Write An Essay On Kashmir Problem

Kashmir has gone through many changes since its creation. One of the most controversial topics that come to mind is its independence from Great Britain in 1947. The article also discusses how India and Pakistan have been at odds since then, a conflict that has escalated into nuclear warfare twice. With tensions escalating, it’s important now more than ever to try to find a peaceful solution to the Kashmir issue.

Introduction: what is the kashmir issue

The Kashmir issue is a dispute between India and Pakistan over the sovereignty of the Indian-administered region of Kashmir. The issue has been a source of conflict and tension between the two countries for decades. The dispute began in 1947, when Britain granted independence to both India and Pakistan. India administered Kashmir while Muslim-majority Pakistan claimed it as part of its own territory. In August 1947, a Pakistani military expedition entered Kashmir and declared it an independent republic, setting off a bloody civil war with Indian forces that lasted until 1949.

In 1948, the UN Security Council passed a resolution calling for the return of Kashmir to India. India refused to comply with the resolution, and instead began an enforcement campaign called Operation Polo to expel the Pakistani military from Kashmir. The campaign led to the deaths of thousands of civilians, and eventually forced Pakistan to withdraw its troops from the region.

In July 1949, representatives from both India and Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement, which established a boundary between Indian-administered Kashmir and Pakistani-controlled Kashmir. The agreement was largely ineffective in resolving the dispute over Kashmir, as neither side was willing to concede any territory. In 1965, riots broke out in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) following a

Background of the Kashmir

Kashmir is a region in South Asia that has been the site of conflict between India and Pakistan since 1947. The dispute over Kashmir is rooted in the history of the region, which is complex and convoluted. The dispute over Kashmir can be traced back to the time of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Kashmir was part of the Muslim Caliphate, which was ruled by a Sunni Muslim leadership from Baghdad. In 651 CE, the Umayyad dynasty, which was also Sunni Muslim, overthrew the caliphate and established an independent Muslim state in what is now Syria and Iraq. The Kashmir region became a part of this new state. In 839 CE, Kashmir came under nominal Hindu rule when King Dharmapala of Kashmir married a Hindu princess. Dharmapala’s son, Mahipal, succeeded him and continued to rule as a Hindu king until 997 CE when he was overthrown by a Muslim army led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, who established an Afghan rule in Kashmir. The British Raj (1858-1947) intervened in the conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir in 1947 after India won independence from British rule. The British divided the region into two territories – Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmir and Pakistan

Kashmir is an area of dispute between India and Pakistan. The dispute dates back to the partition of British India in 1947, when Kashmir was divided along religious lines into Muslim-majority Pakistan and Hindu-majority India. The annexation of Kashmir by Pakistan in 1948 led to a military conflict between the two countries, which was resolved in 1949 with a ceasefire and the creation of the Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Since then, there have been sporadic clashes between Indian and Pakistani troops over control of the region.

Kashmir is a disputed territory that has been the subject of multiple wars between India and Pakistan. The dispute over Kashmir originates from the Partition of British India in 1947, when Kashmir was divided along religious lines into Muslim-majority Pakistan and Hindu-majority India. The annexation of Kashmir by Pakistan in 1948 led to a military conflict between the two countries, which was resolved with a ceasefire and the creation of the Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Since then, there have been sporadic clashes between Indian and Pakistani troops over control of the region.

The Indian occupation of Kashmir

Kashmir is one of the most militarized regions in the world. The Indian occupation of Kashmir has resulted in the disappearance of human rights, the violation of cultural heritage, and the displacement of civilian populations. Kashmir is also one of the most disputed territories in the world and has been at the heart of multiple wars between India and Pakistan.

Kashmir issue in Pakistan

The Kashmir issue is an emotive topic that has been a cause for much contention between India and Pakistan for decades. The origin of the dispute can be traced back to the partition of British India in 1947, whereby Kashmir was split between the Muslim-dominated Pakistan and Hindu-dominated India. The majority population of Kashmir is Muslim, but the region also has a sizeable Hindu population.

India has consistently argued that Kashmir should be granted full independence as a sovereign state, while Pakistan has maintained that the region should remain part of Pakistan as it is home to a significant minority of Muslims. The dispute has led to several armed clashes between the two countries over the past few decades, with both sides accusing the other of violating United Nations resolutions pertaining to Kashmir. In recent years, there have been calls from various quarters in both India and Pakistan for resumption of talks over resolution of the Kashmir issue.

The region has seen a great deal of turmoil in recent years, with allegations of human rights abuses on both sides being levelled. In this essay, I will try to provide some background on the issue and explore what might be possible solutions for both India and Kashmir respectively.

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Essay on Kashmir: History and Beauty in 600+ Words

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  • Updated on  
  • Jan 20, 2024

Essay on Kashmir

Essay on Kashmir for Students: Kashmir is a region situated between India and Pakistan in South Asia. It is believed that the name Kashmir originated from the word ‘Ka’ which means water, and ‘shimera’ to desiccate. 

The story of Kashmir is complex and has historical, cultural, and political dimensions. Over the years, many rulers and empires, like the Mauryas , Kushans , and Mughals have influenced the paradise of the Earth. The region especially had the special influence of Mauryan ruler Ashoka who contributed to the cultural as well as the architectural heritage of the region.

Cultural Diversity of Kashmir

Kashmir is a region that has a rich history and ancient roots. The place has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties, such as the Mauryas , Kushnas , and Guptas . On top of that, these dynasties contributed to the cultural and geographic location of Kashmir, which includes the influence of the Silk Road and the blend of Hindu, Buddhist, and later Islamic influences.

Kashmir Issue

The dispute related to the sharing of borders didn’t stop after Independence. Whether it was India, Pakistan, or China, tensions related to the disputes of the region always created a heat of fire between the countries that led to wars. The list of some important wars are as follows:

1. First Indo-Pak War (1947-1948) : Fought for Jammu Kashmir shortly after India’s independence.

2. Sino-Indian War (1962): A conflict between India and China for the territorial region Aksai Chin. 

3. The War of (1965): Fought mainly over Kashmir.

4. Kargil War (1999): A conflict between India and Pakistan in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir.

Article 370 Scrapped

Geographically, Kashmir lies in the northwestern region of the Indian continent. Its total area is around 225,000 square kilometers, which is comparatively larger than the member countries of the United States. 

Out of the total area, 85,800 square kilometers have been subject to dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947. It is important to note that the areas with conflict consist of major portions called the Northern, Southern, and Southeastern portions. The 30 percent of the northern part comprises Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan and is administered by Pakistan.

India controls the portion which is more than 55 percent of the area of the land. The area consists of Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Kashmir Valley, and Siachen Glacier which is located in the southern and southeastern portions of India. The area is divided by a line of control and has been under conflict since 1972. 

Also Read: Speech on Article 370

Sadly, the people living near the International Border and the Line of Control (LoC) in Jammu and Kashmir pose not only a life threat but also do not have a stable life. Replacement and relocation affect the people living in the line of control not affect the people physically but also psychologically and socially aspects. In a survey conducted by the National Library of Medicine 94 percent of the participants recognize stress. Furthermore, the youth population was facing stress and anxiety regularly.  

However, a historic decision from the Supreme Court of India that nullified Articles 370 and 35A and permitted the state to have its constitution, flag, and government except in defense, foreign affairs, and communications decisions. After the decision, many initiatives were taken by the government of India to strengthen the democratic rule of the state. Schools, colleges, and universities were opened regularly in the union territories to develop the youth academically, socially, and as well as physically. 

Furthermore, strict measures to control criminal assaults such as stone pelting have started showing positive impacts on the continuance use of technologies such as mobile networks, and internet activities. Further, the discontinuity of Technology has started showing positive impacts on the lifestyle of people. Regular opening of schools, colleges, and universities, on the one hand, is helping the students to have good career prospects. 

Additionally, the fear-free environment that further increases tourist activities will further improve the local economy and contribute to the local as well as the national economy of the country. 

Also Read: Essay on Indian Independence Day

Kashmir is also called the Paradise on Earth. The region is blessed with natural beauty, including snow-capped mountains and green and beautiful valleys. The region is surrounded by two countries, which are Pakistan and China.

Kashmir is famous for Dal Lake, Pashmina Shawls, beautiful Mughal gardens and pilgrimage sites of Amarnath and Vaishno Devi. 

According to a traditional story, Ka means water and shimira means Desiccate. 

Kashmir is known as the ‘Paradise on Earth.’

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Deepika Joshi

Deepika Joshi is an experienced content writer with expertise in creating educational and informative content. She has a year of experience writing content for speeches, essays, NCERT, study abroad and EdTech SaaS. Her strengths lie in conducting thorough research and ananlysis to provide accurate and up-to-date information to readers. She enjoys staying updated on new skills and knowledge, particulary in education domain. In her free time, she loves to read articles, and blogs with related to her field to further expand her expertise. In personal life, she loves creative writing and aspire to connect with innovative people who have fresh ideas to offer.

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Kashmir Issue – Understand the multiple dimensions

Last updated on February 13, 2024 by Alex Andrews George

Kashmir Issue

Table of Contents

Was Kashmir an independent nation? Learn the history of Kashmir

Kashmir, and adjacent areas like Gilgit, Jammu, and Ladakh – were part of the different empires at different times. Over the years, this area was under the control of Hindu rulers, Muslim emperors, Sikhs, Afghans, and Britishers.

During the period before AD 1000, Kashmir was an important center of Buddhism and Hinduism. Many dynasties like  Gonanditya,  Karkota, and Lohara ruled Kashmir and surrounding areas of North-western India.

The Hindu dynasty rule which extended until 1339 was replaced by the Muslim rule by Shah Mir who became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the  Shah Mir dynasty . A few centuries later, the last independent ruler Yusuf Shah Chak was deposed by the Mugul emperor Akbar the Great.

Akbar conquered Kashmir in 1587, making it part of the Mughal Empire . Subsequently, the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb expanded the empire further.

Thus, it can be seen that under the Mughal rule, which extended nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, Kashmir was an integral part of India – however, not an independent nation .

Kashmir Region – After the Mughals

Kashmir Question - What are the issues in Jammu and Kashmir

Aurangzeb’s successors were weak rulers. Later Mughals failed to retain Kashmir. After Mughal rule , it passed to Afghan, Sikh, and Dogra rule.

In 1752, Kashmir was seized by the Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali. The Afghan Durrani Empire ruled Kasmir from the 1750s until 1819 when Sikhs , under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir and ended the Muslim rule.

By the early 19th century, Sikhs under Maharaja Renjith Singh took control of Kashmir. He had earlier annexed Jammu. The Sikhs ruled Kashmir until they were defeated by the British (First Anglo-Sikh War) in 1846.

After that Kashmir became a princely state of the British Empire – under the Dogra Dynasty.

Jammu and Kashmir – as a princely state of the British Empire

Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir

Maharaja Gulab Singh of the Dogra Dynasty signed the ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ with the British East India Company in 1846. Under this treaty, he paid Rs. 75 lakhs to the East India Company in 1846 in exchange for Kashmir and some other areas.  Jammu and Kashmir as a single entity was unified and founded (1846).

Zorawar Singh, a General in the Dogra Anny later led many campaigns in the northern areas like Ladakh, Baltistan, Gilgit, Hunza, and Yagistan, consolidating smaller principalities. He expanded the dominions of Maharaja Gulab Singh.

However, Jammu and Kashmir, from 1846 until 1947, remained a princely state ruled by the Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty. Like all other princely states in India then, Kashmir too enjoyed only partial autonomy, as the real control was with the British.

Also read: Special Category Status

The ruler’s stand (at the time of Partition)

During the time of partition of British India (1947), Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) was a Princely State. Britishers had given all princely states a choice – either to join India to join Pakistan or even to remain independent.

The ruler of Kashmir during that time (1947) was Maharaja Hari Singh, the great-grandson of Maharaja Gulab Singh. He was a Hindu who ruled over a majority-Muslim princely state.

He did not want to merge with India or Pakistan.

Hari Singh tried to negotiate with India and Pakistan to have an independent status for his state. He offered a proposal of a Standstill Agreement to both the Dominion, pending a final decision on the State’s accession. On August 12, 1947, the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir sent identical communications to the Governments of India and Pakistan.

Pakistan accepted the offer and sent a communication to J&K Prime Minister on August 15, 1947. It read, “The Government of Pakistan agrees to have Standstill Agreement with Jammu and Kashmir for the continuation of existing arrangements …”

India advised the Maharaja to send his authorized representative to Delhi for further discussion on the offer.

What were the Kashmiri people’s aspirations in 1947?

Kashmiri people took part extensively in the Indian Nationalist Movement. They not only wanted to get rid of British rule but also never wanted to be under the rule of the Dogra dynasty once the nationalist movement achieved its mission. The Kashmiris had preferred democracy to monarchy.

Jammu and Kashmir was always a secular state – with a history of Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh rule. Even though the majority population was Muslims, it then had a significant Hindu population as well.

India in 1947 had suggested conducting a plebiscite to know the aspirations of Kashmiri people. With tall leaders of Jammu and Kashmir like Sheik Abdullah on its side, cherishing the common values – secularism, democracy, and pan-India nationalism – India was confident to win the Plebiscite if it was held in 1947.

India’s stand with Junagadh, another princely state, was also to conduct a plebiscite. In 1947, upon the independence and partition of India, the last Muslim ruler of the Junagadh state, Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III, decided to merge Junagadh into the newly formed Pakistan. The majority of the population were Hindus. The conflict led to many revolts and also a plebiscite, resulting in the integration of Junagadh into India.

However, the Pakistan attack on Kashmir in October 1947 changed all dynamics. The exact aspirations of Kashmiri People at that time is still unknown – as a plebiscite or referendum was never held.

The Pakistan Invasion of Kashmir in 1947

Kashmir Issue - Jammu Kashmir Map

Pakistan, though entered into a Standstill Agreement with Jammu and Kashmir, had an eye on it. It broke the Standstill Agreement by sponsoring a tribal militant attack in Kashmir in October 1947.

Pashtun raiders from Pakistan invaded Kashmir in October 1947 and took control over a large area. Hari Singh appealed to the Governor General of free India, Lord Mountbatten for assistance.

India assured help on the condition Hari Singh should sign the Instrument of Accession. Maharaja Hari Singh signed the instrument of accession with India (1947). It was also agreed that once the situation normalized, the views of the people of J&K will be ascertained about their future.

Jammu and Kashmir signs the Instrument of Accession with India

write an essay on kashmir problem

The Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession to India on 26 October 1947 in Srinagar.

As soon as the accession documents were signed, the Indian Armed Force took over the stage to repulse Pakistan-supported tribal assault.

Indian and Pakistani forces thus fought their first war over Kashmir in 1947-48.

India successfully drove out most of the Pak-supported tribal militants from Kashmir occupation. However, one part of the State came under Pakistani control. India claims that this area is under illegal occupation. Pakistan describes this area as ‘ Azad Kashmir ’. India however, does not recognize this term. India uses the term Pak-occupied Kashmir (PoK) for the area of Kashmir under the control of Pakistan.

India brings the United Nations (UN) into the picture

India referred the dispute to the United Nations Security Council on 1 January 1948. Following the set-up of the  United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP) , the UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948.

The UN Resolution was non-binding on India and Pakistan. However, this is what the UN resolution mentioned:

UN Resolution on Jammu and Kashmir

The UN resolutions clearly said :

  • Pakistan is the aggressor in the state.
  • Pakistan has to vacate all occupied territory in the state and hand over the vacated territory to India.
  • India has to remove all its forces leaving aside enough to maintain law and order.
  • India to conduct a plebiscite in the state.

Why has no Plebiscite or Referendum been held in Kashmir yet?

  • The state of Jammu and Kashmir is defined as it existed on or before the invasion of Pakistan on 22nd October 1947. This includes the present territory of Pak-occupied Kashmir (POK), Gilgit, Baltistan, Jammu, Laddhak, and Kashmir Valley.
  • Pakistan asked for time to vacate its occupation but it never complied.
  • As nearly one-third of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is still under the occupation of Pakistan, it is a non-compliance of conditions leading to the plebiscite.

Sheikh Abdullah’s movement – Formal incorporation of Kashmir into the Indian Union

Kashmir’s first political party, the Muslim Conference, was formed in 1925, with Sheikh Abdullah as president. Later, in 1938, it was renamed as National Conference . The National Conference was a secular organization and had a long association with Congress. Sheikh Abdullah was a personal friend of some of the leading nationalist leaders including Nehru.

National Conference started a popular movement to get rid of the Maharaja. Sheikh Abdullah was the leader.

After Maharaja Hari Singh signed an ‘Instrument of Accession’ with the Government of India, Sheikh Abdullah took over as the Prime Minister of the State of J&K (the head of the government in the State was then called Prime Minister) in March 1948.

Sheikh Abdullah was against Jammu and Kashmir joining Pakistan. However, he took a pro-referendum stance and delayed the formal accession to India. The pro-Indian authorities dismissed the state government and arrested Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah.

The new Jammu and Kashmir government ratified the accession to India. In 1957, Kashmir was formally incorporated into the Indian Union.

Kashmir Issue – External Disputes

write an essay on kashmir problem

Externally, ever since 1947, Kashmir remained a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan (and between India and China to a minor extent).

Pakistan has always claimed that the Kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan. The conflict resulted in 3 main wars between India and Pakistan – 1947, 1965, and 1971. A war-like situation erupted in 1998 as well (Kargil war).

Pakistan was not only the illegal occupant of the Kashmir region. China too started claiming parts of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.

By the 1950s, China started to gradually occupy the eastern Kashmir (Aksai Chin) . In 1962, India fought a war with China over its encroachments, however, China defeated India. To make matters worse, Pakistan ceded the Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir (Saksham Valley) to China.

Kashmir Issue – Internal Disputes

Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir within the Indian Union.

Kashmir was given autonomy and a special status by Article 370 of the Indian Constitution . Articles like 370, 371, 35A , etc are connected with privileges given to Jammu and Kashmir.

What is the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir?

  • Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to the other States of India.
  • The State has its own Constitution.
  • All provisions of the Indian Constitution do not apply to the State.
  • Laws passed by the Parliament apply to J&K only if the State agrees.
  • Non-Kashmiri Indians cannot buy property in Kashmir.

This special status has provoked two opposite reactions.

A section feels that Article 370 is not needed!

There is a section of people outside of J&K that believes that the special status of the State conferred by Article 370 does not allow full integration of the State with India. This section feels that Article 370 should, therefore, be revoked and J&K should be like any other State in India.

Another section feels that Article 370 is not enough!

Another section, mostly Kashmiris, believes that the autonomy conferred by Article 370 is not enough.

Major Grievances of Kashmiris:

Kashmiris have expressed at least three major grievances.

  • First, the promise that Accession would be referred to the people of the State after the situation created by tribal invasion was normalized, has not been fulfilled. They demand a ‘Plebiscite’ at the earliest.
  • Secondly, there is a feeling that the special federal status guaranteed by Article 370, has been eroded in practice. This has led to the demand for restoration of autonomy or ‘Greater State Autonomy’.
  • Thirdly, it is felt that democracy which is practised in the rest of India has not been similarly institutionalised in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

Politics since 1948 – Conflict between the Kashmir State Government and the Central Government of India

After taking over as the Prime Minister, Sheikh Abdullah initiated major land reforms and other policies that benefited ordinary people. But there was a growing difference between him and the central government about his position on Kashmir’s status. He was dismissed in 1953 and kept in detention for several years.

The leadership that succeeded him did not enjoy as much popular support and was able to rule the State mainly due to the support of the Centre. There were serious allegations of malpractices and rigging in various elections.

During most of the period between 1953 and 1974, the Congress party exercised a lot of influence on the politics of the State. A truncated National Conference (minus Sheikh Abdullah) remained in power with the active support of Congress for some time but later it merged with the Congress.

Thus Congress gained direct control over the government in the State.

In the meanwhile, there were several attempts to reach an agreement between Sheikh Abdullah and the Government of India.

Finally, in 1974 Indira Gandhi reached an agreement with Sheikh Abdullah and he became the Chief Minister of the State.

The Revival of National Conference (1977)

He revived the National Conference which was elected with a majority in the assembly elections held in 1977.

Sheikh Abdullah died in 1982 and the leadership of the National Conference went to his son, Farooq Abdullah, who became the Chief Minister.

But he was soon dismissed by the Governor and a breakaway faction of the National Conference came to power for a brief period.

The dismissal of Farooq Abdullah’s government due to the intervention of the Centre generated a feeling of resentment in Kashmir. The confidence that Kashmiris had developed in the democratic processes after the accord between Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Abdullah, received a setback.

The feeling that the Centre was intervening in the politics of the State was further strengthened when the National Conference in 1986 agreed to have an electoral alliance with the Congress, the ruling party in the Centre.

1987 Assembly Elections, Political Crisis, and Insurgency

It was in this environment that the 1987 Assembly election took place. The official results showed a massive victory for the National Conference-Congress alliance and Farooq Abdullah returned as Chief Minister.

However, it was widely believed that the results did not reflect the popular choice and that the entire election process was rigged.

A popular resentment had already been brewing in the State against the inefficient administration since the early 1980s. This was now augmented by the commonly prevailing feeling that democratic processes were being undermined at the behest of the Centre. This generated a political crisis in Kashmir which became severe with the rise of the insurgency.

By 1989, the State had come into the grip of a militant movement mobilized around the cause of a separate Kashmiri nation.

The insurgents got moral, material, and military support from Pakistan. The balance of influence had decisively tilted in Pakistan’s favor by the late 1980s, with people’s sympathy no longer with the Indian Union as it had been in 1947-48, 1965 or 1971.

The terrorists and militants drove out almost all the Hindus from the Kashmir valley, ensuring that a future plebiscite (if it happens) would be meaningless.

India imposed the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) in Jammu and Kashmir in 1990.

For several years, the State was under President’s rule and effectively under the control of the armed forces . Throughout the period from 1990, Jammu and Kashmir experienced violence at the hands of the insurgents and through army action.

1990 and Beyond – Growing Trust Deficit

After 1987, the pro-India sentiments of Kashmiri people tilted heavily towards Kashmiri Separatism. Pakistan, of course, added fuel to the fire – by giving moral and financial support to terrorists, militants, and insurgents. As a result, Kashmir frequently witnessed violence, curfew, stone-pelting, and firing between the troops of India and Pakistan across the Line of Control (LoC).

Thousands of soldiers, civilians, and militants have been killed in the uprising and the Indian crackdown since 1989.

Even though state elections were conducted, Kashmir did not return to normalcy before 1987 .

Assembly elections in the State were held only in 1996 in which the National Conference led by Farooq Abdullah came to power with a demand for regional autonomy for Jammu and Kashmir.

J&K experienced a very fair election in 2002. The National Conference failed to win a majority and was replaced by the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and Congress coalition government.

In 2015, India’s ruling BJP party was sworn into government in Indian-administered Kashmir for the first time in coalition with the local People’s Democratic Party, with the latter’s Mufti Mohammad Sayeed as chief minister (followed by Mehbooba Mufti because of the death of her father and party founder). However, this coalition didn’t last for long.

Even though the Government of India is taking many steps to stop the insurgency and bring Kashmir back to normalcy, terrorist attacks like that in Pulwama have seriously hindered the peace process.

The Current Stand of India – Regarding the Kashmir Question

  • No more mediation with the UN or any other other third parties.
  • India and Pakistan should resolve issues through bilateral talks as agreed by the Simla Agreement.
  • No Plebiscite in Kashmir unless Pakistan reverses the situation back to what was in 1947 (territory and demographics).

Who are the Kashmir Separatists?

  • All Parties Hurriyat Conference
  • Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
  • Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami
  • Lashkar-e-Taiba
  • Jaish-e-Mohammed
  • Hizbul Mujahideen
  • Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
  • Ansar Ghazwat-ul-Hind Flag.png Ansar Ghazwat-ul-Hind (Since 2017)

What do Separatists demand?

Separatist politics which surfaced in Kashmir from 1989 has taken different forms and is made up of various strands.

  • There is one strand of separatists who want a separate Kashmiri nation, independent of India and Pakistan.
  • Then some groups want Kashmir to merge with Pakistan.
  • Besides these, there is a third strand which wants greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian union .

Demand for intra-state autonomy

write an essay on kashmir problem

Even though the name of the state is Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), it comprises three social and political regions: Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh.

  • Jammu – The Jammu region is a mix of foothills and plains, of Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs and speakers of various languages.
  • Kashmir – Kashmir Valley is the heart of the Kashmir region. The people are Kashmiri-speaking and are mostly Muslims. There is also a small Kashmiri-speaking Hindu minority.
  • Ladakh – The Ladakh region is mountainous, and has a very small population which is equally divided between Buddhists and Muslims. Ladakh is divided into two main regions – Leh and Kargil.

It should also be noted that out of the 3 main administrative divisions – Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh – insurgency and demand for independence is high only in the Kashmir Valley. Most of the people in Jammu and Ladakh still wish to be part of India, even though they demand autonomy differently. They often complain of neglect and backwardness. The demand for intra-state autonomy is as strong as the demand for State autonomy in the regions of Jammu and Ladakh.

Article 370: Changes made via Presidential order of 2019

On 5 August 2019, Home Minister Amit Shah announced in the  Rajya Sabha  (upper house of the Indian Parliament) that the President of India had issued  The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019 (C.O. 272) under Article 370, superseding the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954.

The order stated that all the provisions of the Indian Constitution applied to Jammu and Kashmir.

While the 1954 order specified that only some articles of the Indian constitution to apply to the state, the new order removed all such restrictions.

This in effect meant that the separate Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir stood abrogated.

The President issued the order with the “concurrence of the Government of State of Jammu and Kashmir”, which meant the Governor appointed by the Union government.

Change of status: Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019

write an essay on kashmir problem

After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution in 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganized it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east.

The two union territories came into existence on 31 October 2019, which was celebrated as National Unity Day.

The union territory of Jammu and Kashmir was proposed to have a legislature under the bill whereas the union territory of Ladakh is proposed to not have one.

Urge for Peace

The initial period of popular support for militancy has now given way to the urge for peace.

The Centre has started negotiations with various separatist groups. Instead of demanding a separate nation, most of the separatists in the dialogue are trying to re-negotiate a relationship of the State with India.

The Kashmir issue – has multiple dimensions – external and internal; inter-state as well as intra-state. Not even the separatists are on the same ground – their demands are different.

The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir which was under the control of British India – is now not entirely with India. Pakistan and China too now occupy a significant portion of the territories of the erstwhile princely state.

Of course, the Kashmir problem also includes the issue of Kashmiri identity known as Kashmiriyat. However, almost every state in India has its own identity – Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, West Bengal, or Kerala. However, the people in each of these states even when seeing themselves as Tamilians, Kannadagans, Bengalis or Malayalis are also able to see the bigger picture – they identify themselves as Indians.

Jammu and Kashmir is one of the living examples of plural society and politics. Not only are there diversities of all kinds (religious, cultural, linguistic, ethnic, tribal) but there are also divergent political aspirations.

Unfortunately, from the perspective of the youth of Kashmir, there is a growing trust deficit. It’s a hard reality that Jammu and Kashmir never functioned like other Indian states since its accession to India. It had given higher autonomy initially, however, it got eroded in practice.

The first step to solving the Kashmir issue is to identify the problems behind the alienation of Kashmir. Here are some of them:

  • Mishandling of the Kashmir Issue by the successive Central governments of India – which includes frequent dismissal of State Assemblies.
  • The state governments of Kashmir failed to distribute the benefits of growth and development to every area of Kashmir.
  • The terrorist and military outfits in Pakistan have been distancing the youth of Kashmir from the democratic form of the Indian government.
  • The regular presence of the Indian Armed Force or CAPF in the Kashmir interiors, and the misuse of provisions like ASFPA.

To find a solution to the Kashmir issue – all stakeholders should be considered.

What is the need of the hour is proper integration of Kashmir, Jammu, and Ladakh with India. Integration should not be seen in a limited dimension of territory. India should be able to win the hearts of the people of Kashmir.

Only time can tell about the success of the changes made concerning the provisions of Article 370.

Kashmir was and still is an integral part of India. It has a plural and secular culture – just like the rest of India. Urgent steps should be taken to bridge the gaps of trust deficit in the minds of Kashmiri youth. All Kashmiris should get the due share in the growth story of India. Like all other states in India, there should be adequate political autonomy in Jammu and Kashmir.

Violence, terrorism, and killings are never the answer – be it on any side. What do you think?

Read: Ladakh statehood

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About Alex Andrews George

Alex Andrews George is a mentor, author, and social entrepreneur. Alex is the founder of ClearIAS and one of the expert Civil Service Exam Trainers in India.

He is the author of many best-seller books like 'Important Judgments that transformed India' and 'Important Acts that transformed India'.

A trusted mentor and pioneer in online training , Alex's guidance, strategies, study-materials, and mock-exams have helped many aspirants to become IAS, IPS, and IFS officers.

Reader Interactions

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 6, 2019 at 6:50 pm

The separatist themselves don’t want this situation to have a positive outcome as it will subsequently deteriorate/hamper their “political” stance which they’ve nurtured since a long time.

write an essay on kashmir problem

February 11, 2023 at 7:29 pm

I never seen a article like this…its amazing date wise i m from Kashmir i nvr understand Kashmir isssue , Kashmir history from beginning…but today i understand full 🌝 thanks to the author of this article 😊

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 6, 2019 at 7:30 pm

As long as radical brainwashed of youth continues…nothing can be done, first shut down all those radical institutions & then bring education that teaches about secularism & India’s beauty & achievements!

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 6, 2019 at 7:43 pm

kashmiri youth mind are washed out by these separatist…and some militant group opportunity should be given to the youths of kashmir alike other states of india ….Empty mind see only a way to destruction…..

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 6, 2019 at 11:58 pm

The real situation of J&K can be assessed only by hearing the voices of the common people, the constitutional arrangements like Article 370, Article 35A & IoA must be respected to keep the relationship intact.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 18, 2019 at 11:34 pm

Common people with normal situation ab toh majority Muslim log ka hi hai…. pehle un hinduwo ko bulo jinko waha se bhga diya gya …tb na brabar ka faisla hoga

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 7, 2019 at 9:52 am

there is another angle to look into this dispute and that is religion. religion play a major role in building and developing the behaviour of the society.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 7, 2019 at 10:31 am

Yes, I do agree that wars, disputes, killing will no longer be a way to provide an efficient solution to Kashmir issue.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 8, 2019 at 12:21 pm

wonderful article….!! what i believe is Indians should stand together for Kashmir… and make people of Kashmir know that though we are 1000’s of kilometers away we still stand for them will be their strength…Apart from all the political drama they should know that a simple spark in kashmir will cause a wildfire in kanyakumari.. The role of govt here is the root cause of all the issues if u ask me .. what were you doing while the kidnapper lure the kid with the candy …? now indian govt should respect the kashmiri’s give them the hope and gain trust.. a lot of bloodshed ,mutilated bodies , power abuse , women abuse … give them hope …show them we love them .. youth from other states understand the kashmiris show them the support.. show them why they should be a part of india …

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 8, 2019 at 5:20 pm

For the violence to stop in Kashmir and preventing this problem to further aggravate development plans, projects should be well reached in the state so that the youth is engaged in something productive rather than destructive work. First of all, the politicisation of the State situation should be avoided.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 13, 2019 at 11:31 pm

This is not the solution of problem,but give the right of people.As it is mentioned is article that Kashmir was a princely state,it has right to what they want,the Kashmir dispute has only one solution come India and Pakistan forward and give rights to Jammu and Kashmir people what they want,and destroy this illegal occupied.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 14, 2019 at 2:54 pm

Further plubicite may useful for kashmiris yo choose their will…

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 27, 2019 at 7:14 pm

Your assumption of Kashmir being an integral part of India because the it was a part of The Mughal Empire is akin to the assumption that India is an integral part of Great Britain because it was a British colony once. That is ridiculous! The problem would not be solved till India accepts the fact that Kashmir is not an integral part of India. You cannot blame Pakistan for it then because Pakistan was as much ‘India’ once as new India is. So morally, historically, Politically and logically, by your argument, Pakistan is nowhere wrong to claim Kashmir for itself!

write an essay on kashmir problem

April 7, 2019 at 6:48 pm

but chirag The Government of Pakistan agrees to have Standstill Agreement with Jammu and Kashmir but india didn’t. So, Pakistan is wrong as it was a the first one who attack….in 1947 october after that indian government helps J&K and our military took over the charge.

write an essay on kashmir problem

April 7, 2019 at 9:33 pm

state politician are taking due benefit of the prevailing situation in jammu kashmir. They are making their vote bank at the cost of common public. Center should make efforts to ground level development through job creation employment generation education and overall development of state. mare education is not solution even the highly educated students after getting no source of income has diverted their route which mislead the other growing youth. Stone pelting is source of income for some public because they are paid for this for which politicians and other extremists are responsible as they bargain with center for normalcy of situation.

write an essay on kashmir problem

July 10, 2019 at 10:56 am

all is messed up because of british government gave 3 choice instead of two

write an essay on kashmir problem

August 2, 2019 at 2:47 am

Very good article, Alex! 🙂

write an essay on kashmir problem

August 9, 2019 at 8:30 pm

The only thing matters is that J&K belongs to India, anyone can claim it but won’t get even a stone of it. (At least till the plebiscite is done with all the Kashmiris taking part including the one who had left or removed from Kashmir). They do deserve to take their own decision with all due respect but including all the Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Buddhists.

write an essay on kashmir problem

August 14, 2019 at 6:31 pm

This is the best article I have ever read……!!! Really helpful in making a notes on Kashmir…..Thankyou very much…..!!!!!!

write an essay on kashmir problem

August 19, 2019 at 6:42 pm

Now the minds of kashmir people have been washed with the continuous presence of separatists and the Pak sponsored terrorism. No more plebiscites are needed to be given to these people. Indian government and the constitution is supreme. They have revoked 370 to bring the J & K into mainstream for all round development of J&K and its people. Pak does not have any right to interfere in our affairs, since its accession to India.

write an essay on kashmir problem

January 24, 2020 at 9:12 pm

Really good notes, grateful thanks to clearias team

February 9, 2020 at 6:21 pm

If Indian government wanted to integrated Kashmir into Indian Union, they should behave like human towards Kashmiri people who suffered from torture, disappearance, rapped by Indian Army from decades. Even Kashmiri youth experience torture, mob lynching by rest of indian people and although India wanted to integrate land of Kashmir not the people.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 30, 2020 at 12:07 am

Can I download all of this in pdf format?

write an essay on kashmir problem

April 22, 2020 at 9:16 pm

Thank you sir

write an essay on kashmir problem

May 21, 2020 at 1:25 pm

It’s a very good article and has explained the J&K issue as easily as possible yet maintained the details. My look over the recent amendments on the J&K issue has changed, and it looks like a step that will work for the people in the long run (however not in the short term).

write an essay on kashmir problem

September 14, 2020 at 12:23 pm

Now come to know more about J & K issue… Contents of several book in one article.. Separatists,militants,terrorists, defunct politicians should be treated hard with central / State agencies … Hope for peace not only in valley… But in all parts including jammu,Kashmir & Ladakh……

write an essay on kashmir problem

October 27, 2020 at 12:44 am

I have a simple question. Even if both Pakistan and India want and agree on something. Should that be the solution, or should it be what the people want. To me, whether you like it or not, its the right of the Kashmiris to decide what they want for their future. Give them that right, thats the only fair solution.

And if you are not bothered by what is fair then the alternative is to go with the powerful and war is the way to find who is stronger.

write an essay on kashmir problem

March 21, 2022 at 3:38 pm

This Article is Baseless and Far From Ground Reality of Our Kashmir Nation , Kashmir Is not a integral or Vein of Any Nation wether is India or Pakistan , Kashmir Is Independent Before Birth of India or Pakistan.. Due to Continues occupation by Non Kashmirs Wehter is Muslim or Non Muslims , We Kashmirs Fight against the Occupation From years, still we are under Occupation joinlty by India paksitain and China ,, We Kashmirs are Peaceful Community between three Nation , we Lost more then 1 lakh we are wintess of crimes done by Non Kashmirs, we kashmiri Never agaist any Pakistain or India , but we never allow any indian or pakitain Interfercne in out kashmir , due to interference of India and Pakistan is responsible for destruction of our kashmir nation , We Peaple of kashmir never accept any occupation , 1000 political Drama playing by tri nation till date in our kashmir..

we Kashmiri appeal to Good and responsible Citizen of India and Pakistaini , both-side people are misguided regarding the Kashmir nation, the Ground Reality is different.. we Kashmiri respect both side nation as guest , we welcome every country peoples visit our kashmir people but we never accept India and pakistain occupation and we never forget the crimes of India and pakistain .

write an essay on kashmir problem

April 27, 2023 at 5:08 pm

Please update your notes. This is brilliantly done.

write an essay on kashmir problem

July 26, 2023 at 7:08 pm

Unbiased, good analysis and effectively presented. Hope the powers to be can affect the policy ideas presented here. Thanks!

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Essay on “The Kashmir problem” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.

The Kashmir problem

 Essay No. 01

       Synopsis:  Since independence India and Pakistan have been at loggerheads on Kashmir. Pakistan has sponsored terrorism and secessionist elements in the valley.  She has fought three unsuccessful wars against India in the last 50 years on the issue.  Pakistan’s belief that Muslims cannot live as equals in Hindyu-dominent India is baseless.  India is a secular State and there are more Muslims hating in Pakistan itself.  Kashmir’s accessing to India is final and irrevocable.  Political compulsions in Islamabad oblige the leaders there to keep the issue unnecessarily alive and burning.  The US’s own interest makes the matter more complex and disturbing. It is essential that Article 370 is abrogated and Kashmir’s full integration is achieved.  There are some other imperatives which should be taken care of by the popular government immediately.

            For over 50 years there has been bitter hostility over Kashmir between India and Pakistan. Pakistan-sponsored terrorist and extremist outfits have been active of a long time in the valley coursing huge losses in terms of human lives and property.  The secessionist elements trained, armed and sneaked into Kashmir have been systematicallyarryng out sabotage, killing o innocent people, desecration of places of worship, exploding bombs and kidnapping common people and even visitors and foreign tourists.  India is a secular State and there are more Muslims in India then Pakistan. They constitute 13 per cent of the total population of the country of 970 million people.

            Political compulsion in Pakistan oblige the leaders n Islamabad to keep Kashmir issue alive and burning and it is reside again and gains in international forums and conferences of the Islamic nations inspire of the hard fact that Kashmir will remain were it has been for the seat 5 decades- in the thick of all the hype, hoopla and dispute.  The US has its own interests and does not want the issue to be us on the back burner.  She still does not recognize Kashmir as an integral part of India and insists that the issue be settled bilaterally. Washington believes that the valley is still a disputed territory between the two countries and it helps her in mandating her pressure on both the countries.

            The US has declared the Pakistan based terrorist outfit Harkatul-Ansar as terrorist organization, and the other extremist group Kashmir Liberation Front, again sponsored and supported by Islamabad, is under watch and may be soon declared a terrorist outfit by the US Administration.  This action of the US branding the Hark at as a terrorist group is although a belated one, and yet it is has gladdened the Indian establishment.  Now, Pakistan finds itself in a very embracing position as it has amply proved and highlighted the Indian contenting that Pakistan was involved in terrorist activates in India.

            There are certain political compulsions behind these firings and military skirmished.  There has been long drawn out communal violence in Pakistan resulting in thousands of deaths and destructing of property on a large scalpel The Pakistani economy has been in shambles and corruption has been boundless.  Moreover the war next door in Afghanistan threatens to enter into Pakistan.  Therefore, Pakistani rulers find it convenient to keep the LOC alive to divert the attention of the Pak public from ties own failures and bungling.  In the words of some experts the Pakistani leaders have turned the LOC into a lifeline for Pakistan. Unfortunately, Pakistan’s one onto a gene in her relation with India is that of Kashmir. 

            We should not commit the past mistakes on this sensitive and compels issue.  First we committed a serious mistake by taking the issue in the UN in the fond hope that the world community in general and super powers in particular see reason and do justice to India, the biggest democracy and a secular State. Second mistake was when we agreed to discuss the Kashmir issue under Shaman Agreement.  While discussing Kashmir with Pakistan the vacation of aggression by her input should also be raised  The Gujral doctrine, in relation to Pakistan, need not be stretched too far and should be to the teen of right response from the opposite party lest should be construed as our weakness. 

Essay No. 02

The Kashmir Problem

The State of Kashmir has always been a bone of contention, an eye sore ever since India achieved its independence. The position at that time was that, all the States that comprised India, and had been independent, had three clear options, available to them. The three options were that, either they accede to India, or accede to Pakistan. The third option was that they could remain independent of both India and Pakistan. 

While all the States did the needful the State of Kashmir took a unique turn, an eventful and an unprecedented turn. The then Prime Minister of India stated that, regarding the accession of the State of Kashmir the wishes of the people of the State would be taken into account, and not only the rules applicable to the other States. This condition gave the State of Kashmir a peculiar status which no other State had, to enjoy. This little declaration by the Prime Minister turned the tide of events for the State of Kashmir which, till today has not seen the light of an amicable solution. Taking full advantage of the declaration of the Prime Minister that, the people of Kashmir will decide their own fate, Pakistan has, all through these past fifty and odd years of independence of India been harping on the taking of an opinion poll in the State. This is so because, Kashmir has a majority population of Muslims and, Pakistan is convinced and rightly so that, if opinion is taken, the Muslim majority will most certainly vote for the option of acceding to Pakistan. In the pursuit of this view only, Pakistan has been spreading terrorism in the State and ousting the Hindu minority so that, the few non Muslim are also out of the  scene of voting if the need arises.

All through these fifty years of India’s independence, Pakistan is very clearly and methodically trying to lay their claim and rightful authority over the State, whether it is with force, murder, or mischief. This means that, a little mistake in the past has caused and is causing havoc to the State and to the people of the State of Kashmir. Seeing no benefit accruing to it by small and far apart skirmishes of big and small magnitude for the last ten years Pakistan is trying to eliminate the minority of Hindus from the State by reigning terror in the State. They are training, financing and inspiring young men and sending them across the Indian border to spread fear in the State. The trainees are working under the guidance of hard-core Muslim terrorists to kill and plunder in the State. There have been talks and declarations a number of times but there seems to be no end of the continued struggle for the little State of Kashmir. 

After having dealt with the problem for fifty years, it is felt that, even to-day, the problem defies any solution, at least in the near future. The situation is in reality absolutely inflammable as, Pakistan continues to send Jehadis/ terrorists to wreak destruction in the State. The plea taken by the Jehadis is that, they are fighting for their right of freedom. India has all through these years sought to find a solution to the problem, which is amicable and mutually acceptable to all the parties involved. The latest attempt to find peace with Pakistan is the declaration of a unilateral ceasefire by India. Even to this step taken by India the Pakistani reply is not a follow up of a ceasefire by them but with guns and shells. 

To this sort of a situation where both parties to the struggle have their own styles of functioning, all solutions seem to obstruct any results. The policy of ’wait and watch’ can only be the keyword to the Indian policy on Kashmir, let us see when Pakistan realises the futility of a cold attitude towards its neighbour and its cold blooded revolt against India in the process of which, only innocent people are killed, kidnapped and hacked to death. The net result of all this being a big zero we remain as is where is even after fifty years of attempting for a solution.

With this situation remaining for so long a period, it does not appeal to any reason that, relations of the two neighbours will ever improve. The relations are keeping on moving down the ladder of discontent and suspicion of each other, and there is nothing just nothing achieved.

 Essay No. 03

“Kashmir, the most picturesque and fascinating area, known for its beauty, gardens, gentle and docile people has been reduced to a region of ghosts and death because of the devious means adopted by Pakistan to incite the people by giving them arms and inciting them into terrorism.”

The Kashmir problem now is a problem over 53 years old, and inspite of more than half a century’s claims and counter-claims, the problem remains unresolved. India has stoutly denied any international mediation. To trace the history of the Kashmir problem we have to go back to the point of partition of India into two countries-India and Pakistan. After the partition has been agreed upon and was being implemented the infiltrators of Pakistan raided Kashmir. Till then it had not got settled to what country was Kashmir acceding and in the face of these insidious designs of the Pakistani infiltrators. Maharaja Hari Singh, the then Maharaja of Kashmir rushed to Delhi, signed the instrument of accession with India, giving the legal relevancy to India to send their forces to push out the insurgents for Kashmir. This was done and that was the stage when the entire Kashmir even that part which today is termed as POK (Pak Occupied Kashmir) was under India’s control. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the then Prime Minister of India made the colossal political blunder in referring the Kashmir dispute to the UNO asked the Indian forces to retreat and demarcated a line of control which till today as the LOC line has remained the bone of contention. The region lying beyond the line of control on the Pakistan side has remained a disputed part and has remained to be described as the POK-neither fully a part of Pakistan not a part of India and is a constant irritant of. India being the safe passage for the militants and insurgents who sneak into the Indian territory through it.

Pakistan has even been uncomfortable with the situation particularly against the repeated and resolute assertions of India time and again that Kashmir is an integral part of India. That is the truth and none dare touch the ‘head of the body’. Pakistan has fought four wars- the first one in 1947, then in 1965 and then again in 1971 and last one recently known as the Kargil misadventure on their part in May, 1999. And every time Pakistan has suffered a defeat and humiliation. India on her part has ever been a pardoning country and diplomatically this has caused more irritants to it. A tough and unflinching stand if India had even once taken would have solved the problem for all times. It has been the view of a section of political thinkers that the Pak-sponsored terrorism can only be countered through equal or greater force—and not parleys. The Pakistani war-mongering could not succeed either in 1947 or in 1965 because the agenda was supported by only a minuscule section of the valley. The Tashkent Agreement and the Shimla Agreement had all good intentions behind them but Pakistan could never stomach the insult that it seemed to be suffering within signing these agreements. There were agreements signed by Pakistan under duress. P.M. Dhar a onetime diplomat bureaucrat who was actively involved in the Shimla agreement in his recently published book-Indira Gandhi, ‘The Emergency and Indian Democracy’ writes that the Kashmir problem would have been resolved, had a letter and spirit of the Shimla Agreement been implemented. It was during this agreement also that Indira Gandhi relented India’s stand (as Bhutto had virtually come to his knees during the process, as was reported) otherwise that was again an opportunity when the POK would have been got vacated and the whole region would have come within India’s grip.

Kashmir is a major challenge to India democracy, infact to the concept of democracy how can a democracy confront a non-democratic system that only uses catchy democratic phrases such as Human Rights, self-determination etc. in the furtherance of its ’cause’ while denying all such democratic values itself. How can a democracy take on a religious crusade, “Jehad”, that does not believe in democratic tenants but exploits them to the hilt for achieving its vested interests?

The Kargil was the third attempt in the history of Independent India that Pakistan tried to occupy the Kashmir by assisting or backing the infiltrators: The first time just after independence in 1947, a second time in 1965, as a part of operation Gibraltar, that leads to Indo-Pak Second War end the third time through Kargil. But Pakistan could not succeed in her efforts.

In short, India and Pakistan have to work together to solve the Kashmir problem amicably. Violence is not a solution. No third party can do anything. It is better to view the things in practical shape and work honestly so that the present arms race between the two brothers comes to an end and every Indian and every Pakistani can lead their life happily, amicably and this is what every national of both the country wish, as reflected during the latest Indo-Pak cricket matches.

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Since the partition of the Indian subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947, the Kashmir dispute has been an intractable one between them. They fought three wars over it in1948, 1965, and 1999, but have not been able to resolve it. The partition left the fate of over 550 princely states undecided. They were required to accede to either of the two states on the basis of the geographical location and wishes of their people.

The state of Jammu and Kashmir should have acceded to Pakistan because of its Muslim majority population and geographical location, but this was not happened when Mahraja Hari  Singh seek military assistance from India to resist the Pakistani tribal’s attacks and ultimately signed the ‘Instrument of Accession’ with India. Eventually Indian forces intervened and captured the state of Jammu and Kashmir. From that day Kashmir dispute has been the core issue between both Pakistan and India, which also had kept the security of entire South Asia at stake because of their extensive nuclear capability.

So, the Kashmir issue has been a major bone of contention from the day of independence, resulted in three wars, numerous conflicts between India and Pakistan and severely rigid diplomacy. The United Nations Security Council had tried to resolve the dispute by declaring that the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India or Pakistan should be decided through the democratic method by holding a free and fair plebiscite but India had rejected any mediation which opposed its claim regarding Kashmir.

Kashmir’s strategic importance lies in the fact that its borders meet with China and Afghanistan and also is close to Russia. Almost all the rivers which flow through Pakistan, originate from Kashmir, that’s why both the countries ignore stepping back claiming of this territory.

The failure of diplomacy to resolve the Kashmir issue attracted international and regional attention to it. After the wars of 1948, 1962 and 1965, determined efforts were made to resolve this issue. In 1948, the United Nations became deeply involved but India didn’t show flexibility. After the India-China border War of 1962, there were intense but fruitless American and British efforts to bridge a gap between India and Pakistan. The end of 1965 war saw Soviet Union as a regional peacemaker. The Soviets did manage to promote a peace treaty at Tashkent, but this could not establish peace in the region and soon Indian involvement in East Pakistan led to her separation in 1970-71.

The most consistent feature of great power influence on the Kashmir problem has been its ineffectiveness. Besides Cold war rivalries, both United States and the Soviet Union have played significant, often parallel and cooperative roles in the subcontinent. Both Washington and Moscow made several inconclusive efforts to mediate the dispute or bring about its peaceful resolution, but were distrustful of anything more. It took the 1990 crisis with its nuclear dimension, to bring the United States back to the region.

Soviet Union, United states and China have different policies towards the Kashmir dispute according to their own interests. In the beginning all of them showed neutrality but with the changing world’s politics and dimensions, they formulate their concerns regarding Kashmir. China‘s Kashmir policy has passed through different stages. In first phase, from 1949 to 1960s, China avoided siding with either India or Pakistan; instead it favored a resolution of the issue through peaceful settlements and also opposed the role of UN and United States to mediate Kashmir issue.

The second phase started from early 1960s and lasted till 1970. Sino-Indian border war of 1962 started hostility between India and China resulted close relations with Pakistan. China stood by Pakistan on Kashmir issue with firm support for the right of self determination. But in 1970s, China adopted neutral policy on Kashmir issue as its relations were normal with India; this was reflected during Kargil conflict and Indo-Pak military possible conflict in 2001-2.

The normal relations between India and Pakistan on Kashmir would bring benefits to the United States. Indo-Pak tensions are especially dangerous because they bring two nuclear states on the brink of war. They divert Pakistan from fighting terrorists and militants on their own soils. India and Pakistan need to engage in combined bilateral talks on all important issues. Continuing tensions over Kashmir will weaken any initiative to bring stability to South Asia as well as bring about the risk of a nuclear war. It will be quite right by assuming that Kashmir is the root cause of much of the militancy in South Asia.

It is necessary for international community to realize that peace and stability in South Asia can only be guaranteed if all outstanding disputes between Pakistan and India, including the Kashmir dispute should be resolved because Pakistan has become a frontline state against the Global War of terrorism.The best solution of the Kashmir dispute could be the right of self determination which should be given to Kashmiris in order to give them the right to decide to whom they want to accede.

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Insights Weekly Essay Challenges 2019 – Week 33: Kashmir Problem – Historical Injustice or Misguided Geopolitics?

Insights weekly essay challenges 2019 – week 33.

15 September 2019

Write an essay on the following topic in not more than 1000-1200 words:

Kashmir Problem – Historical Injustice or Misguided Geopolitics?

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Essay on Kashmir Issue with Outline and Quotations

This post contains an Essay on Kashmir Issue with Outline and Quotations for the students of Class 10, Class 12, FSc, B.A, BSc, Graduation, and others. The same essay could be written under the title Essay on Kashmir Issue or Few Lines about Kashmir. There are many other important essays for different Classes are available here as well. Click here for more Essays. Kashmir Conflict is between India and Pakistan. Now, this issue is a current affair nowadays and this Essay on Kashmir Problem is very important for exams. Here are 2 essay examples the first one is with outline and quotes and the second one is simple and easy.

Kashmir Issue Essay with Outline and Quotes for Students

  • A bone of contention.
  • The right of self-determination.
  • The inexpressible miseries of the Kashmiris.
  • India is projecting the struggle as “Muslim Fundamentalism.”
  • UNO should play an active role.

“Liberty will not descend to a people; It is a blessing that must be earned Before it can be enjoyed.”

Kashmir is a bone of contention between Pakistan and India. The Kashmir issue is the biggest hindrance in the normalization of relations between Pakistan and India. The two countries have fought two full-fledged wars over this issue. In view of its geopolitical significance, India desired to acquire Kashmir when the partition of the sub-continent became inevitable circumstances when the Kashmiri Muslims revolted against the evil designs of India.

“True independence and freedom can only exist in doing what’s right.” (Brigham Young)

Pakistan is of the view that only the people of Kashmir have a right to determine the future of Kashmir. The UN resolutions of August 13, 1948, and January 5, 1949, which were accepted both by India and Pakistan provided for the holding a plebiscite under the UN auspices to settle the Kashmir issue.

You may also like: Essay on Qaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

The people of Kashmir have been suffering from inexpressible miseries since 1948. The unending curfew, rape cases, torture cells and crushing of their resources are only the slight expression of their miseries. A new hell can be witnessed in this old heaven. India is projecting the struggle in Kashmir as “Muslim Fundamentalism”. India cannot throw the dust into the eyes of the World Community by labeling the Kashmir Liberation Movement as “Religious fanaticism”. In fact, the Kashmiri people along with their Islamic aspirations are fighting for the protection of their political, religious, cultural and economic rights. It is the expression of the entire community. The Indian authorities have failed to understand the core issue and are trying to deal with it as that of law and order. They link it to terrorism sponsored by Pakistan.

“Be an independent thinker at all times, and ignore anyone who attempts to define you in a limiting way.”   ( Sherry Argov)

The time has come when UNO should play an active role as it has played an Iraq-Kuwait case. The resolutions on Kashmir are yet to be fully implemented. The UNO has lost its repute as peacekeeping and peacemaking body. The unending struggle of the freedom fighters has proved that the will of people cannot be suppressed. It is the moral obligation of the International Community to rescue the innocent Kashmiris from the brutalities, cruelties and atrocities of the occupation army of India. The Muslim Ummah should also come out of its slumber and prove it to the world that Islam is a force which cannot be suppressed.

Essay on Importance of Education is also available here.

02.  Essay on Kashmir Issue and its Solution

Kashmir Dispute / Problem / Issue and Its solution

Kashmir was once said to be a heaven on the earth. But at present, the situation is totally different and the circumstances are worst. In Occupied Kashmir, raping of the Muslim girls and women by the armed forces of Hindustan has become common. The Muslim men and women, and boys and girls are being persecuted to death into the torture cells by the Indian army soldiers.

The innocent Kashmiri Muslims are being killed mercilessly on a large scale. In fact, the Valley of Occupied Kashmir has become a slaughter-house of the Kashmiri Muslims. At present, occupied Kashmir is presenting a terrible spectacle.

The U.N.O. passed two resolutions in 1948 and 1949, which were accepted both by Pakistan and Hindustan, for the holding of a plebiscite under the supervision of U.N.O. to settle the Kashmir issue forever. These two resolutions are still hanging fire.

The Western countries are playing the most condemnable role regarding the Kashmir issue. The politicians of these countries seem to be worried about the pollution, caused by smoke and noise, but it is a matter of great regret that they are not paying any attention to the pollution caused by the blood of the innocent Muslims of occupied Kashmir.

The Hindustan Government has so far used all the possible tools to crush the freedom movement of the Kashmiri Muslims in their own homeland. The rulers of Hindustan have so far failed to understand the real problem. They are trying to deal with the freedom-movement of the Kashmir’s as terrorism against Hindustan.

In fact, the freedom-movement of the Kashmiri’s is the expression of the entire community of Kashmir. The students, the traders, the house-wives, the farmers and the politicians are all one in this freedom-movement. The daily killing of innocent Kashmiris has not demoralized them. It has rather given them a new courage, a new zeal, and new confidence to fight for their rights of self-determination.

The Law enforcing Agencies of Hindustan has crippled countless Muslims in the occupied Kashmir. It appears as if Hindustan will never be prepared to recognize the right of self-determination of the Kashmiris as the rulers of Hindustan are not ready to negotiate and solve the Kashmir Issue under Simla Agreement and U.N.O resolutions.

To conclude, the international community must pressurize Hindustan to accept the justified demand of the Kashmiris. It must impose economic restrictions on Hindustan. It must also use force under U.N.O. The time has now come when U.N.O must play an effective role to solve the Kashmir issue as it has played in Iraq-Kuwait case, otherwise, it can lose its vitality as peace-keeping and peace-making organization in the world.

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Write an essay on Kashmir Issue

The essay on kashmir issue and dispute discusses the recognition of this world problem by uno and the three parties to it, kashmir issue: an outline:.


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Essay, Letter , Paragrah , Aplication

The Kashmir Problem

Essay on the Kashmir Problem (Pak vs India)

The kashmir problem essay (600 words).

“The Kashmir problem is the result of our past follies like our other national issues which can be poverty, illiteracy and inequality.”

The Kashmir problem continues to exist with all its tragic possibilities. India still holds the valley and major parts of Kashmir at gunpoint against the will of the Kashmiries. Muslim rulers had governed Kashmir since the 14th century. Ranjit Singh conquered it in 1819 from the Afghan rulers. The British conquered it in 1846, but later they sold it to Gulab Singh for only 75 lac rupees.

India sent her forces to Kashmir in 1947 to occupy it against the will of the people who desired to join Pakistan. Pakistan readily reacted and joined the freedom fighters (the “mujahideen”) in their fight against the Indian forces. In 1948, India had to approach the United Nation’s Organization for a cease-fire (bringing the fighting to an end). Both Pakistan and India stopped fighting on the condition that there would be a free plebiscite (direct voting by the people) in Kashmir. The choice of joining India or Pakistan was, thus, left to the people of Kashmir.[the_ad id=”17141″]

India continued to refuse to withdraw her armed forces, while Pakistan agreed to do so,  for the holding of free and impartial (neutral) plebiscite in Kashmir under the UN. This refusal. of India and the cruelties of the Indian forces in Kashmir caused two more wars between Pakistan and India, that is, in 1965 and 1971.

In 1999, the freedom fighters (the “mujahideen”) took control of the Kargil heights across the Line of Control (the LoC) to stop Indian supplies to its Laddakh and Siachen forces. This could have been the start of a broader war between India and Pakistan. But the possibility of atomic war between the two countries and the resultant total or massive destruction made · Pakistan agree to ask the “mujahideen” to stop fighting and to withdraw from across the LOC.

The problem of Kashmir has caused a very dangerous and suicidal arms race between India and Pakistan. It has also caused a tremendous increase in the armed forces. Both the countries have nuclear bombs, which they can use in case of a war. So neither of the countries will start a large-scale war against the other. However, it is a fact that Kashmir cannot be won without a war or holy war (“jehad”). But this war cannot be started in the face of nuclear weapons. The situation, thus, looks unfavorable to Pakistan.

The test of time or history is perhaps the best to judge the positions of two countries with regard to their disputes or quarrels. Time has shown or proved India to be a violator of agreements. She violated or acted against the UN resolutions (or decisions) of 1949 for the plebiscite in Kashmir, against the Tashkent agreement of 1966 for a solution of the Kashmir problem through talks (negotiations) and against the Simla Agreement of 1972 that again sanctioned talks between the two countries. Again, in 1998, under the Lahore Declaration, the two countries agreed to resolve the Kashmir dispute through mutual talks (between the two countries). The Kargil battle was, in fact, the result of India’s refusal to solve the Kashmir problem through mutual talks. Now India is trying (attempting) to have the LoC (Line of Control) recognized by the world as the international border between the two countries.

[the_ad id=”17142″]Pakistan should strengthen and develop itself economically, agriculturally and industrially as much as militarily in the best ways. Only after rapid industrialization and gigantic progress can we hope to help the Kashmiries really and substantially (to a large degree).

The Kashmir Problem Essay (400 Words)

The Kashmir issue has hung fire for more than half a century. Both the countries had agreed with the UN that the Kashmiri people would join Pakistan or India in a plebiscite (the voting of all qualified citizens).

Thirdly, the unresolved Kashmir problem will continue to embitter the relations of Pakistan and India and force them to keep huge armies. The people of the two countries cannot enjoy the facilities of modern life and cannot advance properly in education, science, and technology because of their military spending. Besides this, the two countries cannot move ahead together in business, culture, and tourism. On top of it all, they cannot attend to the diseases and ills of their political, economic and social systems. The recent efforts of their leaders at friendship cannot be truly successful in the presence of the Kashmir problem.

Fourthly, the constant friction between Pakistan and India over the Kashmir issue gives a chance to the big powers to take advantage of the explosive situation. They sell expensive weapons to the two countries to promote their own business. Then they play one country off against another according to their own choice and will. This leaves the two countries at the mercy of the big powers, especially … when they have to get aid or arms from them. The Kargil settlement points to this very fact.[the_ad id=”17150″]

The main solutions to the Kashmir problem are known to us. Firstly, Pakistan and India can accept the present Line of Control and decide to partition Jammu and Kashmir. They may then annex (join) the disputed areas already with them to their territories. Secondly, the Kashmiris can decide, through independent voting, which country they will join. Thirdly, some sort of autonomy (self-control) may be granted to parts of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan and India guarding and dealing with the autonomous units. Fourthly, through an international agency like the UN, Kashmir can decide to become an independent country itself.

Now, most of the Kashmiri people are Muslims, having strong historical bonds with Pakistan. They want to join Pakistan from the heart. Then, all the main rivers of Pakistan flow out of Kashmir into Pakistan, and the mountainous ranges in the north are our natural borders between the Central-Asian states and China. Thus, historically, geographically, culturally and commercially Kashmir and Pakistan are a continuity.

Let the world powers side with the Kashmiris as all democratic forces are with them. Above all, let all Muslims decide to help them actively to ensure their success in their struggle against India. This struggle now symbolizes (stands for) a fight against aggression, cruelty, injustice, and brutality.

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Kashmir Issue Essay

Kashmir Issue Essay

Kashmir Issue essay for Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraph, long and short essay on Kashmir Issue for Students.

Essay on Kashmir Issue

Kashmir Issue Essay 300 words

The Kashmir conflict had started between India and Pakistan in 1947, right after partition. Maharaja Hari Singh, king of Kashmir signed an instrument of accession with India and formally joined India. But Pakistan claimed Kashmir because it has Muslim dominated state and sent troops in civilian dress to capture whole Kashmir. India sends his army and after a war, in 1948 ceasefire was agreed. Till now, this conflict is going on between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.

Kashmir has a very strategic location adjoining three nuclear power state India, Pakistan and China. Due to its natural resources especially water Pakistan wants Kashmir since independence.

Till now, the Kashmir issue has not resolved. Terrorist from Pakistani sides attacking Indian military bases and radicalizing Kashmiri youth in the name of Islam and freedom of Kashmir. China also helped Pakistan for making unrest in the Indian side.

In 1948, Nehru went to United Nations for resolution of Kashmir. But after failure, India has a stand now that the Kashmir issue is a bilateral issue and no one should interfere in this matter. The U.S, China, and Russia supported this stand. While Pakistan wants that world powers should mediate in Kashmir issue to resolve the issue.

India and Pakistan had fought four wars in 1948, 1965, 1971 and 1998. Still, the issue of Kashmir is not resolved. The problem can be solved only diplomatically and not by the military. This proxy war will not help in making any peace between two nations and lots of people losing their lives. So effort should be made by two sides so that this region can prosperous and people of Kashmir can live happily in their home.

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Essay on Kashmir Problem And Its Solution in English

Today we will write on Essay on Kashmir Problem And Its Solution in English, As we all know that Kashmir has been taken as one of the serious issues to talk about for the last so many years.  This has been taken to be one of the international levels of problems whose solution is still not known much. The person of Kashmir has started taking Kashmir solution to be a dream that can never be fulfilled in this life. But if you would be looking into the pages of Kashmir issue, then for sure you would be coming closer with so many of the solutions as well which probably the world has never thought about to come up! Let’s share those Kashmir issue solutions with you!

Solution of Kashmir Problem :

  • As we all know that Kashmir is basically taken as the flashpoint between India and Pakistan for more than 60 years.  Presently, the Line of Control has been divided into two regions as where one part has been administered by India and one by Pakistan. India has been making the efforts as where it would formalize this status quo and hence make it acceptable to be the international boundary. But Kashmir has rejected this plan for sure.

Essay on Kashmir Problem And Its Solution in English

  • Kashmir has been in favor of joining Pakistan and Pakistan is also on the support of this decision as well. Pakistan has been all the time making the effort to bring about the solution to the Kashmir dispute results. In the state majority of the Muslim population, it would be voting maximum to become the part of Pakistan. The Hindus of Jammu and the Buddhists of Ladakh have never ever shown any kind of the desire to join Pakistan.
  • If Kashmir would be joining India, then this would definitely be bringing about the stability right into the region as being the Muslim inhabitants of Pakistani-administered Jammu and Kashmir adding to the Northern Areas.
  • Kashmir can often come up with the solution as for where Kashmir can act as the independent country as well. But both Pakistan and Indian are ready enough to give away the This would be bringing out the result of the plebiscite as a vote for the independence that would be opposed by both India and Pakistan.

Well, we don’t think so that in the coming few years no particular solution will be coming over in the Kashmir issue and still Kashmir has to crush between Pakistan and India! What are your opinions about it?

Well this is all about the Essay on Kashmir Problem And Its Solution in English and if you need to add something to this topic then you can write us in the comment section given below on this page.

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Essay on Kashmir in English 100, 200, 300, 500 Words PDF

Essay on kashmir.

Short & Long Essay on Kashmir – The essay on Kashmir has been written in simple English and easy words for children and students. This English essay mentions Kashmir its beautiful land and places, Why is Kashmir beautiful? What are the challenges to the beauty of Kashmir, and why everyone should go and discover it? Students are often asked to write essay on Kashmir in their schools and colleges. If you are also looking for the same, then we have given essays on this topic in 100-word, 200-word, 300-word, and 500-word.

Short & Long Essay on Kashmir

Essay (100 words).

Kashmir is a beautiful state of India and is considered the most important part of India which is called heaven on earth, it is said that there is no place more beautiful than Kashmir, it is also called Switzerland of India.

The capital of Jammu and Kashmir is Srinagar. There are many high Himalayan peaks, glaciers, valleys, rivers, evergreen forests, hills, etc., and many other places. Snowfall occurs throughout the year in Kashmir.

The weather here is always pleasant. Many tourists come every year to see the beauty of this place. During summer one can see very good greenery here. During snowfall, it seems as if a white sheet has been spread over Kashmir. Apple trees can be seen here which are very beautiful to look at.

Essay (200 Words)

Kashmir is known as “Paradise on Earth” which is a top-class tourist destination. Its picturesque view of snow-capped peaks, lush green valleys, and tranquil lakes attracts tourists from all over the world.

Tourism is an important sector for the economy of Kashmir, its unique attractions include Dal Lake which is known for its houseboats, and Amarnath Cave an important pilgrimage site that also attracts a large number of tourists. Furthermore, the Mughal Gardens reflect the brilliance of Persian architecture.

Kashmir creates innumerable employment opportunities for the local people ranging from hotel and restaurant services to handicrafts and transportation which contributes significantly to its GDP.

Despite its natural beauty, the tourist destination of Kashmir has been affected by conflict. Due to security concerns, there has been a decline in the number of tourists which has impacted the local economy. The government is continuously making concerted efforts to revive and promote tourism in Kashmir.

Tourism in Kashmir is a blend of cultural richness, natural beauty, and thrilling adventure. Despite many challenges, its potential is immense. With the right strategies, it can become a symbol of economic growth and cultural exchange while preserving its natural splendor for future generations.

Essay (300 Words)


Jammu and Kashmir is the most beautiful and important part of the earth which is located in the northern part of India. Kashmir is also called heaven on earth. It has Pakistan on its western border and China on its northern and eastern borders. About 8 languages are spoken in Kashmir, while the area is about 54571 square miles and its population is about 1,01,43,700. ,

Beauty of Kashmir

The weather of Kashmir is always very pleasant, during snowfall it seems as if a white sheet has been spread over Kashmir. Many tourists keep coming from India and abroad to see the beauty of this place. During summer one can see very good greenery here. Apples are grown here the trees are very beautiful to look at.

Heaven on Earth

Kashmir is called heaven on earth because it has very high hills, dense forests, and lakes flowing between the valleys. Therefore it is considered like the crown of India, there is a sudden change in the weather here which enhances its beauty, due to its beauty people are attracted here and often come to visit.

Kashmir a Tourist Destination

Kashmir is one of the most famous places in India. People often come here throughout the year for their holidays. Whoever visits Kashmir says that the real heaven is in Kashmir. There are many tourist places here for the people – like Sonamarg, Pahalgam, Patna Top, Srinagar, Gulmarg, Sonamarg, etc. There are many lakes here which add to the beauty of Kashmir.

Kashmir which is called heaven on earth is very beautiful. Impressed by its beauty, people from all over the country and abroad come to visit here. If you too are looking for a hill station to spend your holidays, then there cannot be a better option than Kashmir. Despite its conflicts, Kashmir is an ideal tourist destination for the people. You can go here and enjoy everything as per your wish.

Essay (500 Words)

Kashmir is an important part of India which is also considered as heaven on earth. It is known for its spectacular beauty, snow-clad hills, amazing snow-covered mountain ranges, beautiful lakes, lush green farming, evergreen gardens, and a mesmerizing beauty that cannot be described in words. Kashmir has always been a center of attraction for many reasons – be it its enchanting beauty, issues of cross-border terrorism, political issues, or the terror and fear associated with the place, these are the reasons why Kashmir is always in the news.

The Beauty of Kashmir Valley

The Kashmir Valley is surrounded by the Himalayan mountain ranges which remain covered with snow almost throughout the year. It is surrounded by China and Tibet in the east while it is surrounded by Pakistan in the west. Kashmir Valley is one of the largest valleys in the country which extends over an area of 105 square km. There are many rivers here in which Jhelum River is the main river of Kashmir and it flows in different areas of Kashmir by making branches at different places. Other important rivers of the valley include the Indus and Chenab rivers.

Kashmir Weather

Summers in Kashmir are very mild between the months of May and August while the monsoon season occurs from September to November and becomes cold with the onset of winter by the end of November. The actual winter season occurs between December and February when temperatures drop extremely low. Visiting snow-capped mountains during this time leaves one in awe of the power of nature.

Spring season occurs in Kashmir between March and April. Tourists can visit this place to see the valley covered and adorned with the finest colors of nature and lush greenery.

Trees and Animals

Almond trees, walnut trees, poplar or maple trees, cedar, birch trees, and blue cedar are found in abundance in this region. Apart from this, animals like leopards, mountain foxes, jackals, hangul, musk deer, langur, black bears, etc. live in the wildlife. This valley is home to 120 species of birds and some of them are pheasants and bulbuls.

Terrorism in Kashmir

The Kashmir issue is still unresolved and both India and Pakistan have been shedding blood for years over its rights. Kashmir Valley is infamous for political disputes. People living in the valley are still living a life full of struggle. Bloodshed and imposition of curfew are common in the valley and the problems of the people increase due to the deployment of the army throughout the year in sensitive areas.

Some unresolved disputes have given rise to terrorist attacks and cross-border terrorist activities continue to occur between the two countries. The governments of both countries have tried several times to resolve the disputes and free the area from terrorist activities, but have not been successful yet.

Despite the controversies, Kashmir is a very beautiful place which is called heaven on earth. People from all over the country and abroad come to visit here. Although there are many beautiful places in India the best place among them is Kashmir. You can go here and enjoy everything as per your wish. But Kashmir is an area affected by terrorism. So we need to be alert and careful there.

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