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  • Ending the Essay: Conclusions

So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.

The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.

To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:

  • Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
  • Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
  • Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.

To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:

  • Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection,  Dubliners , with information about Joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about Joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
  • Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like  60 Minutes .
  • Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise of dehumanization "; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic -- rather than moral or ethical-- terms.
  • Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel  Ambiguous Adventure , by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible.

Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:

  • Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
  • Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These phrases can be useful--even welcome--in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
  • Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . ."

Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

  • How to Read an Assignment
  • How to Do a Close Reading
  • Developing A Thesis
  • Counterargument
  • Topic Sentences and Signposting
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  • Brief Guides to Writing in the Disciplines

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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay

Kelly Konya

You’ve done it. You’ve refined your introduction and your thesis. You’ve spent time researching and proving all of your supporting arguments. You’re slowly approaching the finish line of your essay and suddenly freeze up because—that’s right—it’s time to write the conclusion.

For many, the conclusion is the most dreaded part of essay writing . Condensing all the points you’ve analyzed in a tidy little package is certainly easier said than done. How can you make a good final impression while emphasizing the significance of your findings? 

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Learning how to write a conclusion for an essay doesn’t need to feel like climbing Everest. It is wholly possible to tie everything together while considering the broader issues and implications of your argument. You just need the right strategy.

What do you want to leave your readers with? Perhaps you want to end with a quotation that adds texture to your discussion. Or, perhaps you want to set your argument into a different, perhaps larger context. 

An effective conclusion paragraph should ultimately suggest to your reader that you’ve accomplished what you set out to prove.

How to write a good conclusion

As you set out to write your conclusion and end your essay on an insightful note, you’ll want to start by restating your thesis. Since the thesis is the central idea of your entire essay, it’s wise to remind the reader of the purpose of your paper. 

Once you’ve restated your thesis (in a way that’s paraphrased , of course, and offers a fresh understanding), the next step is to reiterate your supporting points. Extract all of the “main points” from each of your supporting paragraphs or individual arguments in the essay . Then, find a way to wrap up these points in a way that demonstrates the importance of the ideas. 

Depending on the length of your essay, knowing how to write a good conclusion is somewhat intuitive—you don’t want to simply summarize what you wrote. Rather, the conclusion should convey a sense of closure alongside the larger meaning and lingering possibilities of the topic. 

What your conclusion should include

Now that you know what a good conclusion encompasses, you can get into the finer details. Beyond restating your thesis and summarizing your points, what else should the conclusion include?

Here are some strategies for ending your essay in a savvy and thought-provoking way: 

Ask yourself: “So what?” 

At some point in your life, a teacher has probably told you that the end of an essay should answer the question “So what?” or “Why does it matter?” This advice holds true. It’s helpful to ask yourself this question at the start of drafting your thesis and come back to it throughout, as it can keep you in tune with the essay’s purpose. Then, at your conclusion, you won’t be left searching for something to say.

Add perspective 

If you’ve come across a fantastic quote in your research that didn’t quite make it into the essay, the conclusion is a great spot for it. Including a quote from one of your primary or secondary sources can frame your thesis or final thoughts in a different light. This can add specificity and texture to your overall argument. 

For example, if you’ve written an essay about J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye, you can think about using a quote from the book itself or from a critic or scholar who complicates your main point. If your thesis is about Salinger’s desire to preserve childhood innocence, ending with a biographer’s statement about Salinger’s attitude toward his own youth might be illuminating for readers. If you decide to amplify your conclusion paragraph in this way, make sure the secondary material adds (and not detracts) from the points you already made. After all, you want to have the last word!

Consider the clincher

At the very end of the essay comes your closing sentence or clincher. As you think about how to write a good conclusion, the clincher must be top of mind. What can you say to propel the reader to a new view on the subject? This final sentence needs to help readers feel a sense of closure. It should also end on a positive note, so your audience feels glad they read your paper and that they learned something worthwhile. 

What your conclusion should not include

There are a few things that you should definitely strive to avoid when writing your conclusion paragraph. These elements will only cheapen your overall argument and belabor the obvious.

Here are several conclusion mishaps to consider:

Whereas your introduction acts as a bridge that transfers your readers from their own lives into the “space” of your argument or analysis, your conclusion should help readers transition back to their daily lives. 

By following this useful roadmap, you can feel confident that you know how to write a good conclusion that leaves readers with a solution, a call to action, or a powerful insight for further study.

how to write a conclusion in article

How to End Your Article: 5 Ways to Write a Powerful Conclusion

A good article ends with a conclusion that surprises the reader, yet makes sense. Writing an ending that summarizes your ideas is difficult, but not impossible.

Endings are important. So important, in fact, that some writers say a strong ending is more important than a strong beginning. I disagree. If you don’t hook your reader from the start, she’ll never get to the end.

Nevertheless, ending your article on a high note gives it power to stick with the reader forever. Or a really long time. In this article, you won’t find a “one size fits all” tip on how to end your article because it doesn’t exist. You will, however, find the five most effective ways to write a conclusion.

“It is always important to know when something has reached its end,” writes Paulo Coelho in The Zahir: A Novel of Obsession . “Closing circles, shutting doors, finishing chapters, it doesn’t matter what we call it; what matters is to leave in the past those moments in life that are over.”

Sometimes the ending practically writes itself. Other times you have to wrestle that ending to the ground. Either way, you must be alert. Writing a great conclusion is easier when you have a variety of tools and techniques to choose from. Who goes into battle empty-handed? These five tips for ending your article will help you find the right way to say “The End” without coming out and saying…The End.

Whether you’re writing an article for a national magazine or blogging a little blurb, keep the ending at the back of your mind. What impression do you want to leave the readers with? How do you want them to feel, what do you want them to do? As you research, write and revise your article, stay alert to possible endings. Play with different ideas.

5 Powerful Ways to End Your Article

Some writers say the conclusion of an article could work just as well as the introduction – with a slight modification. I think it depends on your article, writing style, and audience.

Your conclusion rounds out the article, ties up the loose ends. It’s not an afterthought. To be powerful, a strong ending has to develop naturally from the article, essay, or chapter. The conclusion has to both surprise readers and make them feel like they should’ve known it was coming all along.

1. End with a quotation that looks back or looks forward

You don’t necessarily want to add anything too new to the end of your article, but you can include a surprising twist. Readers want the same, but different. So do editors and publishers. So, give your reader more of what you’ve been doing in the article — ending with a little poke in the ribs.

“…don’t make the surprise so foreign that it seems out of place and doesn’t tie into the article. If the quote or surprising statement seems out of place, then you only leave the reader confused, and you have lost the value of what you have built throughout the article,” writes Roger Palms in Effective Magazine Writing: Let Your Words Reach the World .

2. Invite the reader to go in a different direction

The most powerful ending neatly wraps up the article  and gives the reader something new to think about. This is difficult for most writers – even seasoned freelancers. Imagine your ending as a fork in the road. Where do you want readers to go? Write two or three different endings, then take a break. Have a nap, visit another world. Now how does the ending feel? Maybe it needs more work, or maybe one of your conclusions does the job.

The bad news is there is no one perfect way to write a powerful ending to your article. This is also the good news! If there was one perfect way to end it, then all writers would use that conclusion. And it would lose its power. You need to find the right ending for your article.

3. Finish with a dollop of something different

“If you say in the first chapter that there is a rifle hanging on a wall, in the second or third chapter it absolutely must go off,” says Paula LaRocque, author of The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well . “If it’s not going to be fired, it shouldn’t be hanging there.”

This type of conclusion might involve weaving in (not tacking on) a whole new anecdote, or including a new bit of information that adds to the story you introduced in the lead or body of the article. Many professional freelance writers like to end with a relevant story, a little vignette, something that gives the reader a feeling that the essence of the article or essay was captured.

How do I end my articles? I circle back to the beginning somehow – it depends on the topic, interviewees, audience, article length, and deadline. I often include more information about something I introduced earlier in the article.

“What is this ‘more’ you speak of?”, you ask? It depends on the article you’re writing. That’s the pain and power of writing: so much simply depends on so many things. If you know how to end your article or essay but your writing is flimsy and weak, read  How to Write Powerful Words That Grab Attention .

4. If you must summarize, do it with style

Some endings need to clearly restate and summarize the article’s main argument. Other articles don’t need a summary because there wasn’t a stated theme. Does your article need a summary? Ask it. Ask yourself as the writer. Maybe even ask a beta reader. If you’re arguing for or describing something complicated or new to readers, perhaps a summary is the most powerful way to end the article.

A summary isn’t the most creative   way to end your article, but you can spice it up with different literary techniques. Use sensory details to fire up your writing, or bring an inanimate object alive with personification. Learn different types of  edgy and quirky writing . Sometimes it’s not what you write…it’s how you write it.

Here’s how NOT to end an article:

I take a week to write magazine articles. This allows my brain and the article to tell me how to write a powerful ending. It’s never perfect, but it is as good as I can write it.

5. Circle back to the beginning

The final, most powerful tip on how to end an article: write a conclusion that refers back to your introduction or opening statements. This, says some professional freelance writers, gives readers a feeling of arrival.

You could pick up a word, a phrase, or part of an anecdote from your introduction, and round it out more. Don’t just repeat it; expand on it, color it in, give it some texture and depth. Ideally, leave readers with a hook at the end of your article – something that lodges in their minds so deeply that they can’t forget it right away.

Good writing isn’t just about learning how to end an article with a strong conclusion or conclude an essay with a summary of all your main points. Rather, good writing is about weaving all the aspects of the whole piece together.

Are you writing for a magazine?

In 11 Most Popular Articles to Write for Magazines (Freelance Writing is Easier Than You Think!) I share tips for getting published in magazines.

Getting published in print and online magazines is a lot easier when you know what types of articles editors and publishers need.

I welcome your thoughts on writing good endings – and learning how to listen to your article for the ending it wants to tell. Remember that writing a good ending involves editing and revising; it’s not something you can just tack onto the end.

Uprooted She Blossoms Laurie Pawlik Kienlen

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13 thoughts on “How to End Your Article: 5 Ways to Write a Powerful Conclusion”

Great article! Your explanation of how to write a conclusion was very clear and informative. I particularly appreciated the tips on summarizing the main points and tying them together to leave a lasting impact on the reader. Thank you for sharing this valuable information with the writing community

Appreciate the encouragement!

Just to say: Paula LaRocque is quoting (or ripping off?!) master playwright Anton Chekhov there (about the gun that must go off). It’s a pretty famous quote from him: he just says “acts” instead of chapters, since he was a playwright. Just sayin’! Thanks for the tips on endings!

how to write a conclusion in article

5 Effective Tips To Write a Conclusion for an Article

Explore the 5 most effective tips and learn how to write a conclusion for an article to use a blog and turn readers into long-term paying customers.

how to write a conclusion in article

Ivana Vidakovic

Jan 14, 2023

how to write a conclusion in article


Trending articles.

Have you given any thought to how to write a conclusion for an article in the most effective way?

How long should it be? 

What elements should it have?

All relevant questions. And, there are no hard and fast rules for how an article must end. 

But, let's back up for a second — the moment the reader reaches the final part,  your article is already a  success.

Does that mean that the conclusions are not important?

Huge negative.

Whether you're just starting with writing a blog or articles for someone else, it's essential to know why the article's conclusion is so important.

If you follow along, you will find the answer to that and, what's more, the basics of writing a conclusion.

Why Should We Bother With a Conclusion in The First Place?

What is the conclusion.

A conclusion is a place in the article that restates the article's central argument or idea and summarizes its key points . 

It should leave the reader with food for thinking, which is why your conclusion must be brief and on point. 

Likewise, we can use the conclusion to place a call to action, such as a suggestion for additional reading or a follow-up invitation. This will persuade readers to take a specific action. 

On top of everything mentioned, you can use the conclusion to show appreciation to the reader for their attention.

What Is The Purpose of A Conclusion?

The conclusion’s purpose is to encourage the reader to act on a certain problem in a positive way .

Most websites promote their products and services as the best answer to a particular problem by publishing blog posts that address that problem directly.

Conversions and new visitors will flood in as a result of your conclusion, so make sure it's strong.

What Are The 6 Types of Conclusions?

Here are the 6 most common types of conclusions you can use in your articles. You will also find an example for each.

1. Causal Conclusions 

Causal conclusions draw a logical link between two facts or events and say that one caused the other.

Causal Conclusions Example:


2. Hypothetical Conclusions

Hypothetical Conclusions suggest a possible outcome based on a given set of facts or events.

Hypothetical Conclusion Example:


3. Probabilistic Conclusions

Probabilistic conclusions consider how likely something will happen based on a set of facts or events.

Probabilistic Conclusion Example:


4. Analytical Conclusions

Analytical Conclusions take a set of facts or events based on data and analysis.

Analytical Conclusion Example:


5. Deductive Conclusions

Deductive conclusions use deductive logic to conclude a given set of facts or events.

Deductive Conclusion Example:


6. Inductive Conclusions

Inductive conclusions use inductive logic to conclude a given set of facts or events.

Inductive Conclusion Example:


Finally, before we get into the nuts and bolts of how to write a conclusion for an article, let's clarify a tried and true formula.

What 5 Things Should a Conclusion Include?

The conclusion must have these five components in order to be considered a success:

1. Summary — a brief overview of your article's main points and findings.

2. Concluding statement — a final thought that ensures the reader has grasped the main point.

3. Recommendation — offers a solution to the problem being discussed in the article.

4. Solution — a brief overview of the recommended solution.

5. Call to action — a desirable course of action a reader should take.

Now, let’s get straight into the steps on how to write conclusions that will drive more traffic and more conversions.

5 Tips On How To Write a Conclusion for an Article

1. summarize the main points of the article.

In a few succinct sentences, a good conclusion should sum up the article's most crucial arguments.

Take the most important information from your article and write it in a storytelling way .

Let’s say you are writing an article about technology. Here are possible key takeaways:

 Let’s check the final output for your conclusion recap:

The conclusion is great because there is so much room to add your thoughts and feelings.  

In this way, the readers will be exposed to an original viewpoint that is not bland and with which they can agree or disagree (both are welcome as a sign of engagement).

Summarizing the most important points can help the reader remember what the article was trying to convey.

You can use the TextCortex “ Summarizing ” feature to shorten the sentences and large pieces of text into brief information.

Whether you are writing in Hemingway, Google Docs, or any of the 30+ popular platforms that TextCortex add-on supports, you can start by selecting the text you want to summarize .

Then, choose the “ Summarizing ” feature from the rewriting menu.

The good thing about the TextCortex add-on is that it enables you to use multiple features within the same textbox simultaneously.

As a result, not only can you shorten your paragraphs , but also rewrite,  change the tone , translate, expand, and more .

2. Remind The Reader of The Article’s Purpose

Now is the time to justify the article's success in accomplishing its stated goals and imparting a general understanding of the subject. You can start by asking yourself the following questions:

Consider the issue that is discussed in the article, and provide your feedback on what you think about it. This is the section of the article in which you are given the opportunity to express your thoughts freely.

Remember, the article accomplishes its goals by:

🎯Delivering comprehensive information in a straightforward and easily digestible format to the reader. 

🎯The information is l aid out in clear, concise paragraphs that give the reader an overview of the subject at hand. 

🎯It's chock-full of real-world examples that back up the claims it makes, and it includes links to additional reading for those who want to dig deeper. 

If your article includes these elements, it will be that much more convincing to the reader to believe in your judgment. 

This way, the final section won't be a bunch of meaningless fluff and your audience will likely want to hear from you again.

Did you know how you say something significantly impacts the meaning?

It's the same with the conclusion. The tone of voice is the aspect of writing that reflects the author's attitude and can be used to make a point, be emphatic, encouraging, or decisive.

The silver lining is that problems like that can be solved by artificial intelligence.

For example, TextCortex's " Tone " feature lets you toggle between 10+ narrative outputs based on the original text.

Highlight your sentence or paragraph and choose the “ Tone ” feature from the menu.

3. Make a Final Statement

Create a compelling and thought-provoking final statement. Your concluding statement should ideally be no more than a couple of sentences long (ideally 2-3 sentences).

It must be powerful, with a compelling argument that breaks down every point you make in the entire piece.

You can use the following template as a starting point for crafting your final statement.

Final Statement Template #1

It is clear that [topic of article] is a complex issue with many facets to consider. 
While there is no one-size-fits-all solution, it is important to recognize the value of [key points ] and strive to find a balance that works for [target audience] . 

Final Statement Template #2

In conclusion, it is clear that [summarize key points] . 
This proves that [state conclusion] . 
Through this, we can see that [restate conclusion in a different way] . 
As such, it is evident that [reiterate conclusion] .

4. Offer a Solution

Your readers have your undivided attention at this point. Therefore, you should use it wisely.

Even though I said in the conclusion that you are free to be open-minded, you should exercise restraint when proposing a solution and avoid adding extra details. 

In simple words, be careful not to be too sweet or shabby. 

When offering a solution, it's best to be as practical as possible. Give special attention to the most important advantages, and be as succinct as possible in explaining why this solution is the best possible fit for their problems.

Here is a model you can modify later to meet your specific requirements when presenting a solution to your audience.

Offer a Solution Template

The best solution to the problem at hand is to [insert solution here] . 
This solution offers [list benefits of the solution here].  
It is the most effective and efficient way to [address the issue] , because [explain why] .

5. Encourage Further Actions (CTA)

With little luck and a lot of appealing writing that comes with practice (don’t worry, you’ll get there), your reader is now ready to take the next step you want him to take — call-to-action .

Here is where your imagination can run wild, as you can come up with a wide variety of call-to-actions (CTAs) that are all appropriate for different scenarios

We prepared some common CTA  examples you can use when writing a conclusion for a quick setup.

CTA Templates

Download your free e-book to [state the purpose] .
Get your free account today to [state the purpose] .
Keep reading to [state the purpose] .
Check out our new offer to [state the purpose] .
Sign up today to get [state the benefit and the purpose] .

And now is the time to check out my conclusion. Let’s see if all I stated so far applies.

Wrapping Up

Dear colleagues and friends, if I was able to keep your attention this far, then my article has fulfilled its purpose. 

In one fell swoop, I've demonstrated the value of high-quality content and taught you how to write a conclusion for an article.

Now, as a gesture of my appreciation, I would like to give you an extra tip. 

How about learning how to craft an entire blog article and its conclusion with the help of an AI?

I’ve already mentioned the TextCortex add-on, right?

Well here is a full list of what this tool can actually help you out with:

🎖️ Rewrite sentences and paragraphs in bulk.

🎖️ Summarize original content for a shorter version.

🎖️ Expand the text for more information.

🎖️ Autocomplete random thoughts into coherent sentences.

🎖️Enables switching between different tones of voice .

🎖️Translates text into 10+ different languages .

🎖️Enables you to create any content form using 60+ different AI templates .

However, TextCortex stands out from the rest thanks to two key features: the ” Long-form post ” & the ” Bullet to email ” features.

With the “ Long-form ” feature you can write up to 300-word posts from a 5-word concept within a single click.

Because you can take advantage of TextCortex's features without leaving the comfort of the application, its functionalities allow flexible and effortless content creation.

That includes platforms such as LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Notion, Gmail, Google Docs, and more.

Why decide to give TextCortex a try?

🎀It is completely free of charge .

🎀 Doesn’t require credit card information.

🎀Its free plan gives 10 free daily creations to test its functionalities.

🎀It has budget-friendly premium plans in case you decide to upgrade.

Claim your free account today to explore the easy and exciting side of writing.

Keep Learning

6 Easy Steps To Write an Introduction for an Article

8 Easy Steps To Write Blog Article Outline & Boost Productivity

13 Biggest Content Writing Mistakes & Practical Tips to Avoid Them‍

Unlock your full potential with an AI Companion

Discover what writing with AI feels like. We assure you'll save 20+ hours every week. Start creating beautiful content.

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how to write a conclusion in article

how to write a conclusion in article

concluding the journal article

The conclusion to a journal article is very important. Of course, it’s hard to end things. There’s no equivalent in the journal article to the text message that says you’re dumped… or more elegantly, reader I married him.

It’s important not to rush things at the end of an article even though it might feel as if the end is nigh. That’s because the conclusion does crucial work. Unfortunately it’s often one of things that a lot of writers skimp on.

It’s pretty important to get clear about the work that the conclusion must accomplish. So here’s a few things to think about before beginning on the ending.

The conclusion must remind the reader why the article was written in the first place . At the beginning the writer will have argued that there is a space in what is known, a puzzle that needs to be solved, a debate that is continuing, or an issue that deserves discussion. The writer will have promised to fill the space, solve the puzzle, contribute to the debate or participate in the discussion. The writer should use the argument made for the need for the article to present the case that this is what they’ve done.

The conclusion must reprise the argument that has been made without repeating it ad nauseam . No-one wants to read an article and then read it all over again in the conclusion. The conclusion must be a déjà vu free zone.

The conclusion must deal with the So What and Now What questions . We’ve read this piece of research – so what? who cares? The writer must not leave the answers to these questions to chance, assuming that any sensible reader will be able to work them out for themselves. The conclusion must succintly tell the reader how and why it is that what’s been presented is significant for practice, policy or further research. They must explicitly say how it is that the article constitutes a contribution to knowledge. They must also address the implications for further research or action.

The conclusion must avoid clichés. It’s pretty easy to round off an article with a few pious sentiments. While resorting to a clutch of tired phrases won’t cause your article to be rejected, it will leave the reader with a poor lasting impression. As the conclusion is the last thing that the reader will encounter, its important that they finish with the things that you want them to remember rather than with a sigh or a grimace.

Phrases to consider when thinking about concluding might be …

I argued at the beginning of this article that… The findings that I have presented suggest that… This is important for… because … To date the literature/policymakers/the profession has … but this study offers … While this study does not offer a conclusive answer to the question of… it does….. The research raises important questions about … for … As a result of conducting this research, I propose that … It would be fruitful to pursue further research about … in order to … If policymakers were to take this study seriously, they might …

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About pat thomson

12 responses to concluding the journal article.

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This sounds very much like what my teacher was trying to explain to us in my final year of French schooling. Unfortunately, she couldn’t explain this in context and failed to give us any good reason why the stages you’ve outlined above must be carefully thought through when writing a conclusion. All we got was a profoundly abstract account on how to write a conclusion, no real practice at it either and I admit I’ve tended to be a bit of a conclusion skimp-er ever since! (ps. never got any ‘literature’ classes in uk after that… donc pas de rattrapage sur ces apprentissages manques en literature!!).

So thank you for this post because your approach is infinitely clearer as well as more detailed, informative, concrete and to the point :)))

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Reblogged this on Academic Tips and Tricks and commented: I used to really struggle with Intros and Conclusions to essays. Here are some great tips on how to write a good conclusion without resorting to cliche.

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i m really happy to get conclusion from here it will help me a lot

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Pat, should a conclusion necessarily be long? If we are able to sum up the argument and contribution vis a vis the literature pithily, in only a few hundred words, is this OK? I tend towards short conclusions which “wrap up” rather than discuss.

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I don’t think there are any rules… But it is important to not cut short the paper. So make sure that you cover all the things that arise from the paper, not just summarise the contents. My conclusions are sometimes relatively short too.

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Thanks, very useful indeed 🙂

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It was helpful thanks!

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Thank you for explaining this so eloquently. I’m currently trying to teach medical residents and faculty members how to write up their research, and your post has been very helpful.

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Thank you – this is exactly the advice I was looking for. Much appreciated.

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Brilliant thank you

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always so helpful! thanks Pat

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17 Ways to Write a Conclusion for an Article

Conclusions to news articles—or any kind of article for that matter—are important because they wrap up the story and comfortably tell the reader that they've reached the end. Think about any news story or op-ed piece that you thought was well-written and you'll notice it ended with an important or interesting piece of information.

The truth is, everyone has a hard time writing conclusions. But don't fret. This list of seventeen kinds of conclusions will help you polish off your next piece of writing. Bookmark this list, keep it handy, and reach for it the next time your brain is out of fresh ideas.

Reiterate the Main Point

Circling back to your main point is the most straightforward way to wrap up your article. Simply reiterate your main point with slightly different verbiage. It may not seem very creative, but it's logical and it works.

For example, an article about the need for clean energy could end with a statistic about the melting of the polar ice caps.

Summarize Succinctly

Summarizing is different than reiterating. Instead of focusing on the main point, you could wrap up with a quick revisit of your document's body text . 

An article about the nuclear arms race could end with information about the current status of China and North Korea's nuclear arsenal.

Answer Potential Questions

Have you ever read something, gotten to the end, and thought, "So What? Why should I care?" In other words, what is the outcome or consequence of the main points made in the article?

For example, an article about the lack of qualified high school basketball coaches in your area should conclude with statistics about the low percentage of NBA players from areas with unqualified high school basketball coaches.

Send Readers Elsewhere

If your article, essay or blog post is pretty complete and doesn't need a "so what?", nor a reiteration, consider sending the reader in a new direction. It works well for blog posts.

For example, you could end a blog post similar to this article by saying something along the lines of, "Of course, there are plenty of credible blogs out there hiring freelancers. Try checking out any of these," and then list blogs you know are credible.

Issue a Challenge

Spur your readers on by challenging them in some way. Invite them to prove or disprove your point, or to think about the information you presented in a new and innovative way.

Allowing the reader to comment or send a letter  to the editor is always a powerful way to end an article.

Point to the Future

This one tends to be easy. It mentally places your reader in the future while keeping your article in mind. This makes it more likely the reader will use your information or revisit your publication.

For example, if you are writing an article about increasing your freelance writing rates , ask the reader to consider the benefits of doing so—such as more savings, fewer work hours and higher self-esteem. 

Make a New Connection

Ask the reader to consider new information or a new connection birthed by your article. This connects your article to the bigger picture.

For example, an article about a new social media platform could conclude with how this digital offering plugs the readers into what is relevant today, whether they are 26 or 62.

Wrap up a Scenario

If you opened your document with a scenario, story or vignette, revisit that scene. It works well for many types of articles and tends to add interest to weighty information.

For example, if your article is about gun control, go back to your opening scene about Parkland or Shady Hook.

Circle Back

Circling back to your opener or introduction is similar to the wrap-up scenario

L et's say you opened an essay on the Gettysburg Address with a quote from Lincoln. Conclude by letting the reader know that the Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most important orations in American history because it was the official dedication ceremony for the National Cemetery of Gettysburg, on the site of one of the bloodiest and most decisive battles of the Civil War.

End With a Quote

Many writers are partial to pithy quotes . If you can find one that supports your article or essay, feel free to use it—as long as you attribute it properly. You don't want to violate any copyrights .

If your article explores the importance of details in mid-century architecture, end with Mies van der Rohs' famous line, "God is in the details."

Present a Solution

If your article focuses on a problem, use your conclusion to point the reader to a good solution. It works well for political and sociological pieces.

For example, an op-ed about the need to engage more students in the political process could end by mentioning the League of Women Voters, which helps pre-register 16-year-olds.

Suggest Further Reading

If your prose is limited by a word count , offer your reader further resources to continue learning about the subject at hand.

For example, an article about starting a business could send readers to ​their local Chamber of Commerce.

Suggest an Action

It is similar to issuing a challenge but more concrete. For those who write online, this may come in the form of asking the reader to click a link leading to your other pieces about the same subject. 

The importance of leadership to the success of a business could have the reader click on a link to a recent entrepreneur.com story with advice from exemplary leaders.

Point to Great Things

This conclusion works well for pieces meant to be persuasive or to provide a solution or challenge. It entails pointing out the great things that will happen to the readers if they accept and act upon your point of view.

For example, if you are writing an article about the need for people to adopt shelter dogs, let the reader know how many dogs could be saved each year through adoption.

Get Rhetorical

Ask a rhetorical question.

For example: "It's up to you: Do you want to write great conclusions or not?"

Consider the Larger Context

Place your article, essay, blog post or  e-book within a larger context.

If you're writing a how-to piece about conclusions, connect the ability to write conclusions to the advancement of one's career by saying, "Your clients will appreciate the skill that you have in wrapping up your copy, and will hire you again and again."

Switch Gears

Switch gears, and approach the other side of an argument.

For example, you could conclude an article about writer's rates by saying, "Then again, some very good writers prefer not to earn a living through their craft, and prefer being hobbyists, and that's perfectly fine."

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When you choose to publish with PLOS, your research makes an impact. Make your work accessible to all, without restrictions, and accelerate scientific discovery with options like preprints and published peer review that make your work more Open.

How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

The discussion section contains the results and outcomes of a study. An effective discussion informs readers what can be learned from your experiment and provides context for the results.

What makes an effective discussion?

When you’re ready to write your discussion, you’ve already introduced the purpose of your study and provided an in-depth description of the methodology. The discussion informs readers about the larger implications of your study based on the results. Highlighting these implications while not overstating the findings can be challenging, especially when you’re submitting to a journal that selects articles based on novelty or potential impact. Regardless of what journal you are submitting to, the discussion section always serves the same purpose: concluding what your study results actually mean.

A successful discussion section puts your findings in context. It should include:

Tip: Not all journals share the same naming conventions.

You can apply the advice in this article to the conclusion, results or discussion sections of your manuscript.

Our Early Career Researcher community tells us that the conclusion is often considered the most difficult aspect of a manuscript to write. To help, this guide provides questions to ask yourself, a basic structure to model your discussion off of and examples from published manuscripts. 

how to write a conclusion in article

Questions to ask yourself:

How to structure a discussion

Trying to fit a complete discussion into a single paragraph can add unnecessary stress to the writing process. If possible, you’ll want to give yourself two or three paragraphs to give the reader a comprehensive understanding of your study as a whole. Here’s one way to structure an effective discussion:

how to write a conclusion in article

Writing Tips

While the above sections can help you brainstorm and structure your discussion, there are many common mistakes that writers revert to when having difficulties with their paper. Writing a discussion can be a delicate balance between summarizing your results, providing proper context for your research and avoiding introducing new information. Remember that your paper should be both confident and honest about the results! 

What to do

What not to do


Snippets of Effective Discussions:

Consumer-based actions to reduce plastic pollution in rivers: A multi-criteria decision analysis approach

Identifying reliable indicators of fitness in polar bears

There’s a lot to consider when deciding where to submit your work. Learn how to choose a journal that will help your study reach its audience, while reflecting your values as a researcher…

Ensure appropriateness and rigor, avoid flexibility and above all never manipulate results In many fields, a statistical analysis forms the heart of…

A thoughtful, thorough approach to your revision response now can save you time in further rounds of review. You’ve just spent months…

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17 Tips on How to Write a Great Article Conclusion for Your Blog

17 Tips on How to Write a Great Article Conclusion for Your Blog

We’re not going to lie: Writing great conclusions for your blog articles can be tough. You’ve already shared the meat of your content with your audience, so what else is left to say?

It’s important to nail your conclusions, though. We’ll explain why in a moment.

But first, you need to understand the conclusion’s purpose in your article. It’s designed to bring the article full circle and reinforce the statements you’ve made.

As a Knowledge Commerce professional, you know that your purpose is to teach others. You probably also know that the last word matters — a lot.

Think about an article as an analogy for an argument. You’re putting forth your own ideas on a subject to convince others of your point of view. You want them to use the information you’ve given to better themselves or others.

If they disagree with you, they won’t take your article seriously at all.

Consequently, you need a persuasive closing argument to wrap up your perspective and encourage your readers to take the desired next steps. Honing your copywriting skills can help, but you also need to understand the psychology behind the conclusion.

It’s harder than it looks, but we’ve gathered 17 tips to help you write slam-dunk conclusions every time you post an article on your blog.

Why Does an Article’s Conclusion Matter?

how to write a conclusion in article

You probably already know the desired structure for an article:

That’s it. You have lots of freedom when it comes to fulfilling those three essential parts, but the structure really matters.

People spend a lot of time on the Internet these days, but if they read every article they came across, they’d never leave the screen. What does that mean for you? It decreases the chances that your article will get read at all.

However, all hope isn’t lost.

Eye-tracking and heatmap studies have shown that people read online articles in myriad ways. A common trend looks like this:

Why do people read like this? Because they want the gist of the article.

The headline tells them what to expect, the introduction eases them into the content, the subheadings help fill out their understanding of the content, and the conclusion wraps up the piece.

In many cases, they can learn most of what they want to know from the introduction and conclusion alone.

If you end your article with a sentence or two of useless fluff, you lose the opportunity to impress your reader. Worse, most entrepreneurs put their CTAs at the ends of their articles. If readers never scroll down to the conclusion, they never get the chance to convert.

Now that you understand why conclusions matter so much for your marketing strategy, let’s explore 17 tips to help you write better conclusions.

1. Restate the Article’s Thesis

how to write a conclusion in article

This part of your article’s conclusion might take just a sentence or two, or you might need an entire paragraph. Either way, make sure you sum up the article’s primary takeaway in an engaging way.

We mentioned above that visitors might not read the majority of your article. However, if they skip to the conclusion, you want them to walk away with something of value.

In other words, your readers should learn something from what you write at the end of your blog post.

Your article’s thesis is the primary focal point of the piece. Why did you write the article? What point are you trying to make?

Restate it so your readers know exactly what you want to get across.

Remember, though, that many of your visitors will have read the entire thing. They’ll already know the ideas you put forth and the suggestions you made.

You don’t want to bore those constant readers, so keep the summary short. If you don’t give anything away, the people who skipped ahead might go back to read some of the finer points.

To that end, you can instill some curiosity. Reference some other part of the article so visitors will want to scroll back up and see what you’re talking about.

2. Answer the Pertinent Question: “So What?”

Think about the last novel you read or movie you watched. The climactic moment solved the mystery, revealed the villain, thwarted the antagonistic forces — in other words, the story was resolved.

However, the book or film didn’t end there, did it? There were at least one or two scenes afterward to wrap up the story and leave the reader or viewer satisfied.

This is known as a “So What?” moment. You took a journey with these characters, so the writer wants you to know why you spent all that time with them. What can you take away from the story?

An article conclusion works the same way. It wraps up the content, sure, but it also tells you why it matters. What should your readers take away from the information you’ve given them?

More importantly, why should they care?

If you can answer that question effectively, your readers will know they haven’t wasted their time.

3. Start With a “Conclusion” Heading

It might seem a little boring to call your conclusion what it is, but it’s also straightforward and direct. If you get too creative with your final subheading, readers might wonder if it’s really the end.

You’ll notice that we always use the subheading “Conclusion” here on the Kajabi blog. There’s a reason for that.

We want you to know that you’ve reached the end of the article. It’s like a signpost on a road trip. You know you’ve reached your destination.

It’s also very simple. There aren’t any guessing games. You don’t have to worry about wordplay.

These days, simplicity is underrated. We crave it because our lives are so jam-packed with information that we often feel overwhelmed.

When you can give your readers a break by simply stating what you mean, you’ll gain loyal followers.

4. Keep It Short and Sweet

Conclusions shouldn’t drag out the inevitable. They certainly shouldn’t be used to pad the word count or to prolong your visitors’ time on page.

If readers think you’re wasting their time, they won’t come back.

The best marketing strategies involve quick, easy-to-understand copy. Whether you’re writing an article conclusion or a Facebook Ad, you want to get to the point and wrap up before you’ve overstayed your welcome.

Create a style guide for your blog and establish a desirable conclusion length. The best article conclusions are typically between 50 and 250 words, but if you can err on the side of short, you’ll probably experience better results.

However, the conclusion should reflect the length of the article. If you’ve already written 3,000 words of content, your conclusion shouldn’t wrap up in 50 words. You need more screen space to fully summarize the article and to engage your reader.

5. Talk to Your Audience Conversationally

For some reason, writers often get very formal in their conclusions. They might think they need to sound smart or professional so their readers will take them seriously.

Don’t fall into this trap.

Your article’s conclusion should reflect the tone and voice you adopted for the rest of the article. Don’t change just because you’re wrapping things up.

In fact, it’s even more critical to remain conversational in the conclusion than it is in the rest of the piece. You’re trying to make friends with the reader, to show that you have the information he or she needs.

You can’t do that with stilted verbiage and five-dollar words.

The conclusion is a great place to insert trigger words . You want to inspire your audience to do something after they finish reading, whether they click over to a landing page or sign up for your email list .

6. Avoid Photographs and Graphics

how to write a conclusion in article

You’ll notice that we use lots of images in our blog posts. That’s purposeful. Visual imagery engages your audience and keeps them moving through your articles.

However, images don’t belong in your article conclusion. The only exception is a button or other graphic that signals a CTA.

Put simply, images distract your reader more than anything else in the conclusion. You don’t need them to keep reading because there’s nothing else to read.

Instead, focus on engaging text. You don’t need graphs, photos, illustrations, or any other images here because you’re telling the reader what he or she should have gained from the article.

7. Include Disclaimers or Disclosures if Necessary

These days, entrepreneurs have to protect themselves. This means adding any necessary disclaimers or disclosures to the end of your article.

Let’s say, for example, that you’ve included affiliate links in the piece. Let readers know that you’ll benefit monetarily if they click on these links and buy the products associated with them.

The same goes for any products or services you’ve recommended. If you have an arrangement with the person who sells those products or services, be transparent and let your readers know.

Essentially, if you’ve included anything in your article for financial incentive (other than promoting your own digital products ), disclose the relationship in the conclusion.

You might also want to add a disclaimer to protect yourself as well as your reader.

For instance, maybe you have written about a health or wellness topic. If you’re not a doctor (or even if you are), add a disclaimer that looks something like this:

The information provided in this article does not serve as a substitute for medical intervention.

It’s not just about protecting you. It’s also important to encourage your readers to seek professional advice in person.

Other industries that might need this type of disclaimer could include law, religion, fitness, and finance.

8. Restate the Article’s Main Points

In your article conclusion, go back over the main points (often the information you included in subheadings) and reiterate them. You’re summarizing the important information so your readers know what to take away from the piece.

We already talked about restating your thesis, but you also want to cover your sub-points. These might be steps to take, benefits of a particular practice, or supporting arguments. They’re the structure of your article.

Don’t go into any depth here. Just hit each point with as much brevity as possible. Readers who are interested in exploring those points in more depth can return to that part of the article.

9. Let Your Reader Know What to Do Next

It’s time to give your audience some next steps to take now that they’ve read your article. What should they do with the information you’ve provided?

In some ways, next steps and CTAs (discussed below) are similar. You probably want your reader to join your membership site or buy your latest course.

However, the next steps aren’t always about you or your business.

Maybe you have other articles related to this topic that you want your readers to check out. Consider linking to them in the conclusion.

Alternatively, perhaps you want readers to apply your advice in a specific way. Spell it out for them at the end of the piece.

Remember that consumers don’t always act unless they’re specifically told what to do. It’s not because we’re unable to make our own decisions, but because we don’t always know where to go next.

Now’s the time to give your readers a helping hand.

10. Ask an Insightful Question

Formulate a question for the very end of your article. It should come last and give readers an incentive to leave a comment or otherwise participate in the conversation.

Remember that your blog should inspire community. You want people to interact with you and with other readers.

If you ask a direct question, people will want to share their experiences and opinions. Many blog posts on the web garner hundreds or even thousands of comments because of such insightful questions.

Just make sure that it’s engaging and on-point. You don’t want to drift off-topic or ask such a complex question that readers don’t know where to start.

Your question can also help readers start thinking about their own journeys. What do they want to accomplish? How can your digital products help?

11. Add a CTA [h2]

The CTA can come anywhere in the conclusion (or even in a segment above the conclusion). It should tell the reader exactly what you want him or her to do.

Think of the CTA as your elevator pitch. You only have until the lift reaches the fifth floor to convince someone else in the cab to buy your product.

Since you have very little space and time, make your CTA snappy. Don’t just tell your reader what to do — explain why they should.

For instance, maybe you offer a free gift with every purchase of your mini-course. Use that extra bonus to incentivize your readers. They can get this free gift if they buy your course.

You could also use a CTA for your email list. Use coupons or a lead magnet as an incentive.

Whatever the case, you need to answer an important question in your CTA: “What’s in it for me?”

That’s what your readers are asking themselves. If you don’t give a strong enough incentive, those readers won’t convert.

12. Address Your Target Audience Directly

When you’re crafting your article conclusion, don’t be vague. Keep your buyer persona in the back of your mind with every word you type.

In other words, who are you talking to? And what verbiage would most appeal to that person?

Your article’s conclusion would look one way if you were writing to young, single women with bachelor’s degrees. It would look much different if your audience was married men and women with kids and advanced education.

You can even mention your target audience directly.

Let’s say that you’re writing to an audience of young mothers. Your conclusion might start something like this:

“If you’re struggling to parent successfully as a single mother…”

You’ve named your target audience right there in the conclusion. Consequently, your reader will identify strongly with the content.

13. Issue a Challenge

Who doesn’t love a challenge? If you want to liven up an otherwise hum-drum conclusion, consider challenging your audience to take on a particular goal or to reach a specific milestone.

Since you’re involved in Knowledge Commerce, you know your target audience wants to learn. That’s why they’re reading your article in the first place.

At this point, you can encourage them to reach their goals and better themselves by laying down the gauntlet. It just has to be specific.

Let’s say that you’re writing fitness tips for beginners. You could add something like this to your conclusion:

“I have a challenge for everyone reading this. Over the next seven days, do every exercise in this article at least once per day. Come back after the week is over and report your progress.”

This type of challenge serves two purposes:

Each purpose can benefit you, the business owner, as well as the reader.

14. Sum Up Potential Benefits

We’ve mentioned before that, in marketing and advertising, it’s better to talk about benefits than features. A benefit shows a clear advantage for the reader, while a feature just illustrates a fact.

The same goes for your article conclusion. It’s a good idea to sum up your thesis and main points, but you also want to help the reader understand how he or she can specifically benefit.

Let’s go back to the article example of fitness for beginners. Benefits could include starting with simple exercises that don’t pose an injury risk, building up to more difficult movements, and improving range of motion.

In other words, you want your reader to walk away from your article thinking, “I can enjoy advantages if I put these tips into practice.”

You can sum up this point in a sentence or two. For the fitness article, it might look like this:

“Practice these eight exercises for the next seven days and experience improved range of motion, better endurance, and risk-free progress toward your fitness goals.”

It’s a bit like marketing copy, but you’re not selling anything other than ideas.

15. Hit a Pain Point

An article conclusion is also a great opportunity to hit your reader where it hurts — not physically, but metaphorically. We all have pain points we want to solve, and you’re offering the answer.

This article, for instance, teaches writers and entrepreneurs how to write better article conclusions. That’s pretty simple.

But what’s the pain point? Maybe you struggle with your conclusions every time you write a blog post. Perhaps you’re not getting great conversions even though your blog posts get lots of traffic.

In other words, you’re struggling with something. We’re trying to help.

When you address the pain point directly, you connect with the reader on a new level. He or she realizes you understand his or her frustrations and want to help.

16. Alternate Sentence and Paragraph Length

Conclusions aren’t usually the most exciting parts of an article. That’s why readers often skim them.

One way to keep them glued to the page is to make the copy itself more engaging. You could make one paragraph three sentences long, then add a subsequent paragraph that has one sentence with just five words.

17. Share an Exciting or Interesting Fact

how to write a conclusion in article

Finally, your article’s conclusion should demonstrate that you don’t write conclusions just for the heck of it. You’re still imparting information.

Including an interesting or entertaining fact can help. Statistics work particularly well for this purpose.

Alternatively, you could disclose a personal fact about yourself. Maybe you’ve struggled to write article conclusions, but have only recently begun to improve them. Share that information with your audience if you’re writing about conclusions.

You’ll make a connection with your reader, show that you’ve been in his or her shoes, and keep the reader wanting more.

Article Conclusion Example

The best article conclusions boast most or all of the suggestions listed above. You can find many excellent article conclusion examples right here on the Kajabi blog .

Although our conclusions might vary from one article to the next, you’ll see patterns (especially with regard to the tips above). We don’t include every element in every conclusion, but we try to hit as many as possible.

Of course, you probably want to see it in action on someone else’s blog. That’s understandable.

With that in mind, let’s look at another example from elsewhere.

Neil Patel , one of the foremost marketing experts in the world, writes a long, in-depth article on some aspect of marketing for his personal blog every day. One common denominator is that he always writes fantastic conclusions.

Check out the conclusion to his recent article on headlines :

how to write a conclusion in article

You’ll notice that the article conclusion exhibits many of the tips we’ve provided here:

You can learn a lot from studying other writers, such as this feature article conclusion sample. The faster you learn how to write a conclusion, the more conversions you’ll get from every article you write.

Use Kajabi To Turn Your Knowledge And Content Into Products You Can Sell

It’s hard to start a business by yourself. You need lots of stamina, willpower, and fortitude if you want to succeed.

However, you don’t have to go it alone. We don’t mean you need a partner — though one of those can help, too — but that you need a platform for your business that will set you up for success from the very beginning.

That’s exactly what Kajabi provides. We’ve grouped together all the tools you need to make your Knowledge Commerce business flourish.

You can sign up for our 28 Day Challenge  and discover the Kajabi platform for yourself for free!  In fact, you can start creating your own online course from the moment you sign up.

Article conclusions matter. Regardless of whether the article is going on your blog, in an email, or somewhere else entirely, it needs a well-crafted conclusion.

But you know that, right? You read this article.

There are lots of ways to spruce up your conclusion and make it more useful to your audience. We’ve described 17 of them here.

It’s important to note, however, that your audience is unique. Your conclusions should represent your brand, writing style, and company culture.

Maybe your conclusions will only be 50 words long. Perhaps they extend to 100 words or more.

The length doesn’t matter as much as the content. Keep it brief in relation to the article itself, but make sure you include enough meat to give your audience something of value.

And now, for the obligatory question:

What hacks have you discovered to help improve your own article conclusions?

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Cover Letter Mastery: How to Write an Impressive Cover Letter

Crafting a well-written cover letter is essential for making a positive first impression with potential employers. This guide covers everything you need to know, from the basics of what a cover letter is to expert tips for creating a standout application.

Cover Letter Mastery: How to Write an Impressive Cover Letter

Applying for jobs can be daunting, especially when writing a cover letter. Many people need help knowing what to include and how to make their letters stand out.

A poorly written cover letter can differ between getting an interview or being passed over for the job. It's important to ensure your letter is polished and professional while also highlighting your skills and experience.

Our guide provides valuable advice on creating a solid cover letter to make a positive impression on potential employers and differentiate you from other applicants. It covers everything from researching the company to tailoring your letter to the specific job you're seeking. With our assistance, you can feel more self-assured in your cover letter and enhance your prospects of securing your desired position.

This guide provides information on how to write an effective cover letter, which can be crucial for both recent graduates and experienced professionals in opening up job opportunities. It covers what a cover letter means and its importance, as well as tips for crafting an impactful one.

How to write a cover letter

What is a Cover Letter

A cover letter is a complementary document presented alongside a resume during the job application process. It provides a platform for candidates to introduce themselves and express why they are the most fitting choice for a specific role. Often, a well-crafted cover letter can considerably enhance the likelihood of securing an interview invitation.

In composing an exceptional cover letter, it is crucial to tailor it to the position and organization. This entails incorporating pertinent qualifications, notable competencies, and germane experiences that showcase your aptitude for the role. Furthermore, your cover letter should exude enthusiasm and eagerness regarding the employment opportunity while emphasizing any skills or experiences that might warrant inclusion in your resume.

A compelling cover letter will explain why prospective employers should select you over alternative applicants. By ensuring that your cover letter distinguishes itself through its content and presentation, you can establish a potent initial impression that may unlock many possibilities.

By devising a focused cover letter, you can effectively exhibit your appropriateness for the role to potential employers. In addition, a triumphant cover letter can leave an enduring impact and afford you a competitive edge over other contenders, thus paving the way for success.

Next up: Discover the purpose of a cover letter and how to use it to your advantage.

The Purpose of a Cover Letter

A cover letter aims to introduce yourself and highlight your qualifications for the position. It should be concise, engaging and demonstrate why you are the best person for the job. Your cover letter should go beyond just reiterating what’s in your resume. It should provide additional information about why you would be a perfect fit for the role and show your enthusiasm for the position.

The cover letter can serve as a platform to exhibit your preparedness for the new position by highlighting your skills and experiences. It can also highlight any special achievements or accolades not included in the resume. Furthermore, it can indicate your enthusiasm for the company and its objectives.

The purpose of a cover letter is to present one's job qualifications professionally and concisely. You can set yourself up for success with an effective cover letter by creating a memorable first impression with potential employers.

Tips on Writing an Effective Cover Letter

There are some important tips to keep in mind when crafting an effective cover letter. Customize your cover letter for each job application. This will help you demonstrate you’re well-informed about the role and the company.

Use a professional tone of voice when writing your cover letter. Avoid using too much jargon or slang, as this could come off as unprofessional.

Another key tip is to avoid repeating what’s already stated in your resume. Your cover letter should complement your resume by providing additional information and emphasizing how you’re the best candidate for the position.

Lastly, don’t forget to proofread your work before submitting it! It is vital to avoid minor errors in your cover letter as they can negatively impact your first impression with potential employers. Following these guidelines can increase your chances of standing out from other applicants.

Knowing the Employer

To make a positive impression on potential employers, conducting research and familiarizing yourself with the company is important. This knowledge can be used to customize your cover letter and resume and differentiate yourself from other candidates. Researching the company can provide valuable information on its values, goals, and culture, and this knowledge can aid in presenting yourself as a suitable candidate for employment.

Researching a company's website, social media accounts and speaking with employees or alumni can offer insight to personalize application materials and demonstrate proactivity and resourcefulness to potential employers. It also shows a genuine interest in joining their team.

Researching a company can provide a deeper understanding of its values and culture, which can help customize job application materials and demonstrate enthusiasm to potential employers. Now let's examine how researching the company and job description can help you create an even more practical application.

Researching the Company and Job Description

Doing your research is essential to writing an effective and persuasive cover letter. It demonstrates to employers that you are motivated and resourceful and allows you to tailor your application materials to the job and company.

Reading through the job description can help you identify the key skills and experiences required for the role, allowing you to highlight how your background meets their needs.

Additionally, researching more about the company’s values and culture can allow you to provide evidence in your cover letter of why you would be an excellent fit for their team. By doing this research, you’ll be able to craft a compelling narrative that presents yourself as a top candidate for the position. Researching the employer is beneficial in writing your cover letter and during interviews, so make sure you take the time to familiarize yourself with them before applying!

Understanding the Company Culture and Values

Understanding the company culture and values is essential to writing a compelling cover letter. As an applicant, you want to showcase why you are the right fit for the position and organization.

Researching the company’s core values and culture allows you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of its mission. Tailoring your application to match the employer's specifications reflects your commitment to joining their organization.

Moreover, comprehending the company's internal dynamics can enhance your preparedness for interviews and facilitate possible career development. So, It is essential to consider a company's culture and values when writing a cover letter for a job application, as this can distinguish your application from others.

Writing Your Cover Letter

Your cover letter is an opportunity to make a lasting impression on employers. It can decide whether you get an interview for your dream job, so it’s important to take the time to write a compelling and persuasive one.

Start by introducing yourself and highlighting any relevant qualifications or experience. Also, don’t forget to mention why you are passionate about this job and how you would benefit from working there. Make sure to include specific examples of projects that demonstrate your abilities and any awards or accolades you have received.

Lastly, use a confident tone of voice throughout your letter, and be sure to check for grammar and spelling mistakes before submitting it! Taking the extra effort to write a polished cover letter shows recruiters that you are serious about joining their team and will help give you an edge over other applicants.

Be sure to seal the deal with a strong closing statement that expresses your enthusiasm for the job and reiterates your eagerness to make a positive contribution. With this powerful cover letter, you can set yourself apart from other applicants and begin working towards your dream career. Now let's learn how to get off to a better start by crafting a strong opening paragraph!

Crafting a Strong Opening Paragraph

The introductory segment of your cover letter presents a crucial opportunity to leave a lasting impression on your prospective employer. By meticulously crafting a compelling initial paragraph, you can pique the interest of recruiters, encouraging them to delve deeper into the reasons that make you the most suitable candidate for the position.

Initiate your letter with a brief self-introduction and highlight your passion for the specific role, elucidating how your unique skill set would contribute significantly to the company's success.

Next, elaborate on your qualifications and relevant experiences, demonstrating your eligibility for the role. Moreover, accentuate the distinct attributes that set you apart from other contenders and articulate how a symbiotic relationship would emerge between you and the organization.

Finally, maintain an assertive tone throughout your opening paragraph, exuding enthusiasm for collaborating with the team and expressing unwavering dedication to the company's objectives. By incorporating these guidelines, you can devise a powerful introductory passage that captivates recruiters and catalyzes your professional advancement!

Highlighting Your Relevant Experience, Skills and Achievements

Highlighting your relevant experience, skills, and achievements is key to crafting an effective cover letter. Start by outlining all the qualifications and experiences that make you a suitable candidate for the job. This could include any certifications or degrees that you have, as well as any skills or knowledge that are specific to the role.

Additionally, consider any awards or accolades you’ve earned related to your field of expertise. For example, if you’re applying for a marketing role, mentioning any campaigns or projects you’ve worked on and the results they achieved might be helpful. Emphasizing these points will demonstrate why you are uniquely qualified for this job and help set your application apart from others.

To ensure your cover letter catches recruiters’ attention, provide concrete examples of how your contributions have helped organizations in the past and highlight what sets you apart from other applicants.

Demonstrating Your Value to the Prospective Employer

When writing an effective cover letter, demonstrating your value to a prospective employer is essential. Before you start, take some time to research the company's needs and goals, as this will help you tailor your skills to their specific requirements.

When outlining your experiences and accomplishments, ensure they are relevant and demonstrate how you can help the employer meet their objectives. For example, if the job requires someone experienced in sales, be sure to mention any sales targets you have successfully achieved or any innovative techniques you have implemented. Additionally, include any awards or recognition you have earned concerning your work experience.

Demonstrating your value means showcasing why you are uniquely qualified for the role and how your contributions can benefit the organization. By highlighting your past successes and valuable skillset, recruiters can quickly identify why hiring you would be a great decision for them.

Crafting an Engaging Closing Paragraph

The closing paragraph of your cover letter is your last chance to make an impression and leave a lasting mark on the recruiter. Therefore, crafting an engaging and compelling closing paragraph that clearly conveys your enthusiasm for the role is important. Begin by thanking the recruiter for their time and consideration, then highlight why you are passionate about the job opportunity and how you can contribute to the organization’s success.

Be sure to include a strong call to action, such as expressing interest in a follow-up interview or suggesting ways to contact you. Additionally, it is beneficial to end positively by reiterating your excitement for this opportunity and your willingness to bring value to the company.

Following these tips can create an engaging and persuasive closing paragraph that will leave recruiters feeling confident about your candidacy. Take some time to review what you have written before submitting your application materials to ensure that it meets the highest standards possible.

Making Sure Your Entire Letter Is Well-Written

When crafting an impeccable cover letter, it is paramount to meticulously examine the document for precise, well-constructed, and error-free content.

This entails assiduously scrutinizing your composition for any inaccuracies, such as typographical, grammatical, or punctuation, and ensuring you employ the appropriate vocabulary.

Moreover, be mindful of your sentence construction and ascertain that your prose is understandable and digestible.

Adopting a polished, professional tone while articulating your cover letter is advantageous as it exudes self-assurance and conviction in your capabilities.

Lastly, should you possess any inquiries concerning the employment opportunity or organization, seize this occasion to pose them. In doing so, you exhibit proactivity and authentic enthusiasm for the position.

Proofreading and Editing Before Sending

Proofreading and editing are essential steps for creating a successful cover letter. Before sending your cover letter, read it over several times and catch any typos, spelling mistakes, or grammatical errors. Additionally, double-check that you have included all the necessary details, such as your email address and contact information.

Examples of good cover letters can provide some inspiration when starting your own. A generic cover letter example can be a useful starting point, while perfect cover letter examples showcase what an ideal document looks like. Strong cover letter examples demonstrate how to craft an effective introduction and body, and well-written cover letter examples offer insight into how to format the document properly.

By reviewing various examples of good cover letters and proofreading your work before submission, you will be able to create an engaging document that reflects positively on you as a candidate. Doing so can increase your chances of landing the desired job.

All in all, writing an effective cover letter is essential for any job seeker. It’s important to craft a document that clearly conveys your enthusiasm for the role while highlighting your qualifications. To ensure success, take the time to write and proofread your cover letter before sending it off. Additionally, review various examples of good cover letters to gain some inspiration when starting your own. By following these tips, you will be better positioned to create an engaging and persuasive document that will leave recruiters feeling confident about your candidacy.

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How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 11, 2022.

The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .

In it, you should:

Table of contents

Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.

Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.

As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.

Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.

An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.

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Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.

An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:

In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.

Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.

To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.

You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.

You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.

When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.

Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.

Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.

Some strategies to achieve this include:

Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.

The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:

Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:

V. Conclusion

The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.

The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?

All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.

However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.

This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.

Checklist: Conclusion

I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .

I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.

I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.

I have given relevant recommendations .

I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.

I have  not introduced any new data or arguments.

You've written a great conclusion! Use the other checklists to further improve your dissertation.

In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

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How to Start a Conclusion

Last Updated: April 12, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by Diane Stubbs . Diane Stubbs is a Secondary English Teacher with over 22 years of experience teaching all high school grade levels and AP courses. She specializes in secondary education, classroom management, and educational technology. Diane earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from the University of Delaware and a Master of Education from Wesley College. This article has been viewed 149,342 times.

A persuasive essay, literary analysis, or research paper should include a thoughtful introduction and conclusion. The conclusion, when written correctly, gives the reader a summary and insights into the reasons for the subject's importance. You may also need to deliver a speech or presentation which needs a good conclusion. Many of the same principles apply, but you should tailor your conclusion carefully.

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Writing Template and Sample Conclusion

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Writing a Conclusion for an Essay or Paper

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Concluding a Presentation or Speech

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To start a conclusion for an essay, begin with a reference to the original question. If, for example, the essay question asks “How did the Battle of Monte Casino change the course of WWII?”, start with “The Battle of Monte Casino was a crucial moment that reflected the shifting dynamic of WWII.” Additionally, start your conclusion in a natural way, without obvious transitions like "In conclusion." For example, begin with "A sense of the impermanence of human achievement..." instead of, "In conclusion, a sense of the impermanence.." For more advice from our English reviewer, including how to write a conclusion for a presentation or speech, keep reading. Did this summary help you? Yes No

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8 Tips for Writing More Powerful Conclusions

Neil Patel

Updated: July 28, 2017

Published: January 05, 2015

What’s the toughest part of writing a blog post?

how to write a conclusion in article

For a lot of people, it’s the conclusion. You spend a long time -- maybe hours -- writing the perfect article. You do all the outlining, research, formatting , and then you get to the end. Now what do you say?

Click here to download our free ebook on easy fixes to common business  blogging mistakes.

The most successful articles have strong finishes, where the conclusion is one of the most powerful components of the article.

How do you write powerful conclusions for your blog posts? Luckily, it's not too complicated -- you can even follow a sort of formula. Here are my favorite tips for creating a really powerful conclusion for any blog post.

1) Call it a conclusion.

In my opinion, the best conclusions are outright labeled "Conclusion," either with a header (as in my example below) or with the phrase "In conclusion."


I’ve seen some very good writers call the end of the article something differently, like “Now What?” or “Wrapping things up…” These might work for them, but I personally prefer to be very straightforward and direct throughout the entire article and at the end. When a reader sees “conclusion,” she knows exactly what the section is going to be about. It helps the blog post to end neatly.

2) Make it short.

When the reader comes to the end of a well-written article, they can feel the article begin to wrap up and they're prepared for an ending. When you're done with all your main points, the actual ending of the article should be short, and ideally shouldn't include any new information.

I usually write a few sentences, although occasionally, I break it down into a few paragraphs.

Below, you'll find a great example of a conclusion from JeremySaid.com. Notice he slows the article down nicely, includes a bit of a call-to-action, and a full stop. It's short, but compelling.


3) Be real.

A conclusion is a chance for you to relate with your audience, human to human. This is especially important if you’ve just finished writing an exhaustively detailed or complicated technical post. To help breathe at the end, make a few personal comments.

Why? Because personal is powerful. People will respond to your CTA more effectively if you share a personal anecdote or mention how you’ve dealt with the issue. 

Joel Gascoigne of Buffer uses this technique when he closes his articles. Check out an example below :


4) Don’t put any pictures in it.

I have images or screenshots throughout most of my articles, but when I hit the conclusion, I stop. Adding images to the conclusion adds unnecessary length and makes the conclusion seem longer than it needs to be.

5) Make any beneficial or necessary disclaimers.

A disclaimer is a way of clarifying what you’re saying so you can be sure your readers take away the right message from your post. I'm known to slip in a disclaimer at the end of an article here and there, and I usually end up writing it after reading through the completed article. I think to myself, "Hmm, I should make sure that they understand x."  SO I jot down a quick disclaimer in the conclusion.

Here’s an example of a disclaimer (highlighted) in the conclusion of one my articles :


6) Summarize the article.

If you do nothing else at the end of your post, make sure you include a summary. A summary is a quick flyover of your article. You can go point-by-point if you want, or you can just sum up the big idea in a few sentences or less. They allow you to reinforce your message and make it memorable. Your article is about one main thing, so you should remind your users about it at the end of the article.

Below is an excerpt from the conclusion of a  Lifehacker article  about doing a detox. The author’s main point is that you don’t really need a full-on detox, you just need to eat healthily. His conclusion contains only three, short sentences, but they perfectly summarize the entire article.


7) Provide next steps.

Most articles benefit from suggested next steps, which gives your specific audience guidance on what to do with the information they've just absorbed. Although some of your readers will read your post and know exactly what they should do, but it's more likely they'll need a little direction and encouragement from you. In your conclusion, tell them what to do.

Below is an excerpt from the conclusion of a HubSpot article on digital ad fraud. The author includes several suggested next steps for HubSpot's readers, which I've shown using red boxes.


8) Ask a question.

At the end of almost every article, I ask my readers a question. Questions demand responses, so placing them in your conclusion gets people’s minds moving. The whole motivation in writing an article is to change someone’s behavior, and I consider the question to be one of the most effective ways of doing so.

Asking questions to stimulate critical thinking and discussion is also a powerful teaching technique called the “Socratic method.” Instead of giving information directly, a teacher asks a series of questions that lead to a conclusion. I often start articles with a question, ask questions throughout the whole article, and conclude with a question. ( Here's an example  if you're interested.)

Questions also help to spark comments at the conclusion of the article. I don’t expect the comment section to be full of answers to my question, but it sometimes gets people talking. Below's  an example from Buffer’s blog -- they often include a question or two in the conclusion.


Questions inspire response. Here's another great example of a powerful conclusion from ShopifyNation.com. Notice how their articles end with a “Conclusion” that is short, summative, personal, picture-free, suggests next steps, and includes a question.


Now I’ve come to the conclusion of an article about writing conclusions. What am I going to do?

Easy. I’m going to summarize the main points: Call it a conclusion, make it short, be real, don’t use pictures, provide disclaimers, summarize the article, suggest next steps, and ask a question.

If your conclusions aren’t powerful, then they'll weaken your whole article. It takes some practice, though -- so bookmark this article, and check off each item the next time you’re ready to write your own conclusion.

What tips do you have for writing more powerful conclusions?

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Which do you think count more: first impressions or last impressions?

A conclusion is the last impression that a reader will have of your essay: make it count!

Introduction to writing a conclusion

A conclusion is the final idea left with the reader at the end of an essay. Without it, an essay would be unfinished and unfocused.

A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression.

A conclusion often includes a final thought or reflection to highlight the significance of the topic . It is usually a short paragraph.

Video about how to reflect on your main points in a conclusion

Reflecting on the argument.

Before you write your conclusion, it is a good idea for you to look again at your ideas in the essay. It can be particularly useful to re-read your introduction and think about what you have realised and explored as you wrote the essay. Your conclusion can then sum up what you have understood more deeply about the literature text and the essay topic.

If you think of your essay as a type of argument, persuading the reader to a particular point of view, then the conclusion can be a powerful way of bringing together the most important aspects of your argument.

Which of these statements is not true?

a) A conclusion brings together lots of new ideas to interest the reader.

b) A conclusion brings together the ideas already discussed in the essay.

c) A conclusion is important because it brings together what you understand about the text and topic.

Answer a) A conclusion is not the moment to introduce new ideas!

Drawing your essay to a close

Link back to the question.

Keep your conclusion focused by linking back to the question, title, statement or topic of the essay. This can be achieved by using key words from the essay question. For example:

Why is Jack an important character in the novel Lord of the Flies ?

In conclusion, the character of Jack is important because he represents the violent side of human nature in the novel.

Summarise the main points

In the conclusion, you should not simply repeat what you have said in the rest of the essay, but aim to reinforce these key ideas by briefly summarising your main points. One way to do this is to look back at all the topic sentences from the paragraphs in your essay and bring them together:

In conclusion, the character of Jack is important because he symbolises violence and savagery in the novel. His desire for power and increasing bloodlust represent the negative side of human nature. He is a charismatic character who is feared by the other boys on the island. He therefore acts as an important contrast to the character of Ralph.

Your conclusion should leave the reader thinking about the significance of the whole topic. So, in a literature essay, it is a good idea to include a final thought or reflection, perhaps one that looks forward, or outwards from the novel. For example:

At the end of the novel Jack’s reign of terror ends with the arrival of the British Naval Officer and this perhaps leaves the reader with some sense of optimism that human beings can change for the better when they are no longer frightened and under the power of an evil leader.

Which links back to the question?

Which of the following concluding sentences clearly links back to this question: How is the character important in the novel?

a) In the novel, the main character changes from being selfish and angry to being caring and happy. b) Overall, this character is important in the novel because they learn the most important life lesson: look after others not just yourself. c) The novel is a ghost story and the sinister setting of the orphanage adds to the horror.

Answer: b) ‘Overall, this character is important in the novel because they learn the most important life lesson: look after others not just yourself.’ Key words in the title ‘character’ and ‘important’ have been used to link the conclusion back to the essay question.

Useful sentence starters

You could use one of the following sentence starters to signal to the reader that you are concluding the essay:

What to avoid

The conclusion is an important way to wrap up your ideas. Without a conclusion, your writing may seem unfinished or your overall aim may not be clear. The conclusion is your final chance to leave an impression on the reader.

Test your knowledge

Writing in response to fiction, how to use evidence from a text, how to write an essay, how to write an introduction to an essay.

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Associate Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, L’Université d’Ottawa/University of Ottawa

how to write a conclusion in article

Senior Researcher, Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, Université de Genève

Disclosure statement

Matthieu P. Boisgontier is a Principal Investigator at the Bruyère Research Institute (BRI) in Ottawa, a member and former co-chair of the Society for Transparency, Openness, and Replication in Kinesiology (STORK), Editor-in-Chief of Communications in Kinesiology (CiK), a member of Peer Community In (PCI) and founder of PCI Health & Movement Sciences. He has received funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Banting Research Foundation (BRF), Mitacs and the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI).

Boris Cheval is supported by an Ambizione grant (PZ00P1_180040) from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).

University of Ottawa provides funding as a founding partner of The Conversation CA-FR.

University of Ottawa provides funding as a member of The Conversation CA.

AUF (Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie) provides funding as a member of The Conversation FR.

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The health benefits of physical activity are undeniable.

Yet, a recent study based on data published over the past 30 years challenges the famous adage Mens sana in corpore sano (a healthy mind in a healthy body) and questions the importance of exercise for both brain health and cognition.

A few days after that study was published, our team of health and neuroscience researchers released the results of our study of over a quarter million people. Our results clearly support the beneficial effects of both moderate and vigorous physical activity on cognitive functioning, fuelling an important scientific debate.

Who is right and who is wrong? Here’s what the science says.

Is physical exercise useless for cognitive functioning?

The first study was published on March 27, 2023. It is a review of 24 meta-analyses that re-examines data from 11,266 healthy people using a more rigorous approach.

Although almost all of the 24 meta-analyses included in this review concluded that exercise had a positive effect on cognitive function, the authors argue that the analyses performed were suboptimal. For example, they point out that both baseline levels of physical activity and the tendency of the scientific community to publish only significant results were rarely taken into consideration. Once these adjustments were made, the authors found results suggesting that the benefits of exercise are actually smaller than those estimated in the previous meta-analyses, and may even be negligible.

Based on these findings, the authors argue that public health agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) should no longer state that physical activity improves cognitive health, academic performance, and executive function , “at least until more reliable scientific evidence accumulates.”

Well, that evidence didn’t take long to arrive.

Genetics and DNA to the rescue

The second study , ours, is a genetic study involving nearly 350,000 people, published four days later, on March 31, 2023. Our results provide scientific evidence for the cognitive benefits of moderate and vigorous physical activity.

This evidence is based on the two-sample Mendelian randomization method, which takes advantage of the random variations in our DNA that occur at conception, before we are even born.

When any two humans are compared, 99.9 per cent of their genetic material is identical. DNA can be thought of as a long chain of building bricks, called nucleotides, that varies once every 1,000 bricks between these two humans. There are four types of randomly arranged bricks: thymine, adenine, guanine, and cytosine. Genetic variations can result in, for example, a cytosine brick in one place in one person’s DNA and a thymine brick in the same place in another.

The first sample in our study, consisting of 91,084 people, was used to identify genetic variations associated with differences in physical activity, as measured by wrist-worn motion sensors .

The second sample in our study, consisting of 257,854 people, was used to test whether the genetic variations associated with physical activity had a proportional effect on cognitive functioning. Since this was the case, we were able to conclude that there is a causal effect of physical activity on cognitive function.

Moderate exercise goes a long way

In our study, we show that physical activity improves cognitive functioning, but more importantly, that the effect of moderate physical activity (brisk walking, cycling) is 1.5 times greater than that of vigorous physical activity (running, playing basketball). This finding highlights that we do not need to push ourselves to the point of exhaustion to get cognitive benefits from exercise.

woman on a bike

When all types of physical activity were considered together (including sedentary and light physical activity), our results no longer showed an effect on cognitive function. This finding confirms the importance of achieving at least moderate intensities to reap the cognitive benefits of physical activity.

Our results are consistent with those of a recent study that emphasizes the importance of exercise duration and intensity for the release of a protein called BDNF in the brain. This protein is involved in the creation of new neurons, new connections between these neurons, and new blood vessels to feed them.

This protein, whose production increases during exercise, is therefore one of the physiological mechanisms that explains the beneficial effects of physical activity on cognitive function. The very existence of this explanatory mechanism further strengthens the results supporting a beneficial effect of exercise on brain functioning.

It’s never too late to get started

Several differences may explain the discrepancy in results between the review of meta-analyses and our genetics-based study.

First, the review looks only at healthy people, which is not the case in our study. Second, our study distinguishes between light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, whereas the review does not make this distinction. Finally, our genetic approach evaluates long-term effects, over a lifetime, whereas the review is based on interventions lasting between one month and two years.

As we are dealing with the temporal aspects of physical activity here, it is important to remember that it is never too late to start exercising. In fact, a 2019 study showed that starting to be active late in life has the same overall positive health effects as being active throughout life.

Conclusion: Hasty decisions are never good

Based on our findings, it appears that physical activity can still be considered beneficial for brain health and cognition. Moreover, in the current socio-political climate of mistrust of science, we should not jump to conclusions on the basis of a single study that contradicts years of research, yet is based on the very same data.

As is often the case in science, it is wiser not to make hasty decisions but to wait for additional studies before suggesting changes to physical activity guidelines. The accumulation of converging evidence from different research teams should be a prerequisite for changing public health messages. As this article shows, we are nowhere near that point, and the benefits of physical activity on a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes remain undeniable.

This article was originally published in French

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Durham report sharply criticizes FBI’s 2016 Trump campaign probe

Special counsel says “extremely troublesome” failures appear to stem from bias that kept agents from carefully examining evidence.

Special counsel John Durham has issued a long-awaited report that sharply criticizes the FBI for investigating the 2016 Trump campaign based on “raw, unanalyzed, and uncorroborated intelligence” — a conclusion that may fuel rather than end partisan debate about politicization within the Justice Department and FBI.

Durham was tapped in 2019 by President Donald Trump’s attorney general , William P. Barr, to reexamine how government agents hunted for possible links between the Trump campaign and Russian efforts to interfere in the presidential election. The very appointment — of an investigator to reinvestigate the investigators — led to significant criticism from current and former law enforcement officials.

The report, coming almost four years to the day since Durham’s assignment began, will probably be derided by Democrats as the end of a partisan boondoggle. Republicans will have to wrestle with a much-touted investigation that has cost taxpayers more than $6.5 million and didn’t send a single person to jail, even though Trump once predicted that Durham would uncover the “crime of the century.”

On Monday, Trump nevertheless claimed victory, posting on social media that the report showed “the American Public was scammed, just as it is being scammed right now by those who don’t want to see GREATNESS for AMERICA!”

Read the full report by Special Counsel John Durham

Much of the FBI conduct described by the Durham report was previously known and had been denounced in a 2019 report by the Justice Department’s inspector general, which did not find “documentary or testimonial evidence of intentional misconduct.”

Durham goes further in his criticism, however, arguing that the FBI rushed to investigate Trump in a case known as Crossfire Hurricane, even as it proceeded cautiously on allegations related to then-Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. In particular, the report notes that while the FBI warned Clinton’s team when agents learned of possible evidence by a foreign actor to garner influence with her, agents did not give a similar defensive briefing to the Trump campaign before quickly launching an investigation.

The FBI’s handling of key aspects of the case was “seriously deficient,” Durham wrote, causing the agency “severe reputational harm.” That failure could have been prevented if FBI employees hadn’t embraced “seriously flawed information” and instead followed their “own principles regarding objectivity and integrity,” the report said.

As examples of confirmation bias by the FBI, Durham cites: the FBI decision to go forward with the probe despite “a complete lack of information from the Intelligence Community that corroborated the hypothesis upon which the Crossfire Hurricane investigation was predicated”; agents ignoring information that exonerated key suspects in the case; and the FBI being unable to corroborate “a single substantive allegation” in a dossier of Trump allegations compiled by British former spy Christopher Steele.

Durham’s appointment as special counsel was unusual, in that Barr essentially tasked him with investigating the work done for a prior special counsel: Robert S. Mueller III. Durham’s probe produced paltry results in court: Two people that he charged with crimes were found not guilty, while a former FBI lawyer pleaded guilty to altering an email used to help a colleague prepare a court application for surveillance of a Trump adviser.

From the archives: The Mueller report, illustrated

After the second acquittal last year , Democrats and some lawyers urged the Justice Department to shut down Durham’s office as a waste of taxpayer money and time.

The report issued Monday said Durham and his team conducted more than 48o interviews, reviewed more than 1 million documents, executed seven search warrants and, with a grand jury, served more than 190 subpoenas.

It ended with a short recommendation for the FBI: Create a position for an FBI agent or lawyer to provide oversight of politically sensitive investigations. That person would be tasked with challenging every step of such investigations, including whether officials appropriately adhered to the rules governing applications to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which handles matters of national security.

After the inspector general’s 2019 report criticizing the FBI’s conduct, Director Christopher A. Wray implemented many changes at the agency, which has been at the center of fierce political debates since the 2016 election.

The senior FBI officials who ran the Crossfire Hurricane investigation left the agency years ago. But they have long said the bureau had a duty to investigate the allegations against the Trump campaign.

Durham sent his report to Attorney General Merrick Garland on Friday, and Garland sent it to top members of the Senate and House judiciary committees on Monday afternoon, a Justice Department official said. The report contains no classified information, and Garland told lawmakers he released the report with no “additions, redactions, or other modifications.” Garland did not submit to Congress a 29-page classified appendix but said he would arrange for members to view it.

Top Durham aide resigns from probe into origins of Trump-Russia investigation

In a statement responding to the report, the FBI said the conduct in 2016 and 2017 that Durham examined “was the reason that current FBI leadership already implemented dozens of corrective actions, which have now been in place for some time. Had those reforms been in place in 2016, the missteps identified in the report could have been prevented. This report reinforces the importance of ensuring the FBI continues to do its work with the rigor, objectivity, and professionalism the American people deserve and rightly expect.”

A longtime federal prosecutor who was U.S. attorney in Connecticut during the Trump administration, Durham had previously taken on politically sensitive investigations in Washington — including cases involving the CIA and the FBI. But the special counsel appointment was his highest profile and most politically charged undertaking.

When the inspector general, Michael Horowitz, issued his findings in 2019, Durham took the unusual step of publicly disagreeing with him on a key point — disputing Horowitz’s finding that the decision to open the investigation into Trump’s campaign was justified.

“Based on the evidence collected to date, and while our investigation is ongoing, last month we advised the Inspector General that we do not agree with some of the report’s conclusions as to predication and how the FBI case was opened,” Durham said at the time.

Yet on Monday, he appeared to back away from that criticism, writing “there is no question that the FBI had an affirmative obligation to closely examine” allegations brought to the agency by an Australian diplomat who told them of alarming statements made over drinks by a low-level Trump adviser, George Papadopoulos.

The status of key investigations involving Donald Trump

Durham’s report suggests he thinks the FBI should have opened a preliminary investigation, rather than a full investigation, based on the Australian’s tip. The report highlights a conversation between two FBI officials at the time who appeared to bemoan the weakness of the new case.

“Damn that’s thin,” wrote one FBI official in early August 2016. “I know,” replied another, “it sucks.”

Durham’s final report comes against a backdrop of two failed prosecutions. Igor Danchenko — a private researcher who was a primary source for a dossier of allegations about Trump’s alleged ties to Russia — was acquitted in October of lying to the FBI about where he got his information. Durham personally argued much of the government’s case in that trial, in federal court in Alexandria.

Last year, a jury in D.C. federal court acquitted cybersecurity lawyer Michael Sussmann , whom Durham also had charged with lying to the FBI . A former FBI lawyer, Kevin Clinesmith, was sentenced to one year of probation after admitting in a 2020 plea deal with Durham that he had altered a government email used to justify secret surveillance of a former Trump campaign adviser, Carter Page.

The report means Durham’s time as a special counsel is coming to an end, while two other special counsels continue: one to investigate Trump and people close to him for classified documents found at his home, as well as events leading up to the Jan. 6 , 2021, riot at the U.S. Capitol, and another to investigate President Biden and people close to him for classified documents found at his home and office.

Personal Insights

Author's profile photo Johannes Bechberger

Mastering the Art of Controlling the JIT: Unlocking Reproducible Profiler Tests


how to write a conclusion in article

What we want and what we get

how to write a conclusion in article

How do we get it?

how to write a conclusion in article

WhiteBox API

One of the not so well-known tools of the HotSpot VM is its WhiteBox testing API. Introduced in Java 7 it has been significantly improved and extended in Java 8 and 9. It can be used to query or change HotSpot internals which are not otherwise exposed to Java-land. While its features make it an indispensable tool for writing good HotSpot regression tests, it can also be used for experiments or for the mere fun of peeking into the VM. This entry will focus on the usage of the WhiteBox API in Java 8 and 9. The WhiteBox API is implemented as a Java class (called sun.hotspot.WhiteBox) which defines various entry points into the HotSpot VM. Most of the functionality is implemented natively, directly in the HotSpot VM. The API is implemented as a singleton which can be easily retrieved by calling the static method WhiteBox.getWhiteBox(). Unfortunately, currently even a simple JavaDoc documentation of the API doesn’t exist, so in order to make full use of its functionality, you’ll have to peek right into WhiteBox.java. The WhiteBox testing API
That’s interesting. How did you find this? Is the result of this target used anywhere? As far as I could tell, the build-test-lib target itself is not used anywhere. The classes that fail to compile here are used by tests without any problems – each test specifies the necessary imports individually. Should we remove this make target instead? 8307732: build-test-lib is broken #13885

Compiler Control

Summary This JEP proposes an improved way to control the JVM compilers. It enables runtime manageable, method dependent compiler flags. (Immutable for the duration of a compilation.) Goals Fine-grained and method-context dependent control of the JVM compilers (C1 and C2) The ability to change the JVM compiler control options in run time No performance degradation Motivation Method-context dependent control of the compilation process is a powerful tool for writing small contained JVM compiler tests that can be run without restarting the entire JVM. It is also very useful for creating workarounds for bugs in the JVM compilers. A good encapsulation of the compiler options is also good hygiene. JEP 165

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Biden cancels trip to Australia over debt ceiling talks, will travel to Japan

WASHINGTON − President Joe Biden will shorten a planned trip overseas this week, canceling stops in Australia and Papua New Guinea, with a dispute over the debt ceiling inching toward a resolution.

Biden was planning to travel to Sydney to meet with the leaders of India, Japan and Australia, collectively known as the Quad, at the conclusion of the Group of Seven Summit, which is taking place this week in Hiroshima. However, three White House officials said on Tuesday afternoon that Biden would cancel the second half of his trip, which also included a stop in Papua New Guinea, and return to the U.S. at the conclusion of the summit.

"I'm cutting my trip short. I'm postponing the Australia portion of [the] trip and my stop in Papua New Guinea in order to be back for the final negotiations with congressional leaders," Biden later confirmed.

He'll depart on Wednesday for Asia and return to the U.S. on Sunday, the president's spokeswoman, Karine Jean-Pierre, said in a statement. Jean-Pierre said Biden would return early "in order to be back for meetings with Congressional leaders to ensure that Congress takes action by the deadline to avert default."

The move underscores the urgency of a looming June 1 deadline for potential economic calamity.

"There's still work to do," Biden said at a Tuesday evening reception celebrating Jewish Heritage Month.

He said he would be speaking "regularly" with congressional leaders while he is in Japan, where heads of government are expected to discuss Russia's war against Ukraine. "The nature of the presidency is addressing many of the critical matters all at once," he said. "So I'm confident, we're going to make progress toward avoiding default and fulfilling America's responsibility as a leader on the world stage."

White House aides had been optimistic about Biden's ability to finalize a deal, which House Speaker Kevin McCarthy had said needs to happen by the end of the week for approval in Congress before a possible default, without having to change or cancel his trip.

Biden met on Tuesday afternoon with McCarthy and other congressional leaders at the White House to discuss raising the debt ceiling . A previous meeting between Biden and the leaders failed to produce a breakthrough in talks.

“It is possible to get a deal by the end of the week," McCarthy told reporters following the Tuesday meeting. "It’s not that difficult to get to an agreement."

McCarthy was among the Republicans who had been critical of Biden's planned trip to Japan for the G-7 Summit, which Biden had said he was considering attending virtually to focus on debt-ceiling talks. GOP Sen. John Cornyn, R-Texas, took to the floor of the Senate to push Biden to call the trip off.

At a briefing on Biden's overseas travel ahead of the meeting, Biden's coordinator for strategic communications at the National Security Council, John Kirby, said the White House was "taking a look" at stops that the U.S. president planned to make in Papua New Guinea and Australia before he returns to Washington.

Kirby stressed that Biden would be meeting with Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida at the G-7 Summit in Hiroshima. He will also engage with the prime ministers of India — Narendra Modi — and Australia — Anthony Albanese — while he is at the economic gathering, Kirby said.

Biden is looking forward to attending the G-7, the Biden adviser underscored.

"We're reevaluating the rest of the trip right now," Kirby said, hinting earlier that the visits to Australia and Papua New Guinea could be called off.

Jean-Pierre said later that Biden informed Albanese he would be "postponing his trip to Australia" and invited him to come to Washington on an official state visit at a future date. 

Modi will also be honored during a state visit. The Indian leader will already scheduled to meet with Biden in Washington next month.

Biden was preparing to sit down with McCarthy, Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer, Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell and House Democratic Leader Hakeem Jeffries, when the White House signaled his trip abroad could be cut short to due to the burgeoning debt ceiling crisis.

Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen, in a letter to McCarthy on Monday, had underscored her estimate that the U.S. was on track to run out of money by early June and could default as soon as the first day of the month if Congress does not renew its borrowing authority.

"Time is running out," Yellen said Tuesday in remarks to the Independent Community Bankers of America. "Every single day that Congress does not act, we are experiencing increased economic costs that could slow down the U.S. economy."

Reach Joey Garrison on Twitter @joeygarrison . White House Correspondent Francesca Chambers is on Twitter as @Fran_Chambers.

C# Corner

Artificial Intelligence

GitHub Copilot - Your AI Pair To Write Code Faster and Efficiently

how to write a conclusion in article

GitHub Copilot is a new AI tool that helps developers to write code faster and better. Indeed, it is an AI coding partner that provides suggestions to your code and can write code based on description in natural language. This AI copilot model is built on a heavy GitHub code base and OpenAI collaboration, which is further backed by Microsoft.

GitHub Copilot

We are in the era of Artificial Intelligence, and it is taking over numerous manual and repetitive tasks. We have AI in almost every system, tool, or device, regardless of any domain. Likewise, we are surrounded by AI and its applications. AI is reducing our workloads, recommending the best options, doing things faster, and many more. Now we have ample use cases of AI in every product and service. Importantly, every tech company is exploring AI and implementing its application in its solutions to enhance user experience.

Likewise, AI can be implemented in IT to automate repetitive tasks, resolve support issues, reply to IT requests, provide IT support and assistance, etc. Most importantly, AI can play a vital role in designing solutions, writing code, finding issues in code, fixing bugs, QA, optimizing code and performance, and can be our copilot in development.

Yes, AI can be our copilot in software development. In fact, AI can be our copilot in every phase of development, starting from building, testing, deploying, managing, and updating. This is where GitHub Copilot comes in.

GitHub Copilot is a new AI tool that helps developers to write code faster and better. Indeed, it is an AI coding partner that provides suggestions to your code and can write code based on the description in natural language. This AI copilot model is built on a heavy GitHub code base and OpenAI collaboration, which is further backed by Microsoft.

In this article, we will explore GitHub Copilot and how to get started.

GitHub Copilot is a tool that uses artificial intelligence to assist developers in suggesting and writing code based on the context. It is developed with the collaboration of OpenAI and Microsoft. It uses OpenAI’s Codex language model, trained on a massive dataset of public code repositories. GitHub Copilot can suggest code completions, functions, and even entire programs, based on the context of the code that you are currently writing. Furthermore, it can provide suggestions to optimize the code performance, identify bugs and provide fixes for it, and generate documentation of the code.

Additionally, GitHub Copilot can also be used with several programming languages, including Python, JavaScript, Java, C++, and Go. It can also be helpful to generate code for a variety of tasks, such as web development, data science, and machine learning.

Moreover, it can be directly integrated well with a variety of Integrated Development Environments (IDEs), like Visual Studio, Visual Studio Code, Neovim, and JetBrains IDEs.

As per research, it has improved the developer productivity significantly as portrayed.

GitHub Copilot

GitHub Copilot Pricing

This GitHub Copilot comes with two pricing models: Individual and Business.

GitHub Copilot

Getting Started with GitHub Copilot

In this section, we will learn how to get started with GitHub Copilot and use this awesome tool for writing code and do development.


In this article, I will be using Visual Studio.

 First, we will install an extension in Visual Studio named GitHub Copilot.

GitHub Copilot

Now we will search for GitHub Copilot, as shown below.

GitHub Copilot

We will download the extension, GitHub Copilot.

GitHub Copilot

We should close Visual Studio to install the GitHub Copilot extension.

GitHub Copilot

Now, we will verify the installation of the extension.

GitHub Copilot

The GitHub Copilot extension has been successfully installed in my Visual Studio.

Let’s create a new project and use this AI copilot for code suggestions. I will create a simple asp.net core project with Blazor Server App Template.

To get started with Blazor Web Application, check out  this article .

We will navigate to a class (.cs) file, as shown below.

GitHub Copilot

We will write a descriptive comment to get code suggestions from GitHub Copilot.

GitHub Copilot

With a simple comment, it provides the entire method with code. Awesome!!!

We can click the  Tab  button, and the whole function is ready just by clicking. So we can use Tab to accept the suggestion. However, we can request another sample or code with Alt+, as shown below.

GitHub Copilot

Once I press  Alt+ , we will get another sample for the same function as portrayed.

And press the tab to get the function ready. Consequently, the Encrypt method is ready with just a short comment. Great!

GitHub Copilot

Based on this function, it automatically suggests decrypting one with the comment.

GitHub Copilot

Likewise, we can use GitHub Copilot in our project and write code much faster with just comments. The best thing about it is that it does not show any error when we implement the code suggested. Cool!

This is how we can integrate our AI copilot while writing code and doing development efficiently.

Today, Artificial Intelligence is becoming one of the vital parts of each solution, and its applications are almost everywhere. AI tools have proven efficient in automating several tasks and bringing innovation. We can use AI to ease our tasks and do those efficiently. AI is being adopted globally, and the response is much better. GitHub Copilot is another implementation of AI in writing code faster and more efficiently. This copilot is trained on billions of lines of code, which can suggest and improve code based on natural language. Moreover, this AI copilot can help developers to write code faster and more accurately. Furthermore, it comes with a variety of IDEs and is applied to most of the popular programming languages. In this article, I have explored GitHub Copilot and shown how to integrate it into Visual Studio for writing code.




C# Corner Ebook

Printing in C# Made Easy

BXMX: Buy-Write CEF Outperforming JEPI, 7% Yield

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Orange arrow hitting the center of a target. Superformance concept.

Olivier Le Moal

The S&P 500 is now up 10% for the year, although it has been very range bound in the past month. On paper this would be an ideal set-up for an equity buy-write fund, with a smooth increasing equity price action, while volatility is decreasing. In reality, the most followed names in the equity buy write space have had a terrible year, with the Nuveen S&P 500 Dynamic Overwrite Fund ( SPXX ) actually negative year to date.

One of the new outperformers in the space is Nuveen S&P 500 Buy-Write Income Fund ( NYSE: BXMX ), and we are going to have a closer look at the fund and the drivers for its outperformance. We have covered this name before for investors here .

The vehicle has taken a very aggressive stance this year, writing calls on 99% of its portfolio, and furthermore it utilizes very high delta strikes which are only 2% off from spot levels. The closer the strike level to the current spot price, the higher the premium obtained for the written options. These are both structural features that have helped BXMX do well in 2023. Another component of its outperformance has been its composition - the fund holds only 270 names, mostly large caps and mega caps, in a year that has seen the FAANG cohort crush all other sectors in the market (the ( FNGS ) ETF which focuses on this cohort is up more than 50% in 2023 for example). On the other hand, the equal weighted S&P 500 index in the form of the Invesco S&P 500 Equal Weight ETF ( RSP ) is up just 1.23% for the year:

relative performance

Relative Performance (MZ)

BXMX has therefore been helped by both its focus on large capitalization stocks, as well as its aggressive option overlay which incorporates a high delta.


The fund is the only one with a positive performance very close to that one exhibited by the S&P 500:


YTD Total Return (Seeking Alpha)

We are looking at a number of well-known CEFs in this space, namely the Eaton Vance Tax-Managed Buy-Write Opportunity Fund ( ETV ), Eaton Vance Tax-Managed Buy-Write Income Fund ( ETB ) and the Nuveen S&P 500 Dynamic Overwrite Fund ( SPXX ). They all exhibit very poor performances so far this year, with SPXX actually being negative!

The S&P 500 is now up more than 10% for the year and volatility has come down tremendously with the market range bound. On paper, this should be an ideal time for buy-write funds to monetize their written call options and outperform the index.

Longer term, BXMX is the winner as well:


Total Returns (Seeking Alpha)

To be frank, we are surprised BXMX outperforms ETV long term, since ETV in our book is the golden standard in the space, and furthermore it has a slight technology tilt.

The fund tries to replicate the S&P 500 through its holdings, hence the top names are the FAANG cohort:


Top Holdings (Fun)

The fund does not hold each and every names in the S&P 500, but focuses on the large caps:


Composition (Fund Fact Sheet)

This has been beneficial for its performance in 2023, with large caps significantly outperforming the rest of the market this year.

What is more interesting though is the option overlay details:


Option Overlay (Fund Fact Sheet)

The fund overlays calls on virtually the entire portfolio (99% coverage), and it does it with a very high delta (102% average call strike versus spot). The closer a written call is to the spot price the higher the delta (or sensitivity to underlying equity moves). That translates into a higher premium and a higher realized premium if the market does not push through the call level.

This is almost as aggressive as a fund can get with their option overlay - almost 100% coverage with a very high delta for the options. To note the fund writes options on the S&P 500 index rather than individual names, so there is a slight basis between its holdings and the S&P 500 holdings.

BXMX is an equity buy-write fund. The vehicle aims to replicate and outperform the S&P 500 via a written call strategy. The CEF holds only 270 names versus the index, and is focused on large cap stocks. This structural feature has helped the CEF this year, with mega caps outperforming the rest of the market. Furthermore BXMX takes a very aggressive stance in its option overlay, with over 99% of the portfolio covered by calls with a tight strike (102% average call strike versus spot prices). These two features have helped BXMX beat most of the buy-write funds out there this year, even the vaunted ( JEPI ) vehicle. Option overlay funds work in a range bound or gently up-trending market. We think there will be another leg down in this cycle, so long term BXMX shareholders can Hold , while new money should wait for a sell-off as a good entry point.

This article was written by

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Analyst’s Disclosure: I/we have no stock, option or similar derivative position in any of the companies mentioned, and no plans to initiate any such positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Seeking Alpha's Disclosure: Past performance is no guarantee of future results. No recommendation or advice is being given as to whether any investment is suitable for a particular investor. Any views or opinions expressed above may not reflect those of Seeking Alpha as a whole. Seeking Alpha is not a licensed securities dealer, broker or US investment adviser or investment bank. Our analysts are third party authors that include both professional investors and individual investors who may not be licensed or certified by any institute or regulatory body.

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    As you research, write and revise your article, stay alert to possible endings. Play with different ideas. 5 Powerful Ways to End Your Article. Some writers say the conclusion of an article could work just as well as the introduction - with a slight modification. I think it depends on your article, writing style, and audience.

  8. How to Write a Conclusion (With Tips and Examples)

    How to write a conclusion. An effective conclusion is created by following these steps: 1. Restate the thesis. An effective conclusion brings the reader back to the main point, reminding the reader of the purpose of the essay. However, avoid repeating the thesis verbatim. Paraphrase your argument slightly while still preserving the primary point.

  9. 5 Effective Tips To Write a Conclusion for an Article

    Summary — a brief overview of your article's main points and findings. 2. Concluding statement — a final thought that ensures the reader has grasped the main point. 3. Recommendation — offers a solution to the problem being discussed in the article. 4. Solution — a brief overview of the recommended solution. 5.

  10. concluding the journal article

    The conclusion must remind the reader why the article was written in the first place. At the beginning the writer will have argued that there is a space in what is known, a puzzle that needs to be solved, a debate that is continuing, or an issue that deserves discussion. The writer will have promised to fill the space, solve the puzzle ...

  11. Learn How to Write Conclusions for Articles

    Place your article, essay, blog post or e-book within a larger context. If you're writing a how-to piece about conclusions, connect the ability to write conclusions to the advancement of one's career by saying, "Your clients will appreciate the skill that you have in wrapping up your copy, and will hire you again and again."

  12. How To Write a Formal Business Report in 11 Steps

    3. Add a title. You might get the title of the report with the brief or you may write it yourself. Make sure the title is clear and visible at the beginning of the report. You should also add your name and the names of others who have worked on the report and the date you wrote it. 4.

  13. How to Write Discussions and Conclusions

    If possible, learn about the guidelines before writing the discussion to ensure you're writing to meet their expectations. Begin with a clear statement of the principal findings. This will reinforce the main take-away for the reader and set up the rest of the discussion. Explain why the outcomes of your study are important to the reader.

  14. How to Write a Conclusion: 9 Steps (with Pictures)

    Formatting. 1. Begin a conclusion by revisiting your thesis to show how you proved it. Explain how you demonstrated your thesis, as well as what the reader should take from your paper. By reminding your reader of the ideas you expressed in your thesis, you can more effectively show how your points and evidence support your thesis. [1]

  15. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Effective Tips and

    However, in this article, we will only pay attention to the conclusion and how to construct one that leaves a lasting impact on the readers. According to Faryadi (2012), writing a conclusion is as difficult as writing the introduction; meanwhile, Holewa states that writing the conclusion is the hardest part of the writing process.

  16. 17 Tips on How to Write a Great Article Conclusion for Your Blog

    1. Restate the Article's Thesis. This part of your article's conclusion might take just a sentence or two, or you might need an entire paragraph. Either way, make sure you sum up the article's primary takeaway in an engaging way. We mentioned above that visitors might not read the majority of your article.

  17. /article/Cover Letter Mastery: How to Write an Impressive Cover Letter

    Conclusion. All in all, writing an effective cover letter is essential for any job seeker. It's important to craft a document that clearly conveys your enthusiasm for the role while highlighting your qualifications. To ensure success, take the time to write and proofread your cover letter before sending it off. Additionally, review various ...

  18. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion

    Step 1: Answer your research question. Step 2: Summarize and reflect on your research. Step 3: Make future recommendations. Step 4: Emphasize your contributions to your field. Step 5: Wrap up your thesis or dissertation. Full conclusion example. Conclusion checklist. Frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.

  19. Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

    Professional Essay Conclusion Example. The New Yorker published an op-ed by Fergus McIntosh titled A Trip to St. Kilda, Scotland's Lost Utopia in the Sea. He's making the case that St. Kilda's inhabitants are not out of touch as so many travelers seem to believe. Take a look at how he brings it all home.

  20. 3 Ways to Start a Conclusion

    1. Start with a transition sentence. If you are writing a conclusion to an essay or paper for school or college, it's important to understand the functions of the conclusion. Your conclusion shouldn't only restate the main points of your argument in a way that is disconnected from the rest of the text.

  21. 8 Tips for Writing More Powerful Conclusions

    8) Ask a question. At the end of almost every article, I ask my readers a question. Questions demand responses, so placing them in your conclusion gets people's minds moving. The whole motivation in writing an article is to change someone's behavior, and I consider the question to be one of the most effective ways of doing so.

  22. How to write an essay conclusion

    A conclusion should link back to the essay question and briefly restate your main points drawing all your thoughts and ideas together so that they make sense and create a strong final impression ...

  23. Is exercise really good for the brain? Here's what the science says

    Conclusion: Hasty decisions are never good. ... Want to write? Write an article and join a growing community of more than 164,700 academics and researchers from 4,631 institutions.

  24. Durham report sharply criticizes FBI's 2016 Trump campaign probe

    As examples of confirmation bias by the FBI, Durham cites: the FBI decision to go forward with the probe despite "a complete lack of information from the Intelligence Community that corroborated ...

  25. Mastering the Art of Controlling the JIT: Unlocking Reproducible

    Conclusion I've shown you in this article how to control the JIT to specify the inlining and compilation of methods using two lesser-known JVM APIs. This allows us to write reproducible profiling APIs and makes it easier to check how a profiling API reacts to different scenarios. If you have any suggestions, feel free to reach out.

  26. Biden cancels Australia trip over debt ceiling, will travel to Japan

    However, three White House officials said on Tuesday afternoon that Biden would cancel the second half of his trip, which also included a stop in Papua New Guinea, and return to the U.S. at the ...

  27. GitHub Copilot

    GitHub Copilot. GitHub Copilot is a tool that uses artificial intelligence to assist developers in suggesting and writing code based on the context. It is developed with the collaboration of OpenAI and Microsoft. It uses OpenAI's Codex language model, trained on a massive dataset of public code repositories.

  28. BXMX: Buy-Write CEF Outperforming JEPI, 7% Yield

    Summary. BXMX is an equity buy-write closed-end fund. The CEF has a 7% dividend yield and has managed to outperform most buy-write funds this year, including the vaunted JP Morgan JEPI fund. BXMX ...