together, and uses a standard APA or MLA bibliography instead.
Automatically Inserting Footnotes
The reason that footnotes are still popular in some fields is that most word processing programs now include a function that makes it very easy to include footnotes in any paper.
In Microsoft Word, clicking Insert > Reference > Footnote allows you to insert footnotes automatically, and automatically numbers them. This function is so useful, that even if you cut and paste, and swap information around, it automatically adjusts the footnotes.
This is why it is an excellent resource for keeping track of your sources during the course of a research paper .
How to Write Footnotes - Protocols
If you are using footnotes, the common convention is to insert a full citation, including author, year and the title of the book, followed by the page number. Afterwards, the surname of the author and the page number is sufficient.
Older journals often use the word ibid, to show that a footnote uses the same source as the previous one, but this has become much rarer.
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Martyn Shuttleworth (Nov 21, 2009). How to Write Footnotes. Retrieved May 25, 2023 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/how-to-write-footnotes
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How to Do Footnotes
Last Updated: April 8, 2023 References Approved
Placing citations, supplementing text.
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Jennifer Mueller, JD . Jennifer Mueller is a wikiHow Content Creator. She specializes in reviewing, fact-checking, and evaluating wikiHow's content to ensure thoroughness and accuracy. Jennifer holds a JD from Indiana University Maurer School of Law in 2006. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 81% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 1,358,504 times. Learn more...
Footnotes are used generally in academic and professional writing to cite sources or add supplemental information to the main text of a paper. Academic citation styles, such as the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA), discourage the use of extensive footnotes. Others, such as Chicago style, require them.  X Research source
Tip: Footnotes are typically a smaller font size than the main text of your paper. Typically, you won't need to change the default size on the word processing app you're using to write your paper – it will do this automatically when you create a footnote.
- You'll typically only have one footnote per sentence. If you need more than one footnote, place the other footnote at the end of the sentence clause it relates to, outside the closing punctuation. The only exception is if the sentence is broken up by a long dash, in which case, the superscript number goes before the beginning of the dash.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Footnote Number in Line with Text: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms. 1.
Superscripted Footnote Number: It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn's and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms. 1
- For some longer papers, such as doctoral theses, footnote numbers may start over with each chapter. If you're unsure if this is appropriate for your project, discuss it with your editor or advisor.
- Most word processing apps will maintain sequential numbering for you, provided you use the app's function for inserting footnotes, rather than trying to type the numbers manually.
- You typically have formatting options that allow you to choose numbers, letters, or other symbols to indicate footnotes. You can also change the size or placement of footnotes, although the default option is usually appropriate.
- For most style guides, the use of footnotes does not replace the need for a list of references at the end of your paper. Even if a full list of references isn't strictly required, it can help place your paper in context.
- For example, suppose you've paraphrased information from a book by Reginald Daily, titled Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages. If you were using Chicago style, your footnote citation would look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115.
- For example, suppose later on in your paper you need to cite Reginald Daily's wikiHow book again. Your shortened citation might look something like this: Daily, wikiHow Examples , 130.
Tip: Some citation styles recommend using the abbreviation "id." or "ibid." if you cite to the same source in footnotes immediately following. Others, notably the Chicago Manual of Style, require the use of a shortened citation instead.
- For example, suppose you have a sentence in your text comparing the conclusions in Reginald Daily's book with the observations in another book on the same topic. Your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115; Mary Beth Miller, The wiki Revolution (New York: New Tech Press, 2018), 48.
- For example, if Miller's work reached a conclusion that was contrary to the conclusion Daily reached, your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115; but see Mary Beth Miller, The wiki Revolution (New York: New Tech Press, 2018), 48.
- If you believe it would be helpful to your readers, you can add a brief parenthetical comment after the second source that explains why you included it.
- For example, suppose you want to include a brief explanation as to why you're citing Daily's book, despite the fact that it was published in 2010. Your footnote might look something like this: Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115. Although published in 2010, Daily's work provides a jumping-off point for research in this area.
- For example, there may be a basic concept that is beyond the scope of your paper, but important for your readers to understand. You could add a footnote that says "For an explanation of the theory of relativity, see generally" followed by a source or list of sources.
- Typically, these types of footnotes provide your reader with information on something that is tangential to your paper but could be important to help your readers understand the topic as a whole or place your paper in context.
- Some style guides, such as MLA and APA, instruct that parenthetical statements should be included in the main text of your paper, rather than in footnotes.  X Trustworthy Source Purdue Online Writing Lab Trusted resource for writing and citation guidelines Go to source
Tip: Keep your footnotes as brief as possible, especially with supplemental footnotes. Don't stray too far off topic or go into a tangent that is only marginally related to the topic of your paper.
- These types of footnotes frequently accompany a quote from a source and may include a citation to the source. For example, if you quoted a source that discussed wikiHow, and you wanted to clarify, you might add a footnote that says "wikiHow examples are used to clarify text in situations where it would be helpful to have a visual cue. Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115."
- For example, suppose you are writing a paper about the use of wikiHow articles as sources, and you include a study finding that wikiHow articles are more accurate than articles on major news sites about similar topics. You might add a footnote that says "Despite this fact, the vast majority of professors at public universities in the US do not accept wikiHow articles as sources for research papers."
- You can also use footnotes to make a witty remark, which can add humor and lightheartedness to your paper. However, these types of footnotes should be used extremely rarely, and only when appropriate to the subject matter.
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- Before writing, confirm with your professor or organization what style guide you should be using to write your paper. Make sure your use of footnotes follows the rules for that style. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- If a footnote includes both a citation and supplemental information, the citation usually comes first. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://www.plagiarism.org/article/what-are-footnotes
- ↑ https://stpauls-mb.libguides.com/citations/footnotes
- ↑ https://www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/turabian-footnote-guide
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_endnotes_and_footnotes.html
- ↑ https://libguides.stonehill.edu/c.php?g=884839&p=6358739
- ↑ https://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/6-300
- ↑ https://libguides.utep.edu/c.php?g=429690&p=2930768
- ↑ https://jle.aals.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1243&context=home
- ↑ https://libguides.liberty.edu/c.php?g=864199&p=6197236
About This Article
To use footnotes as citations, find a sentence you want to cite and insert a "1" at the end of it using the footnote setting in your word processor. Then, insert your citation next to the corresponding "1" at the bottom of the page, like "Reginald Daily, Timeless wikiHow Examples: Through the Ages (Minneapolis: St. Olaf Press, 2010), 115." When you're finished, move onto the next sentence you need to cite and repeat the process. To learn how to use footnotes to clarify information in your paper, read the article! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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How do you use footnotes in a paper APA?
T o create a footnote in APA style, you’ll add a superscript number after the punctuation. The exceptions are dashes and parentheses. Place footnote numbers before dashes and inside parentheses. See how this works in the example.
Can I use footnotes in APA Style?
APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.
What is an APA paper supposed to look like?
General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), with 1″ margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. Times New Roman font. Include a page header (also known as the “running head”) at the top of every page.
Which citation format uses footnotes?
Typically, Oxford, Chicago and Turabian will use footnotes for in-text citations. MLA and APA will also use footnotes but to provide content or copyright information, and not typically for attribution.
What writing format uses footnotes?
The Chicago citation style is the method established by the University of Chicago Press for documenting sources used in a research paper and is probably the most commonly used footnote format.
What format uses footnotes?
How do you use footnotes correctly?
Using footnotes or endnotes involves placing a superscript number at the end of a sentence with information (paraphrase, quotation or data) that you wish to cite. The superscript numbers should generally be placed at the end of the sentence to which they refer.
How do you use footnotes in APA format?
Where do you put footnotes in a research paper?
What is APA style used for in research papers?
What are additional marginal notes in apa format.
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In research papers and reports. footnotes commonly acknowledge the sources of facts and quotations that appear in the text. “ Footnotes are the mark of a scholar. “ says Bryan A. Garner
To create a footnote in APA style, you'll add a superscript number after the punctuation. APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce
Randolph Webb from Detroit was looking for how to footnote a research paper Kirby Wilkinson found the answer to a search query how to footnote a research paper